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71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Conflict is the consequence of real or perceived attitudes, beliefs, feelings or actions
Conflict #1
Intrapersonal conflict occurs within an individual; involves internal struggle to clarify contradictory values or wants; may result from multiple areas of responsibility associated with the management role
Intrapersonal conflict
Interpersonal conflict occurs between two or more individuals with differing values, goals and beliefs; a person experiencing this conflict may experience opposition in upward, downward, horizontal and diagnal communication
Interpersonal conflict
Conflict within one group
Between two or more groups of people, department or organizations. Example: might be two political affiliations with widely differing or contradictory beliefs.
Conflict is dynamic; it can be positive or negative, healthy or dysfunctional
Conflict #2
A certain amount of conflict is beneficial to an organization
Positive aspects of conflict
It increases creativity by acting as a stimulus for developing new ideas or identifying methods for solving problems
Positive #2
Helps people recognize legitimate differences within organization or profession
Positive #3
Serves as a powerful motivator to improve performance and effectiveness as well as satisfaction
EXAMPLE: During intergroup conflict, individual groups become more cohesive and task oriented, while communication between groups diminishes
Positive #4
Aggresive behavior can occur
Negative aspects of conflict
Tendency to increase the "in-group" vs. "out-group" bias between them particularly in groups placed in "win-lose" competition
Negative #2
Scapegoating- with each group viewing that other as enemy and may make it difficult for the groups to work together in the future
Negative #3
May be convert and inappropriate; anger displaced to innocent bystanders or others may repressed their frustration or anger and which may surface later in behavior such as increased errors, accidents or illness.
Negative #4
Inappropriate responses to conflict are retaliation, projection, rationalization, attenition-seeking behaviors, repression or escape tactics such as resignation or flight into fantasy
Negative #5
Victory for one side at a loss for the other side. Competition is a frequent source of conflict. It occurs when 2 or more groups attempt the same goals and only one group can attain those goals
Competitive Conflict
Set of rules
Conflict resolution
Is a type of conflict in which winning is not emphasized and there is no mutually acceptable set of rules, parties involved are engaged in activities to reduce, defeat or eliminate the opponent. This tyoe of conflict takes place in an environment charged with fear, anger, and stress.
Disruptive Conflict
The process begins with certain pre-existing conditions (ANTECEDENT), then the parties are influenced by their feelings (FELT CONFLICT) or perceptions (PERCEIVED CONFLICT) about the situations, which initiates behavior (MANIFEST BEHAVIORS). The conflict is either resolved or suppressed (CONFLICT RESOLUTION OR SUPPRESSION), and in the aftermath (RESOLUTION AFTERMATH), mew attitudes and feelings between the parties evolve.
Stages in the Conflict Process
Implies the existence of antecedent (pre-existing) conditions that propels a situation towards a conflict includes:
Antecedent (latent) Conflict
Most important antecedent (source) to conflict; Priority setting- one of the most important activity a healthcare manager must face; Goals are important because they are the basis for allocating resources. EXAMPLES OF GOAL CONFLICT: dichotomy between healthcare providers and third party (best described as intergroup conflict with differing goals. Healthcare providers want to maximaize the quality of care, whereas payers are concerned with minimizing healthcare costs.
Incompatible Goals
conflicts between physicians and nurses, nurses and administrators, with BSN nurses and ADN
Differences in values and beeliefs
(especially asymmetric in which one party is dependent on the other but not vice versa) Between nursing and housekeeping; housekeeping cannot completely clean a room until nursing has discharged the patient, Interdependent relationships.
