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34 Cards in this Set

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Needed to facilitate team building, manage conflict and demonstrate insight, empathy, caring, and trustworthiness
Communication Skills
Any difficult issue should be communicated_____ __ ______, such as terminating an individual's employeement
Face-to-face
Usually best handeled in person so that the individual's response can be seen and answered appropriately
Confrontation
___________ non-verbal messages that accompanies oral messages scuh as
-head and facial disagreements
-eye contact
-tone, volume, and inflection
-gestures of shoulders, arms, hands, and fingers
-body postures and positions
-dress and appearance
-timing
-environment
Metacommunications
________ a verbal message incongruent with nonverbal message
Intrasender conflict
_________ person receives two conflicting messages from differing sources
Intersender conflict
-IN PERSON: for difficult issues such as terminating employee or a confrontation (most intimate)
-TELEPHONE: tone of voice can be conveyed and facilitate cooperation
-VOICE MAIL: useful to convey info that is not necessarily sensitive and may or may not require a reply (time and place of a upcoming meeting)
-E-MAIL: allows users to send messages instantaneously using one on one interchanges or being able to broadcast messages to larege groups via a list serv (broadcasting dates and times for a blood drive; conveying complicated info that may require thought before the receiver replies)
-WRITTEN MAIL: example is an application for a position in a healthcare organization or if a staff nurse, wants to nominate a co-worker for an award given by the hospital board of directors, a written letter is required
Modes of Communications
Traditional line of communication, primarily directive, helps coordinate activities of different levels of heirarchy (manager to staff); the staff is told what needs to be done or given info to facilitate the job to be done; common forms: employee handbooks, memo bulletins, chain of command
Downward communication
Staff to management or from lower management to middle management; often involves reporting pertinent info to facilitate problem solving and decision making; provides means of motivating and satisfying personnel by allowing employee input; accurate upward info is important for effective problem solving. Common means include face-to-face discussions, open door policies, staff meetings, task forces, written reports
Upward communication
Is between departments or personnel on the same level of the hierarchy and is most frequently used to coordinate activities. Committees, conferences and meetings are often used to facilitate horizontal communication; occurs between individuals or departments at the same hierarchial level (nurse managers, department heads); involves information sharing
Lateral or Horizontal communication
Involves individuals or departments that are not on the same level of hiearchy (staff nurse to chief of medical staff); Involves information sharing
Diagnal communication
(rumors and gossip)-informal method is often rapid and subject to considerable distortion; transmits info much faster than the formal channels; and because th grapevine is informal, with no formal lines of accountability, individuals do not have to answer to their manager for misinforming others
Grapevine communication
Unpleasant Situations-
-Men talk more (longer and faster)
-Woman withdraws;
-Females are identified as having better communication skills
-Men are stereotyped as more knowledgeable and more experienced, speakers and clearer writers
-men who talk longer, dominate conversation are perveived to be influential but when females adopt these male speech patterns, they are criticized as overbearing
-women do rapport talk, men do report talk
-When stressed men become focused and withdrawn and women become emotionally involved and overwhelmed
Men/Women and communication
a great deal of misunderstanding results from people's lack of understanding of each other's culture expectations
Cultural communication #1
Personal and professional cultural enrichment training includes reading the literature and history of the culture, participating in open, honest, respectful communication and exploring the meaning of behavior
Cultural #2
Subculturals exist within all cultures so it is important to recognize that what applies to one individual may or may not be true for another individual of that same culture
Cultural #3
Customs, norms and expectations within an organization are powerful forces that shape behavior
Organizational Culture and Climate #1
Communication is a frequent source of job dissatisfaction as well as powerful determinant of organizations effectiveness
Organizational #2
Based on the formal and informal, explicit or implicit rules that affect interactions and govern the conditions under wich info exchange occurs
6 components of formal organizational communication systems "Overview"
#1 accessibility of information
#1 components of formal organizational communication systems
#2 communication channels
#2 components of formal organizational communication systems
#3 organizational structures- groups with cantralized structure communicate more effectively
#3 components of formal organizational communication systems
#4 Clarity of message- to prevent misunderstandins and promote trust and confidence
#4 components of formal organizational communication systems
#5 flow control and info load--Low flow control produces info overload
-Overload limits info processing and increases errors
-High flow control results in info underload which threatens productivity and encourages rumor
#5 components of formal organizational communication systems
#6 communication effectiveness- effective communication promotes productivity, satisfaction and commitment to the organization. To communicate effectively the sender must organize ideas and select a medium ans style appropriate to the message and the receiver
#6 components of formal organizational communication systems
Face-tp-face most effective method of communication, followed in diminishing order, by the telephone, voice mail, e-mail, and finally written mail/documents
General guidelines to use when selecting mode of communicaton
Assertive communication technique helps to identify problems and facilitates problem solving and decision making; people who who learn assertive communication are able to respond when they occur. They respond appropriately to the specific situation and at the appropriate time
Assertive communication
Leaders most effective means of persuasion is the leader's personal characteristics. Competence, emotional control, assertiveness, consideration, respect, promote trustworthiness, and credibility
Persuasion
the participative leader is seen as a careful listener who is open, frank,trustworthy, and informative
Participative leader
Know the context of the instruction, give clear concise instructions, verify through feedback and give follow-up communications
Communicating with Subordinates
Managers must be organized and prepared to state their needs clearly, explain the rationale for requests, suggest benifits for the larger organizations and use appropriate channels
Communications with Superiors
NEGATIVE INQUIRY-a communication technique used to clarify objections and feelings ("I don't understand")
Communications to influence Supervisor #1
FOGGING- a communication technique in which one agrees with part of what was said
Communications to influence Supervisor #2
NEGATIVE ASSERTION- a communication technique in which one accepts some blame for what was said
Communications to influence Supervisor #3