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100 Cards in this Set

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vital signs
body temperature, pulse rate, repiratory rate, and blood pressure.
shell tempature
warmth at the skin surface
core tempature
warmth in deeper sites within the body like the brain and heart. Core tempature is much more significant than shell tempature because ther eis a narrow randge within which core temp. can flutuate without resulting in negative outcomes.
thermokinetics
heat in motion
fahrenheit scale
scale that uses 32 degrees F. as the tempaerture at which water freezed and 212 F as the point at which water boils.
centigrade scale
scale that uses the 0 C as the temp. at which water freezed and 100C at which water boils, this is used more often in scentific research and in countries that follow the metric system. Nurses are required to to use both.
homeothermic
various structural and physiological adaptions keep their body temp. within narrow stable range regardless of enviromental temp.
hypothalamus
a structure within the brain that helps control various metabloic activities. Acts as the center for temp. regulation.
anterior hypothalamus
promotes heat loss
posterior hypothalamus
promotes two functions, heat production and heat conservation
piloerection
the contraction of arrector pili muscles in skin follicles, which stiffens body and hairs and gives the appreance of what commonly is described goosh flesh.
set point
optimal body temp.within 1 degree C by responding to slight changes in responses accompany the temp. regulating mechanism of the hyppthamlamus.
thermogensis
heat production
white adipocytes
fat cells that provide heat insulation and cushioning of internal structures.
metabolic rate
use of calories for sustaining body functions. Twice that of adults.
brown adipcytes
people that live in predomitanely cold climates have more brown adipocytes (fat cells uniquely adapted for thermogenesis.
circadian rhythm
are physiologic changes, such as fluctuatins in body temp. and other vital signs, over 24 hrs.
thermistor catheter
heat sensing device at the tip of an internally placed tube. This is to receive the temp. throught the blood circulation throught the heart, esphogus, or bladder.
cerumen
ear wax
drawdown effect
cooling the ear when it comes in contact with the probe occurs.
offset
predictive mathmatical conversions
pyrexia
greek word used for fire, is a term used to describe a warmer than normal set point
febrile
condition in which the temp. is elevated, as opposed to afebril, (no fever).
hyperthermia
excessively high core tempature, describes a state in which the temp. exceeds 105.8 degrees F (40.6 degrees C).
sustained fever
a fever that continues, remains elevated, and fluctuates little
remittent fever
a fever taht fluctuates several degrees but does not reach normal between flucuations.
intermittent fever
cycles frequently between periods or normal or subnormal tempatures and spikes a fever.
invasion phase
the period when a fever begins
defervescence phase
return of an elevated body temp. to normal.
anipyrectics
drugs that reduce fever, such as aspirin and acetaminophen are helpful
hypothermia
core body temp. less that 95 degress F (35 degrees C).
bradycardia
less than 60 bpm in adults
newborn pulse ratesq
120-160 bpm approximate average is 140 bpm
1-12 months
80 to 140 approximate average is 120 bpm
1-2 years pulse rate
80 to 130 approximate average is 110
3-6 years pulse rate
75 to 120 bpm, approximate average is 100 bpm
7-12 years pulse rate
75-110 bpm approximate average is 95 bpm
adolescence pulse rate
60 to 100 bpm appoximate average is 80 bpm
adulthood pulse rate
60 to 100 bpm appoximate average is 80 bpm.
pulse rhythm
pattern of the pulsations and the pauses between them, is normally regular
arrhythmia or dyshythmia
irregular pattern of heartbeats, with a consequently irregular pulse rhythm is reported promptly.
pulse volume
quality of pulsations felt, usually is related to amount of blood pumped with each heart beat, or the force of the hearts contraction.
apical heart rate
number of ventricular contractions per minute, is considered more accurate than the radial pulse for 2 reasons, the shound of each heatbeat is obvious and distinct, and sometimes the heart contraction is not strong enough to be felt at the peripheral pulse site.
apical radial rate
number of sounds heard at the hearts apex and the rate of the radial pulse during the same perios, is counted by separate nurses at the same time using one watch or clock.
absent pulse
no pulsation is felt despite exteme pressure.
thready pulse
pulsation is easily felt and takes moderate pressure to cause it to disappear.
2+ weak pulse
it is stronger than a thready pulse, light pressure causes it to disappear.
4+ bounding pulse
pulsation is strong and does not disappear with moderate pressure.
Absent pulse
no pulsation is felt despite exteme pressure.
normal pulse
pulsation is felt easily, moderate pressure causes it to disappear.
pulse deficit
the differences between the apical and radial pulse rates.
apnea
a period in which there is no breathing
bradypnea
a below average or slow respitory rate
cheyne strokes respiration
a gradual increase and then a gradual decrease in depth of respiration, followed by a period of apnea
dyspnea
difficult labored breathing
hyperventilation
a condition in which a reduced amount of air enters the lungs
hypoventilaton
abnormally prolonged, rapid, and deep respiration
orthopnea
a condition in which breathing is easier when the client is in a sitting or standing position
stertorous
a general term referring to noisy breathing
stridor
a harsh, high pitched sound that occurs heard on inspiration in the presence of an obstruction in larger airways such as the laryn
tachypnea
a repiration rate that is more rapid than normal
hypothalamus
the area of the brain that the bodys temp. is regulated
hypothermia
the condition in which the body temp is below the average normal
arrhythmia
irregular pattern of hearbeats.
thready
a term commonly used to identify a feeble and weak pulse.
pulse deficit
the difference between the apical and radial pulse rates.
pulse pressure versues blood pressure
142/100 you would subtate the lowest # from the highest and get a pulse of 42.
ausculatation
Auscultation is the technical term for listening to the internal sounds of the body, usually using a stethoscope. Auscultation is normally performed for the purposes of examining the circulatory system and respiratory system (heart sounds and breath sounds), as well as the gastrointestinal system (bowel sounds).