Task Interdependencies
Nurse Manager's conflict between his responsibility as an administor and as staff member or unclear or overlapping job descriptions or assignments EXAMPLE: there could be conflict over such mundane issues as who has the responsibility to deliver a patient to the radiology department - the nurse or transport staff)
Unclear or Ambiguous Roles
Assigning staff from one unit to another or purchasing high technology equipment when another unit is desperate for staff (INTERNAL); healthcare organizations competing for finite external resources (e.g., managed-care contracts)
Competition for scarce resources
Divide group's members into small or distinct groups. Distancing between physician and nurses, opposition between ICU nurses and nurses on medical floors, night vs. day shifts and unlicensed vs. licensed personnel. Differentiation maybe due to differences in structure
Differentiation or distancing mechanisms
relationships between husband and wife, as intimacy increases, issues arises. A nurse frienship with a staff member may lead to this type of conflict
Unifying Mechanisms
Refers to each party's perception of the others postition. It is intellectualized and often involves issues and roles, recognized logically and impersonally by the person as occuring; sometimes conflict can be resolved at this time before it is internalized or felt
Perceived Conflict (substantive conflict)
Refers to the feelings of opposition within the relationship of two or more parties. It occurs when the conflict is emotionalized; felt emotions include hostility, fear, mistrust and anger; it is possible to perceive a conflict and not feel it (ex. no emotion is attached to the conflict and the person views it only as a problem to be solved) A person also can feel the conflict but not perceive the problem (ex. he or she is unable to identify the cause of the felt conflict
Felt (affective) Conflict
is the outcome of the conflict; Could be OVERT, taking the form of aggression, competition, debate or problem solving; COVERT may be expressed by a variety of indirect tactics, such as scapegaoting, avoidance or apathy; action is taken; the action may be to withdraw, compete, debate or seek conflict resolution If conflict reaches this stage, it is difficult to bring about conflict resolution without the use of other resources
Manifest Behavior
SUPPRESSION occurs when one person or group defeats the other. Only the dominant side is committed to the agreement and the loser may or may not carry out the agreement; RESOLUTION occurs when a mutually agreed-upon solution is arrived at and both parties commit themselves to carrying out the agreement.
Conflict Suppression or Resolution
may be more significant than the original conflict if the conflict has not been handled constructively. There is always conflict aftermath, positive or negative. Positive aftermath is when the optimal solution leads to a solution wherein both parties see themselves as winners.
Conflict Aftermath
begins with a decision regarding if and when to intervene. Failure to intervene can allow the conflict to get out of hand, whereas early intervention maybe detrimental to those involved, causing them to lose confidence in themselves and reduce risk –taking behavior in the future.
1 Allow people to resolve their conflict particularly when conflicts are minor and between only 2 people. It might provide developmental experience and improve their abilities to resolve conflict in the future
2 Nurse manager may postpone intervention purposely to allow the conflict to escalate, because increased intensity can motivate participants to seek resolution; Participants are then forced to face the conflict between them
Giving participants a shared tasks or shared goals not directly related to the conflict may help them understand each other better and increase their chance to resolve their conflicts by themselves
Conflict Management
Routine problems can be handled in the superior’s or subordinate’s officebut serious confrontations should take place in a neutral location unless the parties involved are of unequal power. In this case , the setting should favor the disadvantaged participant , thereby equalizing their power.
Conflict Management
place should one where distractions will not interfere and adequate time is available.
A quick solution that inexperienced managers are often resort to is to impose positional power, making a premature decision. This results in a WIN-LOSE OUTCOME, which leads to feelings of elation and eventual complacency for the winners and lose of morals for the losers.
is attending to the needs of only one party
is attending to the well-being of both parties which also optimizes the well- being of the organization.
Win-lose strategy
one party exerts dominance, usually by power of authority, and the other submits and loses
Forcing, competing and negotiations are techniques likely to lead to WIN-LOSE competition.
Win-Lose strategy
Majority rule is another example of the win-lose outcome, especially within groups.
Win-Lose strategy
This often occurs between groups; frequent losing can lead to loss of cohesiveness within groups and diminish the authority of the group leader.
Win-Lose strategy
neither side wins; the settlement reach is unsatisfactory to both sides. Common strategy in arbitation between labor and management.
Lose-lose strategy
1 Avoiding, withdrawing, smoothing and compromising may lead to a lose-lose outcomes. Example is bribery: promising a future raise in n attempt to coerce a staff to work an extra weekend
Lose-lose strategy
2 Using a third party abitrator can lead to a lose-lose outcome. Because an outsider may want to give something to each side, neither gets exactly what he/ she desires, resulting in a lose-lose outcome.
