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131 Cards in this Set

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Solid substances dissolved in body fluids, many solutes considered electrolytes
Solutes
Solutes that develop an electrical charge when dissolved in water
Electrolytes
Other solutes that do not conduct electricity
Nonelectrolytes
Body fluids perform several important functions like maintaining ____ volume, __ body temperature, transporting ____ to and from cells, serves as an aqueous medium for cellular metabolism, Assists with ___ of food, serves as a medium for ___ waste.
blood, regulating, material to and from cells, digestion, excreting
Fluid volume for a normal adult male is _%, female __% and infant __%
60, 50, 70
Women have __ body fluid than men because women have more ___.
less, fat
Body fluid contained with in cells also known as cytosol?
Intracellular fluid
Intracellular fluid accounts for __% of body weight
40
Fluid surrounding the outside of cells?
extracellular fluid
ECF carries water, electrolytes, nutrients and o2 to the cells and removes the waste products of cell metabolism
Info
ECF accounts for __% of body weight
20
What is the name of the ECF that is the fluid surrounding the cells?
interstitial fluid
The fluid component of blood?
plasma, Intravascular fluid
Fluid trapped in a 3rd compartment?
Third spacing
Electrolytes that carry a positive charge?
cation
Electrolytes that carry a negative charge are called?
anions
The major cations are ?
Sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium
In the ICF, the major cation is?
Potassium
In the ECF, the major electrolyte is ?
Sodium
Severe electrolyte imbalances can occur if electrolytes move into a compartment they do not normally occupy or are lost from perspiration, rounds, injury and illness
info
The movement of fluid and solutes requiring energy?
Active transport
The movement of fluids and solutes that require no energy?
passive transport
The movement of water across a membrane from an area of less concentrated solution to an area of more concentrated solution.
osmosis
The purpose of osmosis is to ___ higher concentration of solutes.
dilute
These are solutes that readily dissolve
Crytalloids
Larger molecules that do not dissolve readily
colloids
The concentration of solutes in body fluid is called?
Osmolality
Fluid that is the same osmolality as blood?
Isotonic
Solution that has lower osmolality (less solutes) than blood.
hypotonic solution
When a hypotonic solution is infused, ____ moves by ____ from the ___ ____ into the ___.
Water, osmosis, vascular system, cells
This solution contains a higher concentration of solutes in the blood and is called
hypertonic solution
When hypertonic solution is given to a patient, ___ moves by ____ from the ___ into the ___
water, osmosis, cells, ECF
A passive process by which molecules of a solute move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Diffusion
The rate of diffusion depends on ___ of molecule, ____ of solution, and ____
size, concentration, temperature
The movement of both water and smaller particles from an area of high pressure to low pressure?
filtration
The force created by fluid within a closed system; it is responsible for normal circulation of blood.
Hydrostatic pressure
An example of filtration is what?
Arteries have high pressure and it circulates solutes, plasma and blood throughout the body, the body goes though capilaries and filters out only what can fit through the capillaries to feed the its nutrients to certain body parts. Bowmans capsules that are small and then the liver area which can filter larger substances in.
The power of solution to draw water
high osmotic pressure.
True or false: highly concentrated solutions have low osmotic pressure
False
the pressure exerted by plasma proteins on the capillary wall.osmotic pressure exerted by colloids in solution.
oncotic
this occus when molecules move across cell membranes form an area of low concentration to an area of higher concentration. this requirses energy ATP?
Active transport
An example of active transport?
sodium-potassium pump
Potassium is the electrolyte highly concentranted in the ?
ICF
Sodium is the electrolyte highly concentrated in the ?
ECF
we should obtain __% of intake from drinking fluids and __% from food.
80, 20
Normal fluid intake and losses in adults ___ mL/day
2500
Losses that can be measured are called ___ losses. Examples would be I&O.
sensible
Losses of fluid that cannot be measured are called _____ losses. Examples would be sweat, respiration, open wounds, burns
insensible
If you have loss of fluid one day, it ___ over time and can get eventually get worst if you don't rehydrate
accumulates
The ___ are the principal regulator of fluid and electrolyte balance.
