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130 Cards in this Set

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4 reasons that client education is one of nurse's most important roles
1. shorter hospital stays
2. increased time demands on nurses
3. increased numbers of chronically ill patients
4. need to give acutely ill patients meaningful info asap
Nurses provide clients with information needed for self-care to ensure ___________from the hospital to the home.
continuity of care
3 things a well-designed, comprehensive teaching plan does
1. reduces health care costs
2. improves care quality
3. provides info about treatment
3 things clients can do with proper education
1. make informed health decisions
2. become healthier
3. become more independent
Clients have the right to know and to be informed about their ______, ________, and _________ .
diagnoses
prognoses
available treatments
What do ALL state nurse practice acts recognize with respect to client teaching?
that client teaching falls within the scope of nursing practice
The Joint Commission
sets standards for client and family education
5 topics of education
1. meds
2. nutrition
3. use of medical equipment
4. pain
5. client's plan of care
4 client aspects which must be considered for effective education
1. psychosocial values
2. spiritual values
3. cultural values
4. desire to actively participate in the educational process
It is important to ______ evidence of client education.
document
goal of educating others about their health
to assist persons in achieving optimal levels of health
ANA Position Statement on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention (1977) promotes a focus on ________ and _______.
promoting health
preventing illness
What 2 things is preventative health care essential in reducing?
health care costs
reducing hardships on persons
3 purposes of comprehensive client education
1. health maintenance/promotion
2. illness prevention
3. coping with impaired functions
Greater knowledge results in __________.
better health maintenance habits
4 places where nurses provide info and skills
1. school
2. home
3. clinic
4. workplace
Promoting healthy behavior through education allows clients to ___________.
assume more responsibility for their health
Injured/ill clients need information and skills to help them ________ or _________ their __________.
regain
maintain
levels of health
Some clients who find it difficult to to adapt to illness become ______ and _____________.
passive
uninterested in learning
The nurse much gauge the client's ________ to learn and _________ in learning.
willingness
motivate interest
The ______ is often a vital part of a client's return to health.
family
Do not ________ that the family should be involved in a teaching plan but __________ the client-family relationship before providing education.
assume
assess
T/F: Many clients have to learn to cope with permanent health alterations after illness/injury.
true
2 types of changes in function
1. physical
2. psychosocial
Comparing the __________ with the ___________ enables the nurse to plan effective teaching programs.
desired level of health
actual state
teaching
interactive process that promotes learning
learning
purposeful acquisition of new knowledge, attitudes, behaviors & skills.
It is ________ to separate teaching from learning.
impossible
A teacher providesinformation that prompts the learner to ________ that lead to a _________.
engage in activities
desired change
What marks the beginning of teaching and learning?
identification of a need for knowledge/skill
When is teaching most effective?
when it responds to learner's needs
2 ways teacher assesses needs of learner
asking questions
determining learner's interests
What is essential for successful teaching?
interpersonal communication
Clients have the right to make __________ about their care.
informed decisions
Nurses have an ___________ to teach their clients.
ethical responsibility
The info needed to make informed decisions needs to be _______, ________, _________________.
accurate
complete
relevant to client's needs
Name of TJC 2007 campaign to help clients understand their rights when receiving medical care
"Know Your Rights"
The nurse should carefully determine what clients _________ and find the time when they are _________.
need to know
ready to learn
The teaching process closely parallels the ___________.
