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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Related to the reaction aspect of pain, what are three behavioral reactions?
Anticipation, Sensation, Aftermath
What type of cellular damage is tumor growth?
Mechanical, Thermal, Chemical, Electrical
What is another name for intractable pain?
chronic malignant pain
True or False: Patients are likely to become addicted to a pain medicine if it is given regularly.
False !
What type of pain has a rapid onset, has an end in sight, and can last </= ~6 months?
Acute or Chronic
Acute pain
What is PAIN ?
-present whenever the pt. says it is...even without a specific cause
-influenced by emotional, behavioral, cognitive, physiologic, and sensory factors
-highly individualized experience
-invisible phenomenon - see only s/s
-body's defense mechanism - REPORT: Houston-we have a problem
The limbic system does what?
controls emotional response and coping with pain
What influences whether pain is perceived or not and to what degree it is perceived?
The interaction between the body's own analgesic system and the nervous system's transmission and interpretation of the stimuli
What are the various meds and administration routes for chronic pain pts.?
Epidural analgesics, Long acting/controlled release MS, Rectal analgesia, Transdermal, PCA pump, Continuous drip MS, surgery
What type of cellular damage is from a duodenal ulcer?
Mechanical, Thermal, Chemical, Electrical
What is hospice's role in treating intractable pain?
patients receive the proper dosage and forms of analgesics to provide pain relief and families become the primary care giver
If my son sticks a metal sewing needle into the light socket and he gets a burn on his fingers, that would be what kind of cellular damage?
Mechanical, Thermal, Chemical, Electrical
Name four methods for treating intractable pain.
Analgesic ladder, Restorative care, Hospice, Pain clinics
What type of cellular damage results from hypothermia?
Mechanical, Thermal, Chemical, Electrical
What does evaluation of pain therapy require?
consideration of the changing character of the pain, response of the pt. to the therapy (use of drugs or no drugs), and the pt.'s perceptions of the therapy's effectiveness
The reception component of pain is cellular damage from... and this results in ....
From thermal, mechanical, chemical or electrical stimuli
Results in the release of pain producing substances
True or False: According to the Gate Control Theory of pain, pain receptors in the spinal cord are stimulated by a specific sensory stimuli that either closes or opens the "gate" in the dorsal horn.
False ! That is more of a definition of the Specificity Theory of pain - from the objectives, not from Peg's nots.
What is restorative care as a method to treat intractable pain?
using nonpharmcological measures that are effective for individual patients and adding drugs to give better long term pain control
For patients with CA, what is the aim of drug therapy?
to anticipate and minimize pain rather than cure it
True or False: Superficial pain is short lasting, very pointed in sensation sensation, and easily identified by the patient.
True !
What is the motivational-affective interactional system of pain?
Interaction between the reticular formation and the limbic system results in pain perception.
True or False: The brain and alveoli do not contain receptors that transmit pain signals.
True !
What is perception related to pain?
The point at which a person is aware of pain.
Give several factors that influence pain
Age, sex, culture, meaning of pain, attention, anxiety, fatigue, previous experience with pain, coping style, and family, and social/cultural aspects
Who is the only authority about pain's existence and nature?
The experiencing person of that pain
True or False: Pharmacological efforts to reduce pain include Relaxen, TENS, Acupoxin, and Morphine.
False ! Relaxen and Acupoxin I made up! TENS is a non-pharmalogic way to relieve pain. Morphine is a pain relieving drug.
What is the difference between referred and radiating pain?
referred pain is not connected to orginal source of pain where radiating pain extends from the original source to another body part
Giving the right drug and the required dose at the right interval with a patient with CA does what?
-alleviates the fear of pain
-protects the pt. from drug seeking behaviors
-reduces dependence on the drug
When assessing a patient for pain, what physical signs might you see?
facial expressions, clenching of teeth, holding of the painful part, bent posture, grimacing, crying, groaning, restlessness, frequent rests
The interactional systems of pain...
Motivational is to affective as _________ is to evaluative.
True or False: Visible physiologic or behavioral signs accompany pain and can be used to verify its existence always.
False! Periods of physiologic and behavioral adaption can occur therefore signs may not reflect the severity of the pain
What are the three physiological components of pain?
Reception, Perception, Reaction
What is reaction related to pain?
the person's physiological and behavioral response to pain
Describe chronic pain per the handout.
pain lasting >/= 6 months
may be limited, intermittent or persistent
poorly localized therefore may not be able to describe it
In which of the following is pain still ongoing, does not respond to rx, frequently the cause is unknown?
Acute pain, Chronic malignant pain, Chronic nonmalignant pain
Chronic nonmalignant pain
What are the three interactional systems of pain?
What is chronic malignant pain?
pain associated with CA or other progressive disorders and can last until death
What are morphine-like substances that are released by the body to combat stress and pain?
Serotonin and Endorphins
In which of the following is the pain diffuse and radiating or sharp, dull, or, unique to the organ involved?
Superficial pain or Deep visceral pain
Deep visceral pain
What does nonmalignant pain result from?
a nonprogressive or healed tissue injury
In 1989, Margo McCaffery said that pain was ...
"...whatever the experiencing person says it is, existing whenever he or she says it does."
The interactional systems of pain...
Sensory is to discriminative as motivational is to ...
Name three pain producing substances that are released as a result of cellular damage.
Histamine, Bradykinin, Potassium
Name the types of pain.
Acute and Chronic [intractable / malignant and nonmalignant]
What is the cognitive-evaluative interactional system of pain?
Higher cortical centers in the brain influence perception of pain and this helps the person to interpret the intensity and quality of pain so that action can be taken
What interactional system of pain says that nerve conduction occurs between the thalamus and sensory cortex, thus allowing the person to perceive the location, severity, and character of pain?
What is a physiological reaction to pain?
when the pain is low to moderate in intensity; superficial pain can elicit the "flight or fight" mechanism
What is threshold related to pain?
the lowest level of intensity required to evoke a nerve impulse; when threshold is reached, activation of pain neurons occur
What type of pain causes the parasympathetic nervous system to go into action?
severe or deep/visceral pain