Lose-lose strategy
focus on goals and attempt to meet the needs of both parties. Two specific win-win strategies are consensus and integrative decision making
Win-win strategies
1 Consensus involves attention to the facts and to the position of the other parties and avoidance of trading, voting, or averaging, where everyone loses something. Useful in group setting
Win-win strategies
2 Integrative decision-making focus on the means of solving a problem rather than the ends. The focus of this group activity is to solve the problem, not to force, dominate, suppress or compromise. The group works toward a common goal in an atmosphere that encourages the free exchange of ideas and feelings.
Win-Win Strategy
Resorting to rules is also another strategy that may result in a lose-lose or win lose outcomes. They both share some common characteristics
1 Conflict is person-centered
2 Parties direct energy toward total victory for themselves
3 Each party sees the issue from their own point of view
4 Emphasis is on outcome
5 Conflicts are personalized
6 Conflict resolving activities are nor differentiated
7 Short-run view of the conflicts; goal is to settle immediate problem rather than resolve differences
Win-Lose and Lose-Lose outcomes
most preferred conflict management style was compromising, with collaborating second and avoiding third.
this is the most common conflict management technique.nused to divide the rewards between both parties; neither gets what she or he wants; each party gives up something it wants. This is ia back-up to resolve conflict when collaboration is ineffective. Only choice when opponents of equal power are in conflict over two or more mutually exclusive goals.
Used commonly by nurse administrators; used when one party pursues what it wants regardless of the cost to others. An all-out effort to win regardless of the cost; for unpopular or critical decisions and time does not allow for more cooperative techniques
is an unassertive, cooperative tactic used when individuals neglect their own concerns in favor of other concerns. Used to preserve harmony when one person has a vested interest in an issue that is unimportant to othe other party. one party sacrifices his/her beliefs and wants to allow the other party to win
when an individual attempts to reduce the emotional components of the conflict by complimenting one’s opponent, downplaying differences and focus on monor areas of agreement, as though little disagreement existed.use with minor problems.
the participants never acknowledge that a conflict exist. Used in a highly cohesive groups. Parties are aware of a conflict but choose not to acknowledge and /or attempt to resolve it
Used commonly by head nurses and their assistants; implies mutual attention to the problem in which the talents of all parties are used. Focus is on solving the problem not defeating the opponent. Assertive and cooperative means of conflict resolution whereby all parties set aside their original goals and work together to establish a suprasubordinate or common priority goal
include the elimination of one of the conflicting parties through transfer or termination; used during the early part of the century when society discouraged conflict.
removal of at least one party thereby making it impossible to resolve the situation
is a method that yields an immediate end to the conflict but leaves the cause of the conflict unresolved
are generally more effective modes of responding to conflict.
Negotiation and confrontation
a conflict management technique involving give and take on various issues among the parties; purpose is to achieve agreement even though consensus will never be reached ( for example is collective bargaining).
is considered the most effective means of resolving conflicts. But more effective when delivered in private; it’s a problem-oriented technique, conflict brought out into open and resolve it trough knowledge and reason. GOAL: To achieve win-win solutions.
are 2 important considerations when a situation warrants confrontation
Employee respect and manager’s credibility
1 Clarify the common purpose
2 Keep the discussion relevant
3 Get agreement on terminology
4 Concentrate on the facts avoid abstract principles
5 Look for potential tradeoffs
6 Listen
7 Use persuasive tactics not debating
8 Keep in mind the personal element
9 Use logic logically
10 Look for solutions that satisfy the other person’s real interests
1 Coaching
2 Urge confrontation
3 Third party consultation
4 Behavior change
5 Responsibility charting
6 Structure change
7 Soothing one party
8 foster self awareness
OCCURS when the appraiser lets one or two positive aspects of the assessment or behavior unduly influence all other aspects of the employees performance
occurs when the appraiser allows some negative aspects of employee’s performance to influence the assessment to such an extent that other levels of job performance are not accurately recorded.