communication process
learning objective
what the learner will be able to do after instruction
4 things influence the way nurse delivers info
1. attitudes
2. emotions
3. values
4. knowledge
3 domains of learning
1. cognitive (understanding)
2. affective (attitudes)
3. psychomotor (motor skills)
5 types of teaching methods for cognitive learning
1. discussion (indiv. or group)
2. lecture
3. Q & A session
4. role play, discovery
5. independent project/field experience
3 types of teaching methods for affective learning
1. role play
2. group discussion
3. 1 on 1 discussion
4 types of teaching methods for psychomotor learning
1. demonstration
2. practice
3. return demonstration
4. independent projects, games
Hierarchy of cognitive behaviors (6 behaviors)
1. knowledge
2. comprehension
3. application
4. analysis
5. synthesis
6. evaluation
knowledge
learning new facts and being able to recall them
comprehension
ability to understand meaning of learned material
application
using abstract, newly learned ideas in a concrete situation
analysis
breaking down info into organized parts
cognitive learning
includes all intellectual behaviors and requires thinking
affective learning
deals with expression of feelings and acceptance of attitudes, opinions, or values
example of affective learning
values clarification
Hierarchy of affective learning behaviors (5 behaviors)
1. receiving
2. responding
3. valuing
4. organizing
5. characterizing
receiving
being willing to attend to another person's words
responding
active participation through listening and reacting verbally and nonverbally
valuing
attaching worth to an object or behavior (demonstrated by the learner's behavior)
organizing
developing value system by identifying and organizing values and resolving conflicts
characterizing
acting and responding with consistent value system
psychomotor learning
acquiring skills that require integration of mental and muscular activity
Hierarchy of psychomotor learning behaviors (7 behaviors)
1. perception
2. set
3. guided response
4. mechanism
5. complex overt response
6. adaptation
7. origination
perception
awareness of objects/qualities through use of sense organs
set
readiness to take a particular action
guided response
imitation of a demonstrated act with instructor's guidance
mechanism
learner gains confidence and skill through practice
complex overt response
smooth and accurate performance of a motor skill requiring a complex movement pattern
adaptation
ability to change a motor response when unexpected problems occur
origination
create new movement patterns based on existing psychomotor skills and abilities
3 influences on motivation
1. previous knowledge
2. attitudes
3. sociocultural factors
4 ways people process information
1. seeing and hearing
2. reflecting and acting
3. reasoning logically and intuitively
4. analyzing and visualizing
Motivation addresses a person's _______ or _______ to learn.
desire
willingness
attentional set
mental state that allows learner to focus on and comprehend a learning activity
As anxiety ________, the client's ability to learn generally ________.
increases
decreases
Manage the client's ________ before providing education to improve the client's comprehension and understanding of the information.
anxiety
3 motives for learning
1. social motive
2. task mastery
3. physical motive
motivation
force that acts on/within a person that causes the person to behave in a particular way
social motive
a need for connection, social approval, or self-esteem
task mastery motive
based on needs such as achievement and competence
physical motive
desire to attain/return to state of physical normalcy
compliance
client's adherence to the prescribed course of therapy
For learning to occur, a nurse must first assess the client's ______, ______, and ________.
ideas
beliefs
motivation
social learning theory
provides one of the most useful approaches to client education - it explains characteristics of the learner and guides the educator in developing effective teaching interventions resulting in enhanced learning & improved motivation
According to social learning theory (Bandura), people continuously try to _______________.
control events that affect their lives
self-efficacy
person's perceived ability to successfully complete a task
("can do" attitude)
When people believe they are __________, they are more likely to ______________.
able to complete a task
actually perform the behavior consistently and correctly
4 sources of self-efficacy beliefs
1. enactive mastery experiences
2. vicarious experiences
3. verbal persuasion
4. physiological and affective states
Self-efficacy is a strong predictor of ___________.
healthy behaviors
When a client experiences loss of health, he/she needs to ______.
grieve
The grieving process allows the client to ______________.
adapt psychologically to emotional and physical implications of illness
The nurse should wait until client reaches the grieving stage of _________ to initiate teaching.
acceptance
Client's _________ in learning implies an__________ to acquire knowledge/skills.
involvement
eagerness
Before beginning a teaching plan, the nurse should know client's level of ________ and _______.
knowledge
intellectual skills
Learning occurs more readily when new information _________ existing knowledge.
complements
A child's capacity to learn and the type of behaviors a child is able to learn depend on the child's ___________.
maturation level
Info presented to children should be ________, and the expected outcomes should be _______, based on the child's __________.
understandable
realistic
developmental stage
Adult learning is enhanced by encouraging them to draw on ________ to solve problems.
life experiences
The ability to learn often depends on the client's level of ________ and overall _________.
physical development
physical health
3 things needed to learn psychomotor skills
1. strength
2. coordination
3. sensory acuity
It's useless to teach a client to transfer from bed to wheelchair if the client lacks sufficient upper body strength.
good example: why nurse must accurately assess physical capability before teaching
Any condition which depletes a person's _______ also impairs learning ability.
energy
5 stages of grief (re adaptation to illness)
1. denial
2. anger
3. bargaining
4. resolution
5. acceptance
infant teaching methods
1. consistent routines
2. build trust by holding infant firmly while smiling and speaking softly
3. have infant touch diff. textures
toddler teaching methods
1. use play
2. offer picture books that describe story of kids in hospital, etc.
