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58 Cards in this Set

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What are four unique nursing skills in nursing and their definitions.
1. Assessment- to determine what care a patient needs
2. Caring Skills- Nursing interventions that help restore and maintain a person's health.
3. Counseling skills-listening and communicating with the client.
4. Conforting skills- Support, development of a trusting relationship, and conveying the client's feelings are understood ad accepted.
List Maslows hierarcy of needs
1.Physiologic needs
2.Need for safety and security
3. Need for love and belonging.
4.Need for esteem and self-esteem
5. Need for self actualization
Define non-pathogens
Non-pathogens are harmless and beneficial microorganisms
Define Pathogens
Pathogens are microorganisms that cause disease.
Pathogens can cause commuicable diseases, contagious diseases, Community-acquired diseases
Differentiate surgical and medical asepsis
Medical asepsis-clean technique, measures that interfere with the chain of infection

Surgical asepsis-Measures that render supplies and epuipment totally free of microorganisms.
What are "Nosocomial infection"?
What is the best way to prevent them
Infections that are acquired while a person is being cared for in a hospital or other health care agency.

Best prevention of Nosocomial infections is wash hands.
What is an opportunstic nosocomial infection
An infection that occures when the hosts defenses are weakened,and the normal flora overwhelms their human host.
What are the 6 steps in the chain of an infection and define each term
1.Infectious agent-
2.A reservior- a place for the growth and reproduction
3.An exit route-a means by which the microorganisms escape the reservior and move about.
4.A mode of transportation-How the infections move from one location to another.
5.A port of entry-Where the microorganisms find their way onto or into a new host.
a susceptible host- the ones who biologis defense mechanisms are weakeed in some way.
Review and difine the 5 modes of transmission of a pathogen.
1.Contact Transmission-Direct transmission-body to body
Indirect transmission-person to contaminated object.
2.Droplet Transmission-Miost particles from an infected person ( 3ft)
3.Airborne Transmission-Movement of microorgamisms attached to evaporated water droplets or dust particles that have been suspended.
4.Vehicle Transmission-Transfer of microorganism present on or in contaminated items
5.Vector Transmission-Trinsfer from an infected animal
Difine Standard precautions
Measures that reduce the risk of microorganism transmission from both recognized and un recognized sources or infection.
They are used when caring for ALL patients. regardless of diagnosis or infection status
Combines mentods previously known as Universal Precautions and Body Substance isolation
Reduces the risk of transmitting blood borne pathogens and those from moist body substances except sweat.
What are the three types of transmission based precautions.
(Be able to recognize examples of each mode.
Airborne-6 or 12 air changes per hour-Neg (pulls the air from the hall into the room when the door is open, as opposed to positive air pressure that pulls room air into the hall)

Droplet-the door can be open-Wear a mask when entering the room-Always when within 3ft of pt.

Contact-Private room; glove before entering rm.-Wear gown if touching pt.-Remove gown before leaving rm-Use items eg.B/P cuff exclusively for the pt. only
Name soom personal protective equipment.
PPE-Various garments that are used to reduce the transfer to microorganisms between health-care providers and patients.
Such as Uniforms-Hold items away from uniform.
Scrub suits and gowns-Worn to prevent contamanation of your own clothing-Masks-worn to prevent droplet and airborne transmission. Gloves-Clean gloves provide a barrier.
Hair and shaw covers-Worn during surgeries
REMOVE ALL PPE BEFORE LEAVING A PT. RM.
What is the difference between hand washing and surgical scrub.
Handing Washing-Wedding band can be worn-Faucet hand controls are used-Washing lasts 10 to 15 sec.-Hands are lower than the elbows during washing rinsing or drying