Kidneys
The ____ ___ releases what hormone?
pituitary gland. ADH
ADH causes kidneys to ____ fluid
Retain
____ promotes the reabsorption of sodium and the excretion of potassium in the distal tubules of the kidneys. This hormone is released by the ___ ___. This causes the body to hold onto water.
aldosterone, adrenal cortex.
Thyroid hormone affects fluid volume by getting rid of the sodium and water.
info
To maintain health, the body must ____ electrolyte losses and intake
balance
sodium is a the major cation of ____ and the normal serum level is ___-___ mEq/L
ECF, 135-145
Sodium ___ fluid volume. (where salt goes, water goes). Helps maintain blood volume. Interacts with calcium to maintain muscle ___. Stimulates conduction of nerve impulses.
regulates, contractions
____ is the major cation in the ICF. Normal Serum level is __-__ mEq/L
potassium, 3.5-5
Potassium maintains ICF _____. Regulates conduction of cardiac rhythm.
Osmolality
____ is the most abundant of electrolyte in the body. Normal serum level is __-__ mg/dl
Calcium. 8.5-10.5
Calcium promotes transmission of mnerve impulses and regulates muscle contractions
info
Magnesium normal serum level is __-___ mEq/L
1.3-2.1
Magnesium maintains normal intracelular levels of poatssium and is involvedin electrical activign in nerve and muscle membranes
info
Only _% of body potassium is found int he extracellular fluid
2
This occurs when there is a proportional loss of water and electrolytes from teh ECF
Fluid volume deficit (hypovolemia)
The loss of water only
dehydration
First symptom of hypovolemia is what?
thirst
In Hypovolemia, the heart beats ___, pulse is ___ and Blood pressure is ____
faster, weak, low
During hypovolemia water is pulled from the ___ and ___ into the vascular system resulting in dry skin, poor skin turgor, and decreased urine output
interstitial spaces and ICF
During hypovolemia our BUN and hematocrit is ____
elevated
Edems is the extra fluid with in the the ?
interstitial fluids
Hydrogen ions determine ___ balance
PH
Pancreatic secretions are ____
alkaline
This type of pressure is big molecules that hold water within vascular system
oncotic
Defining characteristics of fluid volume deficit?
High pulse, low BP, Decrease skin turgor, dry mucous membranes, Decrease in capilary refill
Treatment for isotonic fluid deficit?
Fluid replacement, measure and evaluate I&O, daily weight, monitor vital signs, skin turgor, and mucous membranes, offer frequent oral care
Loss of 1lb =___ mL
500
Third spacing fluid loss cannot be measured, there is no weight loss but may have weight gain
info
Isotonic fluid volume excess is called ____. It involves the retention of __ and ___ in the ECF.
hypervolemia, NA and water
The vital signs of a pt with hypervolemia are the opposite of hypovolemia
BP elevated, pulse is bounding, resiprations are increased and shallow. Neck veins become distended. Skin is pale and cool. Specific gravity is low
Pitting edema:
Slight indentation, 2mm, normal contours.
1+
pitting edema:
Pit is about 4mm last longer than 1 second
2+
Pitting edema:
Pit is about 6mm remains for several seconds
3+
Pitting edema:
Pit is about 8mm Remains for a prolonged time
4+
Isotonic fluid volume excess treatement is __ sodium diet, diuretics and fluid restrictions
low
this diuretic acts on the ascending loop pulls out potassium, sodium and water. Example is lasix
Loop
pull sodium little potassium and awater. Hydrocloric thiazide
thiazide diuretic
pulls out sodium and water. Diazide
potassium
Typical american diet contains _ to _ grams of salt a day, we need ____ mg of salt
2 to 5, 1200
Hypertonic fluid deficit, cells ____ because of high concentration of solutes in the vascular system
deflate
Weight loss, decrease in skin turgor, decrease in moisture of oral cavity, decrease in urinary output, specific gravity, and bun/creatinine, High pulse, low BP
Isotonic fluid volume deficit
____ fluid deficit is increasing the osmality of the ECF, in which water moves from the cells into the ecf
hypertonic
Hypertonic fluid deficit causes _____ dehydration
Cellular
Defining characteristics of this type of deficit:weight loss, weak pulse, hypotension, tachycardia, thirst, changes in mental status.. High sodium levels. high urine specific gravity
Hypertonic fluid deficit
Nurisng implications for this type of deficit.
