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289 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
As a result of the health care financing revolution medicare went from ?

a) restrospective payment system to a prospective payment system

b) prospective payment system to a retrospective payment system
retrospective payment system to a prospective payment system
The health care financing revolution began in ?

a) 1953

b) 1960

c) 1975

D) 1983
1983
The lack of cost consciousness and the "if it might help do it" approach to provide health care in the 1960's led to?

a) "perverse economic incentives"

b) large increases in the total Medicare bill

c) federal budget deficits

d) revolution in health insurance reimbursement
All of the above
The simultaneous occurrance of physicians dominating the decision making role & fee-for-service-payments was combined with the driving motivation in the health care system to?

a) minimize cost

b) increase profits

c) provide best possible care

d) encourage federal funding for research
provide best possible care
Two factors that contributed to the lack of cost consciousness in health care are?

a) increased disease & increased population

b) medical research & expanding pharmaceutical industy

c) national debt & immigration

d) physician decision making & fee for service payment methods
physician decision making; fee for service payment methods
An organization other than the patient and the supplier that assumes responsibility for the payment of charges is called?

a) medicare

b) medicaid

c) charity

d) third party
third party
Subjects in an experiment who do not recieve the experimental treatment and whose performance provides a baseline against which the effects of the treatment can be measured is:

a) triangulation

b) pilot study

c) control group

d) ethnography
control group
The process of acquiring existing information or developing new information is:

a)exerimental design

b) evidence based practice

c) generalizability

d) data collection
data collection
Having a foundation based on data gathered through the senses such as obsevation or experience, rather than purely theorizing or logic, is:

a) control group

b) evidence based practice

c) empirical

d) methodologic design
empirical
A qualitative research method for the purpose of investigating cultures that involve data collection, description, and analysis of data to develop a theory of cultural behavior is:

a) ethnography

b) evidence based practice

c) naturalistic paradigm

d) Triangulation
ethnography
The process of systematicly finding, appraising, and using research findings as the basis for clinical practice is:

a) evidence based practice

b) methodologic design

c) Quasi-experimental research

d) data collection
evidence based practice
A design that includes randomization, a control group, and manipulation between or among variables to examine probability & causality among selected variables for the purpose of predicting & controlling phenomena, is:

a) evidence based practice

b) methodologic design

c) Quasi-experimental research

d) experimental design
experimental design
The inference that findings can be generalized from the sample of the entire population is:

a) needs assesment

b) Meta-Analysis

c) generalizability

d) phenomenology
generalizability
A qualitative research design used to collect & analyize data with the aim of developing theories grounded in real world observations & used to study a social process, is:

a) Triangulation

b) Grounded theory

c) Quasi-experimental research

d) survey
Grounded theory
Quantitative merging of findings from several studies to determine what is known about a phenomena, is:

a) quantitative research

b) qualitative research

C) Meta-analysis

d) Quasi-experimental research
Meta-analysis
A research design used to develop the validity & reliability of instruments that measure research concepts & variables, is:

a) methodologic design

b) experimental design

c) Quasi-meta research

d) Meta-analysis
methodologic design
A holistic view of nature & the direction of science that guides qualitative research, is:

a) Qualitative research

b) Quantitative research

c) naturalistc paradigm

d) triangulation
naturalistc paradigm
A study in which the researcher collects data for estimating the needs of a group, usually for resouce allocation, is:

a) Qualitative research

b) Quantitative research

c) needs assessment

d) triangulation
needs assessment
A qualitative research design that uses inductive descriptive methodology to describe the lived experiences of study participants, is:

a) pilot study

b) Ethnography

c) survey

d) phenomenology
phenomenology
A smaller version of a proposed study conducted to develop or refine methodology such as treatment, instruments, or data collection process to be used in a larger study, is:

a) methodologic design

b) pilot study

c) Quasi-meta research

d) Meta-analysis
pilot study
A systematic, subjective approach used to describe life experiences & give them meaning is:

a) Quantitative research

b) Qualitative research

c) Needs assessment

d) Secondary analysis
Qualitative research
A formal, objective systematic process that is used to describe & test relationships, and examine cause-&-effect interactions among variables, is:

a) Quantitative research

b) Qualitative research

c) Needs assessment

d) Secondary analysis
Quantitative research
A type of quantitative research study design that lacks one of the components such as randomization, a control group, or manipulation of one or more variables, of an experimental design, is:

a) needs assessment

b) Qualitative research

c) Quasi-experimental research

d) Secondary analysis
Quasi-experimental research
The assignment of subjects to treatment conditions in a random manner or determined by chance alone, is:

a) randomization

b) Qualitative research

c) Quasi-experimental research

d) Secondary analysis
randomization
A merging of findings from several studies concerning the same topic & for which examples include meta-analysis with a quantitative approach & integrative review with a descriptive approach, is:

a) state-of-the-science summary

b) survey

c) evidence-based practice

d) Secondary analysis
state-of-the-science summary
A non-experimental research design that focuses on obtaining information regarding the status of quo of some situation, often through direct questioning of participants, is:

a) data collection

b) triangilation

c) survey

d) randomization
survey
The use of a variety of methods to collect data on the same concept is:

a) qualitative research

b) quantitative research

c) Grounded Theory

d) triangulation
triangulation
The purpose of research is:

a) to examine phenomena important to nursing and nurses

b) used as the basis for clinical decisions

c) is to develop an empirical body of knowledge for a discipline or profession

d) break a question down into something that is answerable
is to develop an empirical body of knowledge for a discipline or profession
Evidence based practice & it's impact in research on health care practice can be demonstrated by all of the follwing examples EXCEPT:

1) Use of heparinized saline for flushing capped peripheral intraveneous catheters vs saline only wherein saline only was found clinically effective

b) the belief that fatigue is remidied only by rest disproven in research on cancer related fatigue and exercise

c) research evidence is available for implementing prevention and management strategies for pressure ulcers
all are examples of the impact of nursing evidence-based-practice
Purpose of nursing research is:

“to test, refine and advance the knowledge on which improved education, clinical judgment, and cost-effective, safe, ethical nursing care rests.”
Purpose of nursing research is:

“to test, refine and advance the knowledge on which improved education, clinical judgment, and cost-effective, safe, ethical nursing care rests.”
There are two major aproaches to investigating phenomena in nursing research which originate from different philosophical perspectives & use different methods for collecting & analyzing data. These two approaches are:

a) Meta-Analysis & Qualitative Research

b) Quasi-experimental deisgn & Qualitative research

c) Secondary analysis and Quantitative research

d) Quantitative & Qualitative research
Quantitative & Qualitative research
Research that progresses through systematic, logical steps according to a specific plan to collect numerical information, often under considerable control, & analyzed during statistical procedures.

a) Qualitative Research

b) Evidence Based Practice

c) Quantitative Research

d) Pilot Study
Quantitative Research
A research approach that is most often associated with positivism or logical positivism is:

a) Qualitative Research

b) Evidence Based Practice

c) Quantitative Research

d) Pilot Study
Quantitative Research
A research approach in which a philosophical doctrine emphasizes the rational and the scientific.