3 mintute rule
the nurse should wait 3 minutes in between taking a blood pressure from standing to a laying position
physical assessment
systematic examination of the body structures, is one way of gathering health data
4 basic pyscial assessments
inspection, percussion, palpation, and ausculation
inspection
purposeful observation, is the most frequently used technique
percussion
is the least used nursing assessment technique, is striking or tapping a part of the body.
palpation
a t
ausculation
listening to body sounds is a frequently used assessment technque. the heat, lungd and abdomen are the stuctures most often assessed through auscultaton.
percussion sounds, muted
soft, flat, muscle bone
percussion sounds, thud
soft to moderate, dull, liver, full bladder, tumorous mass
percussion sounds, empty
moderate to loud, resonant, normal lung
percussion sounds, cavernous
loud, tympanic, intestin filled air
percussion sounds, booming
very loud, hyperresonat, barrel shaped chest overinflatted with trapped air as a reult of chonic disease.
accuate pulse sites
teporal(temple area), cartotoid (
carotid
common carotid artery is an artery that supplies the head and neck with oxygenated blood; it divides in the neck to form the external and internal carotid arteries.)
brachial artery
The brachial artery is the major blood vessel of the upper arm. The pulse of the brachial artery is palpable on the anterior aspect of the elbow and, with the use of a stethoscope and sphygmomanometer (blood pressure cuff) often used to measure the blood pressure.
radial artery
In human anatomy, the radial artery is the main blood vessel, with oxygenated blood, of the lateral aspect of the forearm.
brachial artery
The brachial artery is the major blood vessel of the upper arm.

The pulse of the brachial artery is palpable on the anterior aspect of the elbow and, with the use of a stethoscope and sphygmomanometer (blood pressure cuff) often used to measure the blood pressure.
dorsalis pedis
dorsalis pedis artery (dorsal artery of foot), is a blood vessel of the lower limb that carries oxygenated blood to the dorsal surface of the foot. It arises at the anterior aspect of the ankle joint and is a continuation of the anterior tibial artery. It terminates at the proximal part of the first intermetatarsal space, where it divides into two branches, the first dorsal metatarsal artery and the deep plantar artery. The dorsalis pedis artery pulse can be palpated readily lateral to the extensor hallucis longus tendon on the dorsal surface of the foot, distal to the dorsal most prominence of the navicular bone which serves as a reliable landmark for palpation.[1] It is often examined, by physicians, when assessing whether a given patient has peripheral vascular disease. It is absent, unilaterally or bilaterally, in 2-3 % of young healthy individuals.
femoral artery
The femoral artery is a large artery in the muscles of the thigh.
femoral artery
The femoral artery is a large artery in the muscles of the thigh.
psterior tibial
The posterior tibial artery of the lower limb carries blood to the posterior compartment of the leg and plantar surface of the foot, from the popliteal artery. It is accompanied by a deep vein, the posterior tibial vein, along its course. The posterior tibial artery pulse can be readily palpated posterior and inferior to the medial malleolus and is often examined by physicians when assessing a patient for peripheral vascular disease. It is very rarely absent in young and healthy individuals; in a study of 547 healthy individuals only one person did not have a palpable posterior tibial artery.
head to toe approach
means gathering data from the top of the body to the feet. this has 3 advantages, it helps to prevent overlooking some aspect of the data collection, it reduces the number of position changes required of the client, it generally takes less time because the nurse is not constantly moving around the client in what may appear to be a haphazard manner.
pacacentsis`
is a procedure that involves puncturing the skin and subseqently cavity so that body fluid may be withdrawn
queckenstedt
test is done during lumbar puncture. this is used to determine the prescense or absence of an obsruction of the flow of cerbrospinal fluid
electroencephalography (EEG)
is an examination that records an image of the elecrical activity in the brain.
dorsal recumbent position
is used to examine the vagina rectum
lithotomy postion
is used to position to examine the vagina with a speculum. it is also used when the internal female reputive organs are palpated, and when make or female bladder inspections are done with a cytoscope
consent must contain 3 elements"
in sone cases a signed consent form may be required before certain tests or examinations may be performed. In order for it to be legally sound consent must contain 3 elements, capacity, comprehension, and volunteers.
class 111 result
on the cellular portion of the pap smear indicares that sample on the smears suggestive of cancer cells, but it is not definite.
a # 1 reult of a pap smear
a # 1 results on the idedntifabe microorganisms
nutrition
is defined as the process whereby the body uses food
minerals
are noncaloric substances in food that are essential to all cells