Monitor I&O, monitor lab, obtain daily weight, Administer hypotonic solution, monitor LOC, Frequent oral care
Hypertonic fluid deficit
Excess fluid moves from teh extracellular space ton the intracellular space. Water intoxication
Hypotonic fluid excess
Fluid requirements
newborn __-__
infant __-___
child ___-____
adolescent ___-___
50 300
350-550
500-1000
700-14000 ml
When we measure solute concentrations we measure them in the ___
blood
The rapid loss of water and water only
Dehydration
What is this diagnosis?
pulse is rapid, respirations rapid, mucus membranes dry, fontanel sunken, eyes -sunken and soft, skin turgor poor Tearing and salivation absent, behavior irritable, lethargic, comatose, convulsions. Body weight loss 5% mild 6-10% moderate. >10% sever3e
dehydration
Organs of homeostasis. Adrenal glands secrete ____, Pituitary gland secretes ___ and the parathyroid regulates the __ level
aldosterone, adh, CA
Fluids and electrolytes, In relation to water, intracellular contains __ body water, extracellular ___ body water
3/4, 1/4
This cation maintains fluid balance
sodium
thsi cation contributes the acid-base regulation
hydrogen
this cation facilitates enzyme reactions
Calcium
this cation is used for neuromuscular reactions
calcium
in terms of solutes we always measure the ____ space
extracellular
Normal sodium level is __--___
135-145
Lack of sodium solution osmality in the body system. Caused by excessive fluid intake.
hyponatremia
To much water in the body causing Sodium solution to be dilute excessive sodium loss
hyponatremia
Fluid and sodium loss causing dry tissue.
True hyponatremia
excessive sodium intake, fluid loss without loss of sodium. This causes cell shrinkage
hypernatremia
Dryt tissues, low urine output, tachycardia, neurological changes. These are signs and symptoms of ___-
hypernatremia
To help you remember some common s/s of hypernatremia
S
A
L
T
skin flushed, agitation, low grade fever, thirst
Potassium has high osmality in the ____
icf
Sodium is major cation in the ___
ecf
seizureswhen sodium levels reach ___
120
Permanent brain damage occurs when levels reach ___
100
THis occurs when there is loss of potassium or increased water fluid. Symptoms of hypokalemia is muscle flacidity
Hypokalemia
This causes cell wall destruction, increases intake, renal failure. Symptoms, irritable muscles
hyperkalemia
Calcium regulates muscle ____/_____
contraction, relaxation
Calcium is needed for nerve impulse transmission and coagulation
info
Decreased calcium intake, increased phosphate levels, renal disease, acute pancreatitis, hypoparathyroidism
Hypocalcemia
Sign is the contraction of facial muscles in the response to a tap over the facial nerve in front of the ear
Chvosteks sign
This sign refers to the carpal spasms induced by inflating a blood pressure cuff on the arm
Trousseaus sign
Increased intake of pottasium, hyperpapathyroidism, immobilization
Hypercalcemia
Magnesium is a Sedative and used for cellular transportation and metabolism, Neuromuscular tone
info
causes of this is excessive dietary intake of Ca or Vit D, Gi fluid losses, diuretics, malnutrition, pancreatitis, alcoholism. Low serum levels of magnesium
hypmagnesemia
Symptoms are increaaed muscle cell irritability and contractility, low BP, arrythmias, Treatment is magnesium replacement
Hypomagnesemia
Seizures
Tetany
Anorexia and arrythmias
Rapid heart rate
Vomiting
Emotional lability
Deep tendon reflexes increases
Hypomagnesemia
Causes of this is renal failure, excessive use of magnesium containing products, Diabetic keto acidosis
Hypermagnesemia