a) Qualitative Research

b) Evidence Based Practice

c) Quantitative Research

d) Pilot Study
Quantitative Research
A research approach that uses deductive reasoning and the measurable attributes of human experience is:

a) Qualitative Research

b) Evidence Based Practice

c) Quantitative Research

d) Pilot Study
Quantitative Research
What research approach best represents this question "What are the differential effects of continuous versus intermittant application of negative pressure on tracheal tissue during endotracheal suctioning?"

a) Qualitative Research

b) Quasi-experimental research

c) Quantitative Research

d) Mta-analysis
Quantitative Research
The question: "Is the ausuculatory method effective in validating the location of the feeding tube?" is an example of:

a) Qualitative Research

b) Quasi-experimental research

c) Quantitative Research

d) Mta-analysis
Quantitative Research
The research approach most often associated with naturalistic inquiry is:

a) Qualitative Research

b) Quasi-experimental research

c) Quantitative Research

d) Mta-analysis
Qualitative Research
The research approach which explores the subjective & complex experiences of human beings is:

a) Qualitative Research

b) Quasi-experimental research

c) Quantitative Research

d) Mta-analysis
Qualitative Research
Research that investigates "the human experience" as it is lived through careful collection & analysis of narrative, subjective materials is:

a) Qualitative Research

b) Quasi-experimental research

c) Quantitative Research

d) Meta-analysis
Qualitative Research
Research in which data collection & analysis occur concurrently:

a) Qualitative Research

b) Quasi-experimental research

c) Quantitative Research

d) Mta-analysis
Qualitative Research
Research that uses inductive reasoning & of which data is analyzed by identifying themes & patterns to develop a theory or framework to help explain the process under observation is:

a) Qualitative Research

b) Quasi-experimental research

c) Quantitative Research

d) Mta-analysis
Qualitative Research
What research approach would be appropriate if asking, "What is the nature of the bereavment process in spouses of clients with terminal cancer?"

a) Qualitative Research

b) Quasi-experimental research

c) Quantitative Research

d) Mta-analysis
Qualitative Research
What research approach would be appropriate if asking, "What is the nature of coping & adjustment after a radical prostatectomy?" :

a) Qualitative Research

b) Quasi-experimental research

c) Quantitative Research

d) Mta-analysis
Qualitative Research
What research approach would be appropriate if asking, "What is the process of family caregiving for elderly family relatives with Alzheimers dementia as experienced by the caregiver?"

a) Qualitative Research

b) Quasi-experimental research

c) Quantitative Research

d) Meta-analysis
Qualitative Research
What research method is characterized by the following:

1. systematic & logical steps

2. collects numerical information

3. uses statistical procedures

4. associated with positivism or logical positivism

5. emphasizes the rational & the scientific

6. uses deductive reasoning

7. uses the measurable attributes of the human experience

a) Qualitative Research

b) Quasi-experimental research

c) Quantitative Research

d) Meta-analysis
Quantitative Research
What research method is characterized by the following:

1. associated with naturalistic inquiry

2. explores the subjective & complex experiences of human beings

3. investigates the hunan experience as it is lived

4. data collection & analysis occurs concurrently

5. uses inductive resoning

6. data are analyzed by identifying themes & patterns to develope a theory or framework to explain the proocess under observation

a) Qualitative Research

b) Quasi-experimental research

c) Quantitative Research

d) Mta-analysis
Qualitative Research
All of the following are characteristic of Qualitative Research EXCEPT:

1. associated with naturalistic inquiry

2. explores the subjective & complex experiences of human beings

3. investigates the hunman experience as it is lived

4. data collection & analysis occurs concurrently

5. uses deductive reasoning

6. data are analyzed by identifying themes & patterns to develope a theory or framework to explain the process under observation
uses deductive reasoning

Qualitative Research uses inductive reasoning !
All of the following are characteristic of Quantitative Research EXCEPT:


1. systematic & logical steps

2. collects numerical information

3. data collection & analysis occurs concurrently

4. associated with positivism or logical positivism

5. emphasizes the rational & the scientific

6. uses deductive reasoning

7. uses the measurable attributes of the human experience
data collection & analysis occurs concurrently
Qualitative research is viewed as "hard science"

True or false?
False

Quantitative is viewed as hard science

remember "quan" as in quantity, measurable, & therefore scientific, logical & deductive
All nurses who practice in settings where research is being conducted with human subjects, play an important role in:

a) safeguarding the integrity of the research project

b) distinguishing between the subjective data and the objective data

c) using deductive or inductive reasoning skills where & when appropriate

d) acting as an advocate for the patient/subject and safeguarding their rights
acting as an advocate for the patient/subject and safeguarding their rights
Exposure to the possibility of injury going beyond everday situations is violating the patient's:

a) Right of Privacy & Confidentiality

b) Right to Self Determination

c) Right to Full Disclosure

d) Right Not to Be Harmed
Right Not to Be Harmed
Witholding a standard of care from a client in labor for the purpose of studying the course of natural childbirth violates a patients:

a) Right of Privacy & Confidentiality

b) Right to Self Determination

c) Right to Full Disclosure

d) Right Not to Be Harmed
Right Not to Be Harmed
Collecting data about a client for research as a part of everyday care without the clients particular knowledge or consent is:

a) ethical because it only concerns observations that would have been made under any circumstances

b) ethical because the information does not require anything of the client other than to carry on as usual

c) unethical because full disclosure is a basic right

d) unethical because it violates the the clients right to self determination
unethical because full disclosure is a basic right
Suggesting to potential research participants that by taking part in a research project may bring them fame, make an important contribution to science or receive special attention:

a) is the right action to take because it is disclosing the potential outcomes of the project

b) should not be implied because although any of the above may in fact be potentially true, guarantees cannot be made in any research project

c) violates the patients Right Not To Be Harmed

d) must be strictly avoided as it violates the patients Right of Self-Determination
must be strictly avoided as it violates the patients Right of Self-Determination
The application of the scientific approach to generate empirical knowledge is:

a) evidence based practice

b) science

c) research

d) methodologic design
research
The systematic inquiry using disciplined methods to answer questions or solve problems is:

a) data collection

b) science

c) methodologic

d) research
research
In research, the investigators initial task is to:

a) collect data

b) determine the control group

c) narrow a broad area of interest to the specific intent of the study

d) determine the variables to be used
narrow a broad area of interest to the specific intent of the study
The four criteria suggested in formulating a research problem are all of the following EXCEPT:

a) significance

b) researchability

c) randomization

d) feasibility

e) interest to the researcher
randomization
The potential to contribute to nursing science by enhancing client care, testing or generating a theory, or resolving a day-to-day clinical problem represents which of the following criteria in formulating a research problem:

a) feasibility

b) researchability

c) dependent/independent variables

d)significance
significance
If a research problem has the potential to contribute to nursing science by enhancing client care, testing or generating a theory, or resolving a day-to-day clinical problem, it is said to have:

a) researchibility

b) significance

c) feasibility

d) dependent or independent variables (dependent/independent)
significance
In research, the behavior, characteristic, or outcome that the researcher wishes to explain or predict is:

a) the independent variable

b) the dependent variable

c) the feasibility

d) significance
the dependent variable
In research, the variable that you believe might be influenced or modified by some treatment or exposure is:

a) the independent variable

b) the dependent variable

c) the feasibility

d) significance
the dependent variable
In research, the variable you are trying to predict is the:

a) dependent variable

b) independent variable
the dependent variable
In research, the outcome variable is also known as the:

a) data

b) qualitative factor

c) quantitative factor

d) dependent variable
dependent variable
A recently published research study examined the relationship of dietary fat consumption & the development of ischemic stroke in a cohort of 832 men who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline & who were followed for a twenty year period. In this study, the dependent variable was:

a) dietary fat consumption

b) 832 men

c) development of ischemic stroke

d) free of
cardiovascular disease
development of ischemic stroke
The variable which is manipulated or selected by the experimenter to determine its relationship to an observed phenomenon is:

a) the dependent variable

b) the independent variable

c) qualitative factor

d) quantitative factor
the independent variable
The independent variable is also known as all of the following EXCEPT:

a) the predictor

b) the regressor

c) the outcome variable

d) the manipulated variable
the outcome variable
A variable that can be changed as required, & its values do not represent a problem requiring explanation in an analysis, but are taken simply as given is known as the:

a) dependent variable

b) independent variable
independent variable
In the statement "the variable which is manipulated or selected by the experimenter to determine its relationship to an observed phenomenon" the dependent variable(s) is:

a) "the variable which is manipulated"

b) "its relationship"

c) "observed phenomenon"
"observed phenomenon"
Manipulating the independent variable by giving experimental treatment to some subjects while withholding it from others is:

a) Experimental design

b) Quasi-experiment

c) Nonexperimental
Experimental design
Manipulating the independent variable but without either the randomization or control that characterizes true experiments is:

a) Experimental design

b) Quasi-experiment

c) Nonexperimental
Quasi-experiment
When no manipulation of independent variables occurs it is known as:

a) Experimental design

b) Quasi-experiment

c) Nonexperimental
Nonexperimental
Nonexperimental research design:

a) Manipulates the independent variable by giving experimental treatment to some subjects while withholding it from others

b)Manipulates the independent variable but without either the randomization or control that characterizes true experiments

c) No manipulation of independent variable
No manipulation of independent variable
Quasi-experiment research design:

a) Manipulates the independent variable by giving experimental treatment to some subjects while withholding it from others

b)Manipulates the independent variable but without either the randomization or control that characterizes true experiments

c) No manipulation of independent variable
Manipulates the independent variable but without either the randomization or control that characterizes true experiments
Experimental design in research design:

a) Manipulates the independent variable by giving experimental treatment to some subjects while withholding it from others

b)Manipulates the independent variable but without either the randomization or control that characterizes true experiments

c) No manipulation of independent variable

d) Manipulates the dependent variable by giving experimental treatment to some subjects while withholding it from others

e)Manipulates the dependent variable but without either the randomization or control that characterizes true experiments
Manipulates the independent variable by giving experimental treatment to some subjects while withholding it from others
"The overall plan for answering the research questions or testing the research hypothesis" is:

a) to begin the experiment

b) to evaluate the rationale

c) to design a pilot study

d) a research design
a research design
A trial run of the research procedure on a few subjects to assess the adequacy of the data collection plan is:

a) the survey

b) needs assessment

c) methodologic design

d) pilot study
pilot study
Common methods of collecting data in nursing are all of the following EXCEPT:

a) questionaires

b) rating scales

c) interviews

d) observation

e) unsuspecting patients

f) biophysical measures
unsuspecting patients
Information collected from the observable world is known as:

a) quantitative surveys

b) qualitative surveys

c) data collection

d) empirical data
empirical data
In research, the degree in which the tool (instrument) measures what it is suppose to measure is an example of:

a) researchability

b) feasibility

c) reliability

d) validity
validity
In research, a degree of consistency with which an instrument measures a concept or variable is called:

a) researchability

b) feasibility

c) reliability

d) validity
reliability
An instrument is considered ____________ when repeated measurement of the same variable results in similar or nearly similar results:

a) researchable

b) feasible

c) reliable

d) valid
reliable
In research, data is collected , organized, coded, and analyzed for the purpose of: _______________ or testing the hypothesis

a) validating

b) measuring

c) answering the question

d) determining the variables
answering the question
In research, the summary of large volumes of data to show patterns and trends is:

a) State-of-the-Science Summary

b) randomization

c) Meta Analysis

d) Descriptive statistics
Descriptive statistics
The sum of all scores and dividing by the number of subjects is the:

a) Mean

b) Median

c) Mode
Mean
The exact middle score of which the value above and below is 50 % of the scores lie is:

a) Mean

b) Median

c) Mode
Median
The score or value that occurs most frequently in the scores is:

a) Mean

b) Median

c) Mode
Mode
Research that thoroughly describes & explains a phenomenon, data collection is conducted through interviews, can result in thousands of pages & data is organized in categories such as concepts, actions, or themes is known as:

a) Methodological design

b) quantitative research

c) qualitative research

d) Quasi-experimental research
Qualitative research process
Three qualitative research traditions are:

a) ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory

b) survey, needs assessment, control group

c) empirical evidence, Meta-analysis, randomization

d) control group, data collection, secondary analysis
ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory
Research that provides a framework to focus on the culture of a group of people:

a) Ethnography

b) Grounded theory

c) Phenomenology
Ethnography
Research that investigates people’s life experiences and how they interpret those experiences:

a) Ethnography

b) Grounded theory

c) Phenomenology
Phenomenology
Understanding of the social structures and social processes & patterns of behaviors of the people in the study while protecting the rights of human subjects is:

a) Ethnography

b) Grounded theory

c) Phenomenology
Grounded theory
Cost-effective practice on the basis of the data produced by research, dissemination of data, & implementation of best practice interventions into the nurse’s practice are the goals of:

a) Qualitative research

b) State-of-the -Science Summary

c) Experimental Design

d) Evidence-Based Practice
Evidence-Based Practice
Research that evaluates potential benefits versus possible harm, cost-effectiveness, availability of ongoing support resources, and willingness of the health-care staff and clients to accept change is:

a) Qualitative research

b) State-of-the -Science Summary

c) Experimental Design

d) Evidence-Based Practice
Evidence-Based Practice
Problem-based & within the scope of the practitioner’s experience, narrowing research-practice gaps by combining research with existing knowledge, & facilitating the application of research into practice by including both primary & secondary research findings
are features of:

a) Qualitative research

b) State-of-the -Science Summary

c) Experimental Design

d) Evidence-Based Practice
Evidence-Based Practice
An activity that is concerned with quality of service & is therefore a quality assurance activity is a feature of:

a) Qualitative research

b) State-of-the -Science Summary

c) Experimental Design

d) Evidence-Based Practice
Evidence-Based Practice
An activity for which projects are team projects & therefore require team support & collaborative action is a feature of:

a) Qualitative research

b) State-of-the -Science Summary

c) Experimental Design

d) Evidence-Based Practice
Evidence-Based Practice
Conducting systematic reviews of existing literature when large amounts of health care literature already exists & has not been assimilated into practice, is characteristic of:

a) Qualitative research

b) State-of-the -Science Summary

c) Experimental Design

d) Evidence-Based Practice
Evidence-Based Practice
_____________ evaluates and presents the evidence that is available on a specific topic in a clear and unbiased way.