Surgical Scrub-No jewelery worn-Faucets are regulated with the elbow or knee-Scrubbing lasts 2-5 min.-Hands are held higher then the elbows.
Guidelines for giving a bath
The preferred pt is ambulatory, Is the bathroom clean with safe mats. Gather all the items needed before giving the bath. Use a shower chair for weak or disabled pts. Ass is in/out of the tub or shower for safety. Ensure that the privacy sign is on the door. If the pt. pathes independently make sure the call device is where they can reach it. Make sure the bathroom door is unlocked. Wash and dry areas that the client cannot reach.
Oral care of an unconscious client and how to prevent complications from your care.
Put them on a side lying position. place a towel under the pts. chin and a emesis bassis to catch fluid. Clean teeth or dentures. Fill a syringe with water or mouthwash to rinse mouth. Check that all rinsing soulution runs out of mouth. INspect and clean oral tissues with applactors or gauze. Use a fresh applicator for each area of the mouth. Do mouth care every 2 hours. DO NOT use Mineral oil or hydrogen proxide.
Denture care, cleaning, and storage.
Place a washcloth in sink to prevent damage if dentures are dropped. Scrub with a toothbrush. DONOT use hot water (might change the shape)Alternately,soak dentures in a commercial cleaner. Rinse. Reinsert
Shaving clients,
Get a basin of warm water, soap, face cloth and towel. Wash with warm soapy water. Lather skin, Start at face and work down, Pull skin taut below the area you are shaving, pull the razor in the diriction of hair growth. use short strokes and rinse after each stroke. Rinse. Apply direct presure to any cuts. apply aftershave
When would shaving with a straight edge be contraindicted
If pt. is on anticoagulants, receiving thrombolytic agents, taking high doses of asprin, has any blood disorders, If the area to be shaved has any rashes or inflamed skin lesions. Suicidal pt.
Which clients need special nail care.
Diabetics
Know the higest risk factors in each age group regarding accident/safety issues and your role as a nurse
Infants-falls
Toddlers-Accidental poisoning, falls, burns electrocution.
School age-Play related injuries
Young adults-Alcohol related, maivete about work place hazards.
Middle aged adults- Physical trauma
Older adults-Falls-risk increases with hospitalization
Essential of fire safety and your role as a nurse.
RACE Rescue-Alarm-Confine-Extinguish
Know the essentials of discarding sharps in the health care setting.
DO NOT recap, Use the scoop metnod if necessary, Never point a needle at another, Cary needle in front of you and at eye level when going to dispose of it, never carry it at your side,
All Sharpies should be placed in a rigid hazardious waste container
Techniques for assisting clients who have difficulty swallowing.
Feed slowly, avoid distractions while eating, sit up straight while eating, use a regular tsp, taking only one half tsp.at a time, if client had a stroke, turn head toward the weak side, place spoon on the unaffected side of the mouth, Avoid straws, use high Fowler's position, Use thickening agents for liquids.
Know the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act and what it regulates.
Required certification of all personel working with direct client care of the elderly
Restricted the use of restraints of all kinds, Chemical and Physical.
Encouraged the use of alternative restraints.
Supine
Back lying position, The head and shoulders can be slightly raised
Possible complications- Prolongd, presure sours and food drop, hinders ambulation
Lateral
Relieves presure on sacrum and heels, internal rotation of arm, limits chest expansion( resp. impairment)
Twists spine.
Lateral oblique position
Variation of the side lying position. Produces less presure on the hip. Reduces the potential for skin breakdown.
Prone position
Patient lies on abdomen with the head to one side.
Promotes drainagefrom mouth and brachiles. Help prevent contractures of hips and knees.
Sims position
aka semiprone position. lies on left side with right knee drawn up toward chest. The left arm positioned along patient;s back. Chest, abdomen leaning forward. Used for exams and procedures( rectum and vagina). Promotes drainage from mouth and prevents aspiration. Reduces pressure on the sacrum and greater trochanter of femur.
Fowler's Position
semi sitting position. Head of bed elevated to 45-60 degrees
Knees may be slightly elevated. mImproves respiratory problems. Encourages post operative drainage. Increases risk of presure sores by decreasing the blood flow to tissues at coxccyx area
Review common assistive devices and their uses
Pillows-Provide support and elevate body parts

Bedboards-Plywood bord placed under the matress to increase support

Footboard-Board placed at the end of the bad to maintain dorsilfelection and prevent foot drop

Trochanter rolls-Folded blanket placed under clients to prevent external rotation of hips.

Turning sheet-A sheet that extends from theupper back to the mid-thigh to prevent friction when moving lifting and turning patient from side to side
Review immobility and negative outcones related to various body systems
When a client is unable to independently move or change positions, or movement is restricted for medical reasons
Purulent
Containing, discharging, or causing the production of pus
Priorty
Precedence, especially established by order of importance or urgency.
Atelectasis
at·e·lec·ta·ses (-sz)
Total or partial collapse of the lung.
A congenital condition characterized by the incomplete expansion of the lungs at birth
Aerobic
With oxygen
Transient
Remaining in a place only a brief time: transient laborers.
Physics Decaying with time, especially as a simple exponential function of time.
Germicides
An chemical that destroies active microorganisms but not spores.
Synonymous
alike in meaning or significance
Antiseptic
Chemicals like alcohol which inhibit the growth but do not kill microorganisms.
Synergistic
acting together.

enhancing the effect of another force or agent
Antimicrobials
Chemicals that limit the numbers of infectous microorganisms by destroying them or supressing their growth.
Disinfectants
(germicides and bactericides) Kill active microorganisms, but not spores.
Anaerobic
Without oxygen
Negitive outcomes of immobility on the musculoskeletal system
Decreased bone density,poor posture,contractures,foot drop,muscle atrophy,weakness,
decreased muscle tone/strength,decreased size,
increase pain
Negitive outcomes of immobility on the cardiovascular system
Impaired circulation, Thrombus(clot) formation, Icreased cardiac workload, orthostatic hypotension, dependent edema
Negitave outcomes of immobility on the respiratoroy system
Pooling of secretions,shallow respirations, increased respiratory effort, hypostatoc pneumonia, altered gas exchage,Atelectasis(colapsed alveoli)
Negitive effects of immobility on the gastrointestinal system
Decreased appetite, anorexia,consstipation, stress ulcers,fecal impaction
Negitive effects of immobility on the urinary system
Oliguria (scanty urine), Urinary statis(urine staies in the bladder), Urinary tract infections,Calculi(stone)formation, Incontinence(inability to control eliminations)
Negitive effects of immobility on the integumentry system
Pressure ulcers, Skin shearing
Negitive effects of immobility on the endrocrine system
decreased metabolic rate, decreased hormonal secretions
Negitive effects of immobility on the central nervous system
Sleep pattern disturbances, psychosocial changes, anxiety, depression, helplessness, hopelessness, increased depedency
Know the course ofan infectious disease, the terms used and what happens in each stage
Incubation period, Prodromal stage, acute stage, convalescent stage, resolution.
Incubation period
Infectious pathogens reproduce but there are no recognizable symptoms. The time when others are exposed and no one knows if they are the carrier.
Prodromal stage
The initial signs and symptoms appear; may be vague and nonspecfic.
Acute stage
symptoms become severe and specific to organ affected.
Convalescent stage
Symptoms subside as host overcomes the infectious agent.
Resolution
The pathogen is destroyed, health improves or is restored.