3. use simple words
preschooler teaching methods
1. use role play, imitation, play
2. encourage questions
3. encourage learning together through pictures and short stories
school-age teaching methods
1. teach psychomotor skills
2. offer opportunities to discuss health problems and answer questions
adolescent teaching methods
1. help him learn about feelings and need for self-expression
2. make teaching collaborative activity
3. allow adolescents to make decisions
4. use problem-solving to help adolescents make choices
young/middle adult teaching methods
1. encourage participation in teaching plan by setting mutual goals
2. encourage independent learning
3. offer info
older adult teaching methods
1. teach when client is alert and rested
2. involve adult in discussion/ activity
3. focus on wellness and strength
4. use approaches that enhance client's reception of stimuli
5. keep teaching sessions short
7 factors to consider re learning environment
1. no. of persons to be taught
2. need for privacy
3. room temp
4. room lighting
5. room ventilation
6. furniture arrangement
7. noise
In general, a learning environment should be ______ and ________.
quiet
comfortable
If teaching a group, nurse should arrange the participants to be able to observe each other's _______ and ________ interactions.
verbal
nonverbal
nursing process v. teaching process
The nursing process requires assessment of all data sources to determine a client's total health needs. The teaching process focuses on learning needs and willingness and capability to learn.
3 things to assess to be successful in teaching a client
1. relevant content
2. learning ability
3. instruction resources available
An effective assessment provide the basis for ______________.
individualized client teaching
Because a client's health status is dynamic, assessment is an ____________.
ongoing activity
3 learning needs to assess
1. info needed by client
2. client's experiences that influence need to learn
3. info that family/friends need to support client
7 motivational factors to assess
1. behavior
2. health beliefs/sociocultural background
3. perception of severity/ susceptibility of health problem and benefits/barriers to treatment
4. perceived ability to perform health behaviors
5. desire to learn
6. attitudes about health care providers
7. learning style preference
Health care providers often underestimate the client's _________ deficits.
cognitive
5 factors in health care setting which often impair learning ability
1. fatigue
2. body temp
3. electrolyte levels
4. oxygenation status
5. blood glucose level
6 factors to assess re learning ability
1. physical strength, coordination
2. sensory deficits
3. client's reading level
4. client's developmental level
5. cognitive function
6. physical symptoms: pain, fatigue, anxiety, etc.
3 factors to assess re teaching environment
1. distractions/noise
2. room comfort
3. room facilities/equipment
5 factors to assess re learning resources
1. client's willingness to have family/friends involved in teaching plan and care
2. family/friends' perceptions and understanding of client's illness and its implications
3. family/friends' willingness/ability to participate in care
4. resources (financial, material)
5. teaching tools
Health literacy is a strong predictor of ________.
health status
functional illiteracy
inability to read above 5th grade level
5 populations that tend to have lower health literacy scores
1. older adults
2. men
3. people who didn't speak English before entering school
4. poor
5. people w/o high school education
________ and ________ adults tend to have higher literacy levels than _______, _______, or ________ adults.
white
Asian/Pacific Islander
African American
Native American/Alaska native
multiracial
What population has lowest levels of health literacy?
Hispanic adults
To ensure client _____, all health care providers must make sure that info is presented _______ and in a ___________ manner.
safety
clearly
culturally sensive
Over 75 million American adults had _________ levels of health literacy.
basic/below basic
Clients with ADHD frequently have difficulty ________ information and staying _______ during educational sessions, in addition to having a lower threshold of _______.
recalling info
focused
frustration