a) Qualitative research

b) State-of-the -Science Summary

c) Experimental Design

d) Evidence-Based Practice
Evidence-Based Practice
_____________ presents nurses with sound decision based on best evidence:

a) Qualitative research

b) quantitative research

c) evidence based practice

d) methodologic design
evidence-based practice
_______________ is knowing the question has been satisfactorily answered and be able to identify the gaps in the knowledge for future research.

a) Qualitative research

b) quantitative research

c) evidence based practice

d) methodologic design
evidence-based practice
Growth of ADN programs in community colleges began in the _________:

a) 1800's

b) 1894

c) 1900

d) 1950's
1950's
Making specific observations from a generalization is:

a) generalization

b) empirical

c) deductive reasoning

d) inductive reasoning
deductive reasoning
making generalizations about specific data is:

a) generalization

b) empirical

c) deductive reasoning

d) inductive reasoning
inductive reasoning
The availability of time as well as the material & human resources needed to investigate a research problem or question is:

a) feasibility

b) significance

c) triangulation

d) needs assessment
feasibility
It is estimated that _____to ____ of RNs in the US are chemically dependent:

a) 2 - 6%

b) 6 - 8%

c) 10 - 15%

d) 15 - 15%
2 - 6%
If you suspect a nurse is impaired by the use of drugs you should do all of the following EXCEPT:

a) document your observations immediately

b) describe what happened

c) names of witnesses

d) confront the coworker

e) tell the nursing manager/supervisor
confront the coworker
The PEER assistance program is under the supervision & control of:

a) legislature

b) the OBN

c) State Law

d) Federal Law
the OBN
"A unique perspective, a distinct way of viewing all phenomena which ultimately defines the limits and nature of its inquiry" stated by Donaldson & Crowley, defines:

a) a science

b) a discipline

c) a nursing model

d) a profession
a discipline
____________ is/are the basic ingredients of theory:

a) opinions

b) arguments

c) science

d) concepts
concepts
A category of the PEW Commission Competencies for Future Practititioners emphasized the need for providers to become skilled in:

a) use of technology

b) budgetary and financial management strategies

c) traditional clinical approaches

d) making decisions for incompetant clients
use of technology
A characteristic of community-based health care is that the nurse provides client care:

a) primarily to clients with identified illnesses

b) to individuals in groups according to their geographical commonalities

c) that is paid for by the community as a whole rather than by individuals

d) in which all clients are case managed
to individuals in groups according to their geographical commonalities
A child who has been in a car accident has been shown to have no brain function. The parents refuse to allow life support to be withdrawn. Although the nurse believes the child should be allowed to die and organ donation considered, once the parents have decided, the nurse supports their decision. Which moral principle provides the best basis for the nurses actions:

a) respect for autonomy

b) nonmaleficence

c) benificence

d) justice
respect for autonomy
A client is seeking to control his or her health care costs for both preventative and illness care. Although no system guarantees exact out-of-pocket expendatures, the most prepaid and predictable client contribution would be seen with:

a) medicare

b) an individual fee-for-service insurance

c) a preferred provider prganization (PPO)

d) a health maintenace organization (HMO)
a health maintenace organization (HMO)
A conceptual model is a group of concepts that are associated because of their relevance to a common:

a) theory

b) proposition

c) theme

d) idea
theme
A diagram or visual representation of concepts, conceptual models, or theory is:

a) Scientific theory

b) theoretical framework

c) paradigm

d) schematic model
schematic model
A female client is 46 lbs overweight. She previously attended 2 programs that "guaranteed" weight loss. Although the weight was lost, more returned after each program. She tells you "I was just born to be fat. I don't have willpower." According to the health promotion model, the nurse recognizes which of the behavior-specific cognitions and affect variable in this client:

a) perceived barriers to action

b) perceived self efficacy

c) interpersonal influences

d) situational influences
perceived self efficacy
A group of concepts that are associated because of their relevance to a common theme:

a) Schematic model

b) proposition

c) theory

d) Conceptual model
Conceptual model
A group of related ideas or statements is a definition for:

a) a philosophy

b) a conceptual framework

c) a theory

d) a paradigm
conceptual framework
A schematic model is a diagram or visual representation of concepts, conceptual models, or:

a) constructs

b) science

c) theory

d) themes
theory
A set of shared understandings and assumptions about reality and the world is a definition for:

a) a concept

b) a conceptual framework

c) a practice discipline

d) a paradigm
a paradigm
A supposition or system of ideas that is proposed to explain a given phenomenon best defines:

a) a concept

b) a conceptual framework

c) a theory

d) a paradigm
a theory
An 85 year old client in a nursing home tells a nurse "I signed the papers for that research study because the doctor was so insistent and I want him to continue taking care of me." Which client right is being violated:

a) right not to be harmed

b) right ot full disclosure

c) right of privacy and confidentiality

d) right of self-determination
right of self-determination
An elderly client wants to go home after recovering from her hip replacement. The family wants her to go to a nursing home. Acting as a client advocate, the nurse:

a) informs the family that the client has a right to decide on her own

b) asks the physician to to discharge the client to home

c) suggests the client hire a lawyer to protect her rights

d) helps the client and family communicate their views to each other
helps the client and family communicate their views to each other
An idea or a general impression:

a) science

b) concept

c) proposition

d) Schematic Model
concept
Collaborative health care necessitates that the nurse:

a) assume a leadership role in directing the health care team

b) demonstrate respect for the opinions of the client, peers, and other health care providers

c) be physically present for the implementation of all aspects of the health care plan

d) pass decision-making authority to each health care provider in turn
demonstrate respect for the opinions of the client, peers, and other health care providers
Concepts are the basic ingredients of:

a) opinions

b) arguments

c) science

d) theory
theory
Cost effective health care emphasizes the primary prevention of illness. Which of the following is an example of a primary prevention activity:

a) antibiotic treatment of a suspected urinary tract infection

b) occupational therapy to assist a client in adapting his or her home environment following a stroke

c) nutrition counceling for young adults with a strong family history of cholesterol

d) removal of tonsils for client with recurrent tonsilitis
nutrition counceling for young adults with a strong family history of cholesterol
Health care costs in the US continue to increase. At least one way to influence cost would be to stop the increasing:

a) number of older adults

b) number of uninsured and underinsured persons

c) number of physicians and nurses nationwide

d) competition among drug and medical equipment manufacturers
number of uninsured and underinsured persons
If a client fails to follow the information or teaching provided, how should the nurse respond?

