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69 Cards in this Set

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Astigmatism
Uneven curvature of the cornea
cataract
opacity of lens or capsule which blocks rays of light
Glaucoma
disturbance in circulation of aqueous fluid which causes increased intraocular pressure
Vesicle
soft low pitched sound of air moving through small airways
Bronchovesicular
moderate intensity blowing sound of air moving through larger airways
Crackles
a fine to coarse popping as air passes through fluid in the small airways
Bronchi
low pitch gurgling as large airways fill with fluid
friction rub
grating or scratching as the inflamed pleura rubs
etiologic agent
microorganism causing the disease
reservior
source of microorganism
portal of exit
site where the organism leaves the reservior
method of transmission
requires means of transmission to reach another host
direct
vehicle borne
vector borne
airborne
exogenous
infection aquired from the hospital or other people
endogenous
infections aquired by the microorganism that the client harbors
iatrogenic
infection recieved as a direct result of treatment or diagnostic procedure
Incubation period
time microorganism enters body to first symptom
Prodomal stage
onset of initial symptom to more serious symptom--many time the contagious stage
Full stage illness
symptoms are acute and specific to illness
convalescence stage
acute symptoms subside
medical aspesis
protective practices intended to limit the number growth and transmission of microorganisms
surgical aspesis
includes methods to keep an area or object free of all microorganisms
airborne precautions
wear a respiratory device when entering the room--neg air pressure room
Droplet precautions
wear a mask when working within 3 ft of client
local effects of heat
vasodilation & increased blood flow-promotion of tissue healing-muscle relaxation-reduction in joint stiffness
systemic effects of heat
may cause excessive peripheral vasodilation and drop in bp-the client may faint
local effects of cold
vasoconstriction and reduce blood flow to area, produces skin pallor and coolness, can damange tissue due to lack of o and nurishment
systemic effects of cold
blood pressure to increase-shivering
use heat and cold with cautions in the following situations
neurosensory impairment
impaired mental status
impaired circulation
immediately after surgery
open wounds
influences of medications
age
weight
sex
biologic. psychologic
enviornmen
timing
Five rights
medication
client
dosage
route
time
drug
substance that modifies body function
absorbtion
process by which the drug gets from its site of entry into the bloodstream
distribution
movement of the drug via the bloodstream to specific tissue for action
metabolism
breakdown of drug into an inactive form
excretion
occurs after drug is metabolized generally through kidneys
what must appear on medication orders
name
date and time
name of drug
dose
route
frequency
signature
factors affecting wound healing
age
circulation
oxygenation
depth and extent
overall state of being
malnutrition
dehydration
obesity
infection
chronic illness
RYB color code
red: protect
Yellow: cleanse
Black: debride
inflammatory stage
began within minutes and last last 3 days
proliferative stage
begins with new blood vessel growth and lasts 3-24 days
maturation
collagen scar continues to gain strength
primary healing
wound with little tissue loss edges approximated and heals rapidly with minimal scarring
secondary healing
involve tissue loss wound edges widely separated-healing occurs through granualtion resulting in a large scar-
Tertiary healing
occurs when a widely separated wound is later brought together with some type of closure material
stages of wound healing
inflammatory process
collagen and granulation tissue form in wound
collagen fibers strengthen wound
scar becomes smaller flatter and white
Dehiscence
separation of wounds edges revealing underlying tissue
evisceration
protrusion of visceral organs through a dehisced surgical wound
fistula
abnormal passage/ opening between 2 organs or between organ and the outside of the body
non-adherent dressing
used over clean wounds
wet to dry dressings
used for mechanical debridement of necrotic tissue
self adhesive, transparent film
act a temporary skin and are ideal for small superficial wounds as well as partial thickness ulcers and burns
hydrocolloid dressing
occlusive dressing, absorb drainage maintain wound humidity
hydrogel dressings
used on partical or full thickness wounds- high water content are soothing to the wound can debride wound and are easily removed without sticking
open drains
flat flexible tubes that provide a pathway for drainage from the wound bed town the dressing
closed drains
tubes that lie in the wound bed and terminate in a receptacle-create a vacuum or negative pressure
serous drainage
clear to slightly yellow and thin
sanguinous
thick and reddish
serosanguineous
blood streaked or blood tinged and is generally watery
purulent
composed of white blood cells tissue debris and bacteria-thick and the color is specific to the organism
dysfunctional grieving
symptoms are more severe and grieving is longer-person may deny loss or have difficult expressign grief
factors influencing grief
cultural, spiritual beliefs, age, age of deceases, available resources, significance of loss, expected vs unexpected loss, socioeconomic factors, casue of loss
General Adaption Syndrome
bodys nonspecific responce to stress
3 stages
alarm-prepare for fight or flight
stage of resistence- adaption takes place
stage of exhaustion- when the adaptation cant be maintained
Local Adaption Syndrome
reaction of one organ or one part of body
Loss
something of value is no longer available
Grief
emotional response to loss
Bereavement
type of grief that is experienced by loved ones
Mounring
process in which grief is resolved
stages of grief and dying
denial
anger
bargaining
depression
acceptance
normal signs of grief
verbaliztion of loss
crying
sleep disturbance
loss of appetite
difficulty concentrating
fatique