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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
largest part of the brain
cerebrum
_______ (outermost surface) makes up about 80% if tge brain.
cortex
________- divided into right and left hemispheres, each controls funtioning mainly on the opposite side of the body. each hemisphere is divided into lobes that function in a coordinating way.
thick cellular layers mixed with blood vessels giving grayish color (gray mater)
Cerebrum
______lobes- highest level of functioning, which make up a large part of what we call personality
-functions include: working memory, ability to plan and initiate activity, insight, judgment, reasoning, problem solving skills, abstraction, modulations of impulses (keeping emotions in check, in control)
Frontal lobe of the cerebrum
_________system- emotional center of the brain.
basic emotions and needs begin and are modulated here (heat, love, anger, aggression, caring, fear)
Limbic system
_________- mainly stores information, especially emotions attached to memory. deterioration of this and other related structures is found in Alzheimers disease.
Hippocampus
__________- relay-switching center of the brain. relays all sensory information, except smell to cortex. Prevents sensory overload. Allows concentration on one thing.
Thalamus
__________- regulates basic human activities (sleep-rest patterns, body temp, hunger, sex, appetite, thirst) Directly connected to pituitary and works with the pituitary in regulating endocrine system. Involved in the control of autonomic nervous system.
Hypothalamus
_______-provides emotional component to memory and involved in modulation of aggression and sexuality. Impulsive acts of aggression and violence have been linked to problems.
Focus of research into bipolar disorder.
Amygdala
____________- plays role in biologic basis of addiction. referred to as pleasure center or reward center. emotions such as feeling satified with good food, pleasure of nurturing young, enjoyment of sexual activity orginate here.
Limbic midbrain nuclei
Autonomic nervous system (ANS) is regulated by the ______________
hypothalamus
_________- prepares for fight or flight (increase heart rate / respirations, decrease digestion, and shunts blood to vital organs and skeletal muscles for increased oxygen)
Sympathetic
___________- dominates non-stressful times, normalizes heart rate, blood pressure, digestion and elimination
Parasympathetic
________- basic unit or nervous system.
-about 10 billion
-complexities of brain are due to enormous number of neurochemical interconnections and interactions between neurons
Neuron
Type of Neuron-______________-
-send messages from receptors to brain
sensory
Type of neuron_____________-
send messages from brain to muscles and glands
Motor
Type of neuron_____________-
-about 99% of all neurons
-provide integrators between sensory and motor data
associative
Type of cell_________________-
-not neurons
-lipid substance (give white appearance to brain) that support and nourish
-make up about 90% of brain
-probably have other functions that are unknown
Glial cells
Microstructure of Neuron-
___________- maintains life of cells
-contains the nucleus (contains most of cells genetic information)
-makes neurotransmitters
Cell body
Microstructure of neuron:
_________- contains some proteins that have water filled channels through which inorganic ions may pass (common ones are Na, K, Ca, Cl)
-each ion has a specific channel through which it passes. the channels are voltage gated and thus open/close in response to changes in an electrical potential (impulse)
Cell membrane
Microstructure of Neuron-
_________- extremely long
-covered by myelin sheath (insulates against short circuiting and increases velocity)
Axon
Microstructure of Neuron-
___________- more than 10,000 branches on each neuron.
-stores neurotransmitters
Nerve endings (terminals)
Microstructure of Neuron-
___________- junction between two neurons
called synaptic cleft
space where electrical intracellular signal becomes a chemical extra-cellular signal.
synapse
Microstructure of Neuron-
___________- chemical messengers
-small molecules that directly and indirectly control the opening or closing of ion channels
Neurotransmittors
Microstructure of Neurons-
_______________- specific to neurotransmittor released
-inactivates neurotransmittor so impulse doesn't continue
Deactivating enzymes
Neuron at rest- inside is electrically _________ charged
negatively
neuron at rest- outside is electically _________ charged
positively
chemical stimuli at the receptor sites causes the cell membrane to become more _________(depolarized) at that site allowing easier movement of ions (mainly sodium and potassium) through their channels across the membrane
permeable
as impulse reaches terminals in axon, calcium ion channels are opened and an increase in calcium stimulates the release of ___________________ into the synapse
neurotransmitters
the impulse ends its travel and the cell membrane is returned to polarization status (______________)
repolarized