a) give up as the client doesn't want to change

b) develop a tough approach

c) reteach the information, as the nurse is the expert

d) reassess the clients importance given to the behavior and readiness to change it
reassess the clients importance given to the behavior and readiness to change it
In many cases, clients must have a primary care provider in order to receive health insurance benefits. Which of the following might the nurse suggest for a client as a primary care provider:

a) family practice physician

b) hospital

c) case manager

d) pharmacist
family practice physician
Labels given to ideas, objects, or events are/is:

a) models

b) themes

c) construct

d) schemes
construct
Nursing Agenda For Health Care Reform (ANA, 1991) recommended that:

a) primary health care should be based in acute care hospitals

b) a minimum standard of health care for all persons should be paid for with public funds

c) case management be focussed on clients with enduring health care needs

d) indicated that essential services should be initiated simultaneously to avoid gaps
case management be focussed on clients with enduring health care needs
Nursing science of which the collection & organization of data, related to nursing and its associated components provides the basis for:

a) conceptual models

b) schematic models

c) nursing practice

d) nursing theory and the nursing model
nursing practice
Nursing theory is a compilation of data that defines, describes, and logically relates information that will explain past nursing pnenomena and:

a) label ideas, objects or events

b) provide a foundation for developing models

c) predict future trends

d) establish frameworks for nursing practice
predict future trends
Proposes the relationship between & among concepts:

a) theory

b) science

c) schematic models

d) proposition
proposition
Provides a foundation for developing models or frameworks for nursing practice development:

a) science

b) concepts

c) theories

d) organization of data
theories
Provides nurses with a focus for research & practice:

a) nursing diagnosis

b) nursing theory

c) nursing process

d) nursing science
nursing theory
Provides nurses with a focus for research & practice:

a) nursing diagnosis

b) nursing theory

c) nursing process

d) nursing science
nursing theory
Science is both:

a) propositions & theories

b) concepts & constructs

c) dynamic & static

d) models & frameworks
dynami & static

dynamic in figuring out how a phenomena happens

static in describing what happens
scientific inquiry involves 5 steps. Which of the following represents the 5 steps:

a) hypothesis-->method-->data collection-->results-->implementation

b)hypothesis-->method-->data collection-->implementation-->evaluation

c) hypothesis-->method--> data collection-->results--> evaluation

d) concept-->hypothesis-->data collection-->results-->evaluation
hypothesis-->method--> data collection-->results--> evaluation
The collection & organization of data related to nursing and its associated components is:

a) a conceptual model

b) nursing science

c) nursing theory

d) schematic model
nursing science
The compilation of data that defines, describes, and logically relates information that will explain past nursing phenomena and predict future trends is:

a) a conceptual model

b) nursing science

c) nursing theory

d) schematic model
nursing theory
The most important nursing responsibility in patient care ethical situations is to:

a) be able to defend the morality of one's own actions

b) remain neutral and detached in ethical decisions

c) ensure that a team is responsible for deciding ethical questions

d) follow exactly the client and family wishes
be able to defend the morality of one's own actions
The nurse can conclude that effective discharge planning (hospital-to-home) has been conducted when the client states:

a) as soon as I get home, the nurse will come out, look at where I live, and see what kind of care I will need

b) All I need are my medications and a ride home, Then I'm all ready for discharge

c) When I visist my doctor in 10 days, they will show me how to change my bandages

d) I have the phone numbers of the home care nurse and the therapist who will visit me at home tomorrow
I have the phone numbers of the home care nurse and the therapist who will visit me at home tomorrow
The nurse who is assisting a client in the action stage of change would use which of the following strategies?

a) reinforce the importance of providing rewards for positive behavior

b) ask the client if they would like information

c) Guide the client to create a plan of action

d) remind the client of previous successes
reinforce the importance of providing rewards for positive behavior
The purpose of collecting & organizing data related to nursing and its associated components is to:

a) determine their relevance to a common theme

b) provide a body of scientific knowledge, which provides the basis for nursing practice

c) predict future trends

d) relate information that explains past nursing phenomena
provide a body of scientific knowledge, which provides the basis for nursing practice
When a substantial body of nursing knowledge is collected, organized, and developed, the nursing profession will be defined, and its scope of practice differentiated. Key in this accomplishment is the development and practice of:

a) nursing diagnosis

b) nursing theory

c) nursing process

d) nursing science
nursing theory
Which of the following constitute the metaparadigm for nursing:

a) nursing process, nursing diagnosis, nursing theory, nursing research

b) person, environment, health, nursing

c) assessment, diagnosis, planning, evaluation

d) individual, family, group, community
person, environment, health, nursing
Which of the following individuals would have an increased possibility of illness in the near future?

a) a 25 year old man who recently married his high school sweetheart

b) a 35 year old man who was fired from his job

c) a 40 year old woman who started a nursing program

d) a 50 year old woman whose husband died a month ago
a 50 year old woman whose husband died a month ago
Which of the following is an example of continuing education for nurses:

a) attending the hospitals fire safety program

b) talking with a company representative about a new piece of equipment

c) receiving a certificate of completion for a workshop on legal aspects of nursing

d) obtaining information about the facilities new computer charting system
receiving a certificate of completion for a workshop on legal aspects of nursing
Which of the following is most clearly a question of nursing ethics:

a) The hospital policy permits use of internal fetal monitoring during labor. However, there is literature both to support and refute the value of the practice

b) When asked about the purpose of a medication, a nurse collegue responds, "Oh, I never look them up. I just give what the doctor orders."

c) The nurses on a unit agree to sponsor a fund-raising event to support striking fellow nurses at another facility

d) A client reports that he didn't quite tell the doctor the truth when asked if he was following his therapeutic diet at home.
When asked about the purpose of a medication, a nurse collegue responds, "Oh, I never look them up. I just give what the doctor orders."
Which of the following is NOT considered a practice discipline:

a) physics

b) psychology

c) nursing

d) management
physics
Which of the following statements by the nurse would be most helpful to assist clients in clarifying their values:

a) "That was not a good decision. Why did you think it would work?"

b) "The most important thing is to follow the plan of care. Did you follow all of your doctors orders?"

c) "Some people might have made a different decision. What led you to make your decision?"

d) " If you had asked me, I would have given you my opinion about what to do. Now how do you feel about your choice?"
"Some people might have made a different decision. What led you to make your decision?"
Which of the following statements is true regarding types of health care agencies and services:

a) hospitals provide only acute, inpatient services

b) public health agencies are funded by governments to research and provide health programs

c) surgery can only be performed inside a hospital setting

d) skilled nursing, extended care, and long term care facilities provide care for the elderly whose insurance no longer covers hospital stays
public health agencies are funded by governments to rsearch and provide health programs
Which of the following statements reflect the contemplation stage of behavior change:

a) I currently do not exercise 30 minutes 3 times a week and do not intend to start in the next 6 months

b) I have tried several times to exercise 30 minutes 3 times a week but am seriously thinking about trying again in the next month

c) I currently do not exercise 30 minutes 3 times a week but I am thinking about starting to do so in the next six months

d) I have exercised 30 minutes three times a week regularly for more than 6 months
I currently do not exercise 30 minutes 3 times a week but I am thinking about starting to do so in the next six months
Which of the following studies is based on qualitative research:

a) a study measuring nutrition and weight loss or gain in clients with cancer

b) a study examining oxygen levels after endotracheal suctioning

c) a study examining a clients reactions to stress after open heart surgery

d) a study measuring differences in blood pressure before, during, and after a procdure
a study examining a clients reactions to stress after open heart surgery
Which of the following studies is based on quantitative research:

a) a study measuring the affects of sleep deprivation on wound healing

b) a study examining the bereavement process in spouses of clients with terminal cancer

c) a study exploring factors influencing weight control behavior

d) a study examining a clients feelings before and after a bone marrow aspiration
a study measuring the affects of sleep deprivation on wound healing
Which type of research inquiry investigates the issues of human complexity (e.g., understanding the human experience):

a) positivism

b) naturalistic inquiry

c) logical positivism

d) quantitative research
naturalistic inquiry
A personal belief about the worth of something that acts as a standard to guide behavior:

a) ethic

b) value

c) standard

d) integrity

e) opinion
value
"A person has eyes because they need to see" is __________ philosophy

a) deontological

b) teleology
teleology

a good act is one that brings the greatest good and least harm for the greatest number of people

the greatest good for the greatest number

what happens to exist is the cause of its use
A method of bringing together facts and giving them coherence and integrity is:

a) theory

b) science

c) method

d) research
science
Hypothesis or study question, methodology, data collection, results, & evaluation are:

a) the 5 aspects of the scientific process

b) the 5 aspects of the scientific inquiry

c) the 5 aspects of scientific framework

d) the 5 aspects of conceptual framework
the 5 aspects of the scientific inquiry
Theories result from discipline search & exploration for truth.
Theories result from discipline search & exploration for truth.
An organized and systematic expression of a set of statements related to questions in the discipline of nursing:

A) nursing process

B) nursing science

C) nursing theory

d) scope of nursing
nursing theory
A set of statements that tentatively describe, explain, or predict relationships among concepts that have been systematically selected and organized as an abstract representation of some phenomenon:

A) method

B) science

C) theory

d) scope
theory
Nursing professionals apply theory to:

describe

explain

predict or prescribe nursing practice
Nursing professionals apply theory to:

describe

explain

predict or prescribe nursing practice
The least abstract of the four levels of theory is:

a)Metatheory

b)Grand theory:

c)Middle Range Theory:

d)Practice Theories
Practice Theories
The most abstract of the 4 levels of theory is:

a)Metatheory

b)Grand theory:

c)Middle Range Theory:

d)Practice Theories
Metatheory
Name the 5 aspects of scientific theory:
1 - Hypothesis or study question

2 - methodology

3 - data collection

4 - results

5 - evaluation
A set of statements that tentatively describe, explain, or predict relationships among concepts that have been systematically selected and organized as an abstract representation of some phenomenon:

a) theory

b) science

c) method

d) research
theory
Nursing professionals apply theory to:
describe

explain

predict or prescribe nursing practice
Four levels of theory
viewed on a continuum of abstraction are all of the following EXCEPT:

a)Metatheory

b)Grand theory:

c)Middle Range Theory:

d)Practice Theories

e)Para Theories
(I made up Para Theories)

The 4 levels of theory are:

Metatheory

Grand theory:

Middle Range Theory:

Practice Theories
The level of theory that is not easily tested is:

a)Metatheory

b)Grand theory:

c)Middle Range Theory:

d)Practice Theories
Metatheory
The level of theory that contains grand, middle range and practice theories is:

a)Metatheory

b)Grand theory:

c)Middle Range Theory:

d)Practice Theories
Metatheory
A global perspective of nursing discipline is characteristic of what level of theory:

a)Metatheory

b)Grand theory:

c)Middle Range Theory:

d)Practice Theories
Metatheory
Complexity Integration Nursing Theory is an example of what level of theory:

a)Metatheory

b)Grand theory:

c)Middle Range Theory:

d)Practice Theories
Metatheory
|A global viewpoint with a broad perspective of nursing practice is characteristic of what level of theory:

a)Metatheory

b)Grand theory:

c)Middle Range Theory:

d)Practice Theories
Grand theory
A theory for which relationships cannot be tested empirically is:

a)Metatheory

b)Grand theory:

c)Middle Range Theory:

d)Practice Theories
Grand theory
“Science of Unitary Human Being” by Rogers, & “Health as Expanding Consciousness by Newman are examples of what type of theory:

a)Metatheories

b)Grand theories

c)Middle Range Theories

d)Practice Theories
Grand theories
A theory that is moderately abstract, inclusive, organized with limited scope, variables that can be tested is:

a)Metatheories

b)Grand theories

c)Middle Range Theories

d)Practice Theories
Middle Range Theories
A theory having a stronger relationship with theory and practice:

a) Metatheory

b) Middle Range Theory

c) Practice Theory

d) Grand Theory
Middle Range Theory
“Theory of pain alleviation represents a mid-range theory for nursing: broader than theory of neural conduction of pain stimuli but narrower than the goal of achieving high level wellness.” This is an example of:

a) Metatheory

b) Middle Range Theory

c) Practice Theory

d) Grand Theory
Middle Range Theory
A level of theory for which the focus is on concepts of interest to nurses:

a) Metatheory

b) Middle Range Theory

c) Practice Theory

d) Grand Theory
Middle Range Theory
A level of theory with focus on pain, empathy, grief, self-esteem, hope, comfort, dignity and quality of life:

a) Metatheory

b) Middle Range Theory

c) Practice Theory

d) Grand Theory
Middle Range Theory
“Theory of the Person as an Adaptive System and King, “Theory of Goal Attainment” would be examples of:

a) Metatheory

b) Middle Range Theory

c) Practice Theory

d) Grand Theory
Middle Range Theory
Theory Guides?
Research and Practice
A collection of data related to nursing that may be applied to the practice of nursing:

a) nursing theories

b) nursing concepts

c) nursing science

d) nursing research
nursing science
Conceptual models and nursing theories evolve from nursing:

a) theory

b) concepts

c) science

d) research
science
Conceptual Frameworks are:

a) theories & collected data

b) concepts & methods

c) theoriy & propositions

d) concepts & propositions
concepts & propositions
To describe ideas about individuals, groups, situations, events is:

a) theory

b) concepts

c) propositions

d) science
concepts
Labels given to ideas, objects, or events, which are measurable are:

a) constructs

b) concepts

c) propositions

d) suppositions
constructs
To show a relationship between concepts:

a) constructs

b) concepts

c) propositions

d) method
propositions
Relating concepts by using definitions that state significant relationships:

a) constructs

b) concepts

c) propositions

d) theories
theories
The foundation for nursing knowledge:

a) nursing research

b) nursing science

c) nursing concepts

d) nursing theory
nursing theory
Theorist best known for aspects of the environment on a patient:

a) Nightingale

b) Orem

c) Richards

d) Watson
Nightingale
Theorist best known for aspects concerning the patients self care:

a) Nightingale

b) Orem

c) Richards

d) Watson
Orem
Theorist whose focus was on the science of patient care:

a) Nightingale

b) Orem

c) Richards

d) Watson
) Watson
There are 5 phases of evidence-based practice (care). What is Phase III?

a) Selecting & defining the problem

b) selecting research design

c) methods

d) Data analysis

e) utilizing research
Phase III methods
There are 5 phases of evidence-based practice (care). What is Phase IV?

a) Selecting & defining the problem

b) selecting research design

c) methods

d) Data analysis

e) utilizing research
Phase IV Data analysis
There are 5 phases of evidence-based practice (care). What is Phase I?

a) Selecting & defining the problem

b) selecting research design

c) methods

d) Data analysis

e) utilizing research
Phase I Selecting & defining the problem
There are 5 phases of evidence-based practice (care). What is Phase II?

a) Selecting & defining the problem

b) selecting research design

c) methods

d) Data analysis

e) utilizing research
Phase II Selecting a Research Design
There are 5 phases of evidence-based practice (care). What is Phase V?

a) Selecting & defining the problem

b) selecting research design

c) methods

d) Data analysis

e) utilizing research
Phase V Utilizing Research
What are the 5 phases of Evidence-based practice (care)in order?

a) selecting & defining problem, research design, methods, utilizing research, data analysis

b) research design, selecting & defining problem, methods, utilizing research, data analysis

c)selecting & defining problem, research design, data analysis, methods, utilizing research,

d)selecting & defining problem, research design, methods, data analysis, utilizing research
selecting & defining problem, research design, methods, data analysis, utilizing research

remember this:
P D M A R
problems design methods to analyize utilities!
Observed for changes or to assess the possible effect of the treatment or manipulation is:

a) control group

b) qualitative research

c) dependent variable

d) independent variable
dependent variable

the dependent variable is also the outcome or criterion variable
Is manipulated & controlled by the researcher:

a) control group

b) qualitative research

c) dependent variable

d) independent variable
independent variable
A statement about the relationship between variable that are being investigated:

a) theory

b) supposition

c) research hypothesis

d) concept
research hypothesis
A statement stating that no relationship exists between the variables:

a) triangulation

b) non experimental theory

c) null hypothesis

d) Quasi-research
null hypothesis
The highest level of Evidence-Based Practice is:

a) obtained from systematic review of all relevant randomized controlled trials

b) Evidence obtained from at elast one properly designed randomized controlled trial

c) Evidence obtained from well designed controlled trials without randomization

d) evidence obtained from well designed cohort or case control analytic studies preferable from more tahn one center or research group

e) evidence obtained from multiple time series with or without the intervention. Dramatic results in uncontrolled experiments

f) opinion of respected authorities, based on clinical experience, descriptive studies, or reports of expert committees
f) opinion of respected authorities, based on clinical experience, descriptive studies, or reports of expert committees
To remember Evidence based practice "levels" of Evidence in order, remmber:

Systematic reviews are randomly controlled without randomization for cohorts or case controls for mutiple times & without intervention for the opinions of respected authorities.
Systematic reviews are randomly controlled without randomization for cohorts or case controls for mutiple times & without intervention for the opinions of respected authorities.
An ethical duty stating that one should be answerable legally, morally, ethically, or socially for one's activities:

a) standards

b) code of ethics

c) benificence

d) accountability
accountability
The personal freedom and right to make choices

a) Right to Self-Determination

b) autonomy

c) veracity

d) deontology
autonomy
An ethical principle stating that one should do good and prevent doing harm

a) code of ethics

b) morality

c) deontology

d) benificence
benificence
The study of ethical problems resulting from scientific advances:

a) bioethics

b) deontology

c) teleology

d) veracity
bioethics
A set of statements encompasing rules that apply to people in professional roles:

a) policy

b) theory

c) hypothesis

d) code of ethics
code of ethics
An ethical theory stating that moral rule is binding:

a) cod eof ethics

b) deontology

c) teleology

d) accountability
deontology
An ethical principle stating the duty not to inflict harm:

a) benificence

b) nonmaleficence

c) deontology

d) teleology
nonmaleficence
An ethical theory stating that the best decision is one that brings about the greatest good for the most people:

a) benificence

b) nonmaleficence

c) deontology

d) utilitarianism
utilitarianism
Ideas of life, customs, and ways of behaving that society regards as desirable:

a) accountability

b) ethics

c) beliefs

d) values
values
An ethical duty to tell the truth:

a) veracity

b) ethics

c) values

d) benificence
veracity
Ethics:

a) concerns the actions in relationship with patients, families & other health care workers

b) is a system for deciding, based on princiles, or what should be done

c) examining life in a way that adds dimension to understanding beyond science

d) is the science or study of moral values
read them all again, over & over

all are correct!
Bioethics:

a) is the study of ethical problems resulting from scientific advances

b) is an interdisciplinary field that has developed over the last 30 years

c) developed with the age of modern medicine

d) is a response to contemporary advances in health care
read them all again, over & over

all are correct!
A personal belief about worth that acts as a standard to guide behavior:

a) ethic

b) standard

c) value

d) morality
value
An entire framework on which actions are based upon personal beliefs about worth & acts as a standard guide to behavior:

a) ethic

b) standard

c) value

d) morality
value
To become a competant professional in every dimension of nursing care, one must:

a) have a clear understanding of what is right & wrong

b) acknowledge one's own values by considering how they would act in a particular situation

c) examine their own system of values

d) commit themselves to a virtuous value system
read them all again, over & over

all are correct!
A process by which people attempt to examine the values they hold & how those values functions as part of a whole:

a) is ethical decision making

b) are delimas for health professioanls

c) deontology

d) values clarification
values clarification
Forming a world view & a value system which is an evolving, continuous, dynamic process taht moves along a continuum of developement is often referred to as:

a) deontology

b) teleology

c) moral development

d) values clarification
moral development
Moral development begins:

a) infancy

b) 6-12 months

c) 1-2 years

d) 2 years +
infancy
Begins to display & imitate behaviors seen in others:

a) infants

b) toddlers

c) pre-school

d) school age
toddlers
Incorporates the values & beliefs of others into their own behavior code even though they may not know what or why they are doing it:

a) infants

b) toddlers

c) pre-school

d) adults
toddlers
Have klearned that behavior has consequences & good behavior is associated wit rewards & bad with punishment:

a) infants

b) toddlers

c) pre-school

d) school age
school age
Will begin to make choices about how they will act based on an understanding of good & bad:

a) toddlers

b) pre-school

c) school age

d) adolescents
school age
The conscience is developing, & begins to govern choices based on their perception of good & bad:

a) toddlers

b) pre-school

c) school age

d) adolescents
school age
Questions existing moral values & his/her relevance to society:

a) toddlers

b) pre-school

c) school age

d) adolescents
adolescents
Understands duty & obligation but may seriously question the moral codes on which society operates as they become more aware of the contradictions they see in the value sytems of older adults:

a) pre-school

b) school age

c) adolescents

d) young adults
adolescents
Strives to make sense of contradictions & learns to develop their own set of morals & values as autonomous people:

a) school age

b) adolescents

c) adults

d) elderly
adults
Begins to make choices based on an internalized set of principles that provides them with the resources they need to evaluate situations they find themselves in:

a) school age

b) adolescents

c) adults

d) elderly
adults
Having no concept of the underlying moral code informing the decision of good-bad or right-wrong:

a) postconventional

b) preconventional

c) conventional
preconventional
3 phases of moral development are identified as all of the following EXCEPT:

a) postconventional

b) preconventional

c) conventional

d) proconventional
proconventional
When morals are based on rules imposed by a source of authority:

a) postconventional

b) preconventional

c) conventional
preconventional
When moral decisions are made in response to the threat of punishment:

a) postconventional

b) preconventional

c) conventional
preconventional
When an individual begins to internalize their view of themselves in response to something more meaningful & interpersonal than reward-punishment, good-bad, right-wrong:

a) postconventional

b) preconventional

c) conventional
conventional
Develops a desire to be viewed as a good boy or nice girl & seeks the approval of others:

a) postconventional

b) preconventional

c) conventional
conventional
The phase when an individual wants approval from others, wants to please, help others, be dutiful, show respect for authority:

a) postconventional

b) preconventional

c) conventional
conventional
When conformity to expected social & religious mores & sense of loyalty begin to emerge:

a) postconventional

b) preconventional

c) conventional
conventional
A mature, autonomous thinker, who strives for a moral code beyond issues of authority & reverence:

a) postconventional

b) preconventional

c) conventional
postconventional
Actions are based on priciples of justice & respect for the dignity of all mankind & not just the principles of responsibility, duty, or self-edification:

a) postconventional

b) preconventional

c) conventional
postconventional
Concern for the welfare of others:

a) deontology

b) teleology

c) altruism

d) postconventional
altruism
ALTRISM IS:

a) Giving full attention to the client when giving care

b) assists personel in providing care when they are unable to do so

c) expresses concern about social trends & issues that have implications for health care

d) caring, commitment, compasiom, generosity, perseverence

a)
read them all, over & over

they are all altruistic!
ESTHITICS:

a)Expresses ideas about the improvement of access to nursing health care

b) Adapts environment to be pleasing to the client

c) creatics a pleasant work environment for self & others

d) presents self in a manner that promotes a positive image of nursing
read them all, over & over

they are all esthetics !
7 values essential for the professional nurse are:

1- altuism
2- equality
3- esthetics
4- freedom
5- human dignity
6- justice
7- truth
1- altuism
2- equality
3- esthetics
4- freedom
5- human dignity
6- justice
7- truth
Examples of theories that encompass modern moral thought & provide approaches for answering the question regarding what is right to do in a given ethical delema:

a) all of the following

b) teleology

c) deontology

d) utilitarianism
all of the following
The strongest approach used in bioethical decision making:

a) teleology

b) deontology

c) utilitarianism
utilitarianism
An ethical approach used to determine which actions will lead to the greatest ratio of benifit to harm for all persons involved in the delema:

a) teleology

b) deontology

c) utilitarianism
utilitarianism
An ethical approach that is rooted in the assumption that an action or practice is right if it leads to the greatest possible balance of good consequences or to the least possible balance of bad consequences:

a) teleology

b) deontology

c) utilitarianism
utilitarianism
An ethical approach rooted in the assumption that humans are rational & act out of principles that are consistent & objective & compel them to do what is right:

a) teleology

b) deontology

c) utilitarianism
deontology
Claims that a decision is right only if it conforms to an overriding moral duty & wrong only if it violates that moral duty:

a) teleology

b) deontology

c) utilitarianism
deontology
Ethical decision making wherein moral rightness is the act that is determined by not the consequences it produces, but by the moral qualities intrinsic to the act itself

a) teleology

b) deontology

c) utilitarianism
utilitarianism
Ethical decision making approach wherein all decisions are to be made in a way that the decision could become universal law & that persons are to be treated as ends in themselves & never as means to the ends of others:

a) altruism

b) teleology

c) deontology

d) utilitarianism
deontology
The primary moral principle is:

a) ethics

b) morality

c) autonomy

d) benificence
autonomy
Concepts of freedom & informed consent are grounded in:

a) autonomy

b) ground theory

c) benificence

d) nonmaleficence
autonomy
To promote goodness, kindness & charity are characteristics of:

a) ethics

b) morality

c) autonomy

d) benificent
benificent
A principle that mplies a duty not to inflict harm:

a) autonomy

b) ground theory

c) benificence

d) nonmaleficence
nonmalficence
To obstain from injuring others & to help others further their own well-being by removing harm & eliminating threats:

a) autonomy

b) ground theory

c) benificence

d) nonmaleficence
nonmalficence
To provide benefits to others by promoting their good:

a) autonomy

b) ground theory

c) benificence

d) nonmaleficence
nonmaleficence
Telling the truth in personal communication is a moral & ethical requirement is characteristic of:

a) veracity

b) ground theory

c) benificence

d) nonmaleficence
veracity
The principle most often used in making decisions aboiut the funding & delivery of health care:

a) deontology

b) teleology

c) utilitarianism

d) code of ethics
utilitarianism
A theory that emphasizes on the individuals rights, duties & obligations:

a) deontology

b) teleology

c) utilitarianism

d) code of ethics
deontological
A principle based theory:

a) deontology

b) teleology

c) utilitarianism

d) code of ethics
deontology
3 Moral frameworks are all of the following EXCEPT:

a) consequence based theories (teleology)

b) Principles-based theories (deontology)

c) relationship-based theories (caring)

d) ALL OF THE ABOVE
ALL OF THE ABOVE
Utilitarianism is an an example of:

a) consequence based theories (teleology)

b) Principles-based theories (deontology)

c) relationship-based theories (caring)

d) ALL OF THE ABOVE
consequence based theories (teleology)
"Doing good" is called:

a) a standard

b) a value

c) a ethic

d) benificence

e) nonmaleficence
benificence
"To do no harm" is:

a) a standard

b) a value

c) a ethic

d) benificence

e) nonmaleficence
nonmaleficence
Fairness:

a) justice

b) belief

c) nonmaleficence

d) benificence

e) nonmaleficence
justice
Faithful to agreements & promises:

a) justice

b) fidelity

c) nonmaleficence

d) benificence

e) nonmaleficence
fidelity
One who expresses & defends the case of another:

a) fidelity

b) advocate

c) benificence

d) malenonficence
advocate
A mental position, or feelings toward a person, object or idea is characteristic of:

a) a belief

b) principle

c) ethic

d) value
value
Universal moral principles of nursing are:

a) self determination (autonomy)

b) benificence (doing good)

c) nonmaleficence (do no harm)

d) fidelity (faithfulness to patient)

e) veracity ( truthful)

f) confidentiality
These are ALL Universal Moral Principles of Nursing

self determination (autonomy)

benificence (doing good)

nonmaleficence (do no harm)

fidelity (faithfulness to patient)

veracity ( truthful)

confidentiality
Values are learned through?

a) observation

b) experience

c) ALL of the ABOVE
Values are learned through?

observation & experience
The theory of Values Clarification includes:

a) Choosing (cognitive)

b) Prizing (affective)

c) Acting (behavioral)

d) ALL of the ABOVE
Values Clarification involves:

Choosing (cognitive)

Prizing (affective)

Acting (behavioral)
A personal standard of rightness or wrongness of conduct, behavior or attitude:

a) ethics

b) beliefs

c) values

d) morals
morals
A group standard of appropriate moral practices:

a) ethics

b) beliefs

c) values

d) morals
ethics
Principles applied to issues of life and death:

a) bioethics

b) beliefs

c) values

d) morals
bioethics
According to Gilligan:

Women develop with a focus on connection to others & with an ethic of care rather than justice.

Gilligan
According to Gilligan:

Women develop with a focus on connection to others & with an ethic of care rather than justice.
According to Kohlberg:

Theory on Men,

cognitive developmental process that is sequential with progression through levels & stages
According to Kohlberg:

Theory on Men,

cognitive developmental process that is sequential with progression through levels & stages
According to Piaget, changes in stages of moral development are fueled by growing cognitive ability such as:

a) preconventional

b) conventional

c) postconventional

d) ALL of the ABOVE
(Piaget)

preconventional

conventional

postconventional
What is the ethical RN?
The ethical RN can explain the rationale behind every action & recognizes the standards to which she/he will be held
Name 3 "standards"

a) Legal Standard (Nurse Practice Act)

b) Ethical Standard ( Code for Nurses)

c) Practice Standard (Best practices, current research, current journal articles, Expert Nurse)

d) ALL of the ABOVE
Legal Standard
(Nurse Practice Act)

Ethical Standard
(Code for Nurses)

Practice Standard
(Best practices, current research, current journal articles, Expert Nurse)