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135 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
For every dollar spent for healthcare in the U.S., it costs _____ for prevention / education
3 cents
The US life expectancy ranks ____th (book says ___st)
16th
31st
As of 2004, the US ranks ____ for infant mortality rate
29th
a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease of infirmity
The definition of health according to the World Health Organization
a state of optimal health wherein an individual maximizes human potential, moves toward integration of human functioning, has self-awareness & self-satisfaction & takes responsibility for health
Wellness
Medicare is health insurance for...
senior citizens 65 years old and up
Medicare Part A is designed for ...
hospital insurance coverage
Medicare Part B is designed for ...
supplement for office visit, outpatient procedures, and therapy
Federally assisted-state administered health coverage for those in poverty, the blind, disabled, handicapped and children
Medicaid
The individual who is _______ well understands his own feelings and knows when to express them appropriately
emotionally
The person who is _____ well is alert, curious, clear thinking, open minded, creative, logical and accepting of others. They have a good memory, common sense and a desire for continual learning
mentally
_________ wellness is revealed by an ability to think, process info. & solve problems; they ask questions, evaluate info. & situations, are creative, flexible & open to new ideas
Intellectual
The individual who is satisfied in school and /or job and who works in harmony with others enjoys ________ wellness
vocational
The person who show affection, fairness, concern and respect for other, communicates effectively; has satisfying relationship and interacts well with others enjoys _____ wellness
social
_____ wellness gives direction, meaning and purpose to life through values, morals and ethics; they have optimism, faith and high self-esteem
spiritual
_______ wellness is seen in individuals who exercise regularly, eat a well-balanced diet and have regular phys. exams, avoid risky behavior, limit exposure to environmental contaminants and resist alcohol
physical
_____ ____ means assisting individuals to better health, functioning & well-being & to maximize their potential; focuses on choosing healthy behaviors
health promotion
Healthy People 2000 focused on:
Personal responsibility
Health benefits for all
Health promotion and disease prevention
Increasing the life span
Reducing health disparities
Access to preventive services for all
The two broad goals of Healthy People 2010 focused on:
to increase the quality and years of healthy life
to eliminate health disparities
obstructing, thwarting or hindering a disease or illness
prevention
_____ _____ includes all practices designed to keep health problems from developing such as immunization, eating Ca-rich food and not smoking
primary prevention
____ ____ includes activities related to early identification and treatment of disease processes including screenings and identifying s/s of possible disease in the client
secondary prevention
_____ _____ focuses on maximizing recovery after an illness or injury and preventing long-term complications, such as rehabilitative and educational activities.
tertiray prevention
The ______ combines knowledge of preventive health care with behavioral changes
individual
_____ do initial health screening and are great teachers of preventative health habits
Nurses
____ are inherited traits that impact an individual's state of health and wellness; may include inherited disorders or chromosomal anomalies
genetics
The way the human body functions, or ______, that impacts an individual's state of health and wellness
biology
____ factors are those things that may influence health that may be man-made and vary depending on geographic location and living conditions (e.g. biological irritants, sun radiation, natural disasters)
environmental
____ ____ is the area with the most factors affecting health and wellness and are controlled entirely by the individual such as diet, exercise, sexual relationships, stress level, tobacco/drug/alcohol use and safety
personal behavior
When an individual quits smoking, the health risks begin to decrease ____, while it will take ___-____ years to eliminate all the effects from the lungs
immediately
10-15
Stress results from an individual's ____ to and ______ of situations
reaction
perception
To maintain a healthy lifestyle, no more than ____ of alcohol should be consumed per day
2 oz
Individuals who embrace ____ as a fundamental element of health and well-being will have smoke detectors, fire extinguishers, carbon monoxide detectors and will practice escape plans
safety
A complete physical exam should be given every __-____ years for those aged 20-39
1-3
A complete physical exam should be given every __-____ years for those aged 40-49
1-2
How often should a complete physical exam should be given for those over 50
every year
Every adult should have a tetanus booster every ___ years
10
Most people should have an influenza vaccine every ____
year
Name the routine tests that should be done at every physical exam
CBC, cholesterol, UA, stool for blood and for women, a Pap smear
An ECG/EKG should be done at ages ____ & _____ and every ___ years thereafter
20 & 40
5
Women should have a breast exam with every physical exam and a baseline mammogram at age ____ and _____ thereafter
40
yearly
Men should have a testicular exam and a rectal exam to check the prostate after age ____
40
Dental exams should be performed every ___--__ months
6-12
A ______ is a way to visualize family members, their birth and death dates or ages and specific health problems
genogram
_____ is a nonspecific response to any demand made on the body
stress
Any situation, event or agent that produces stress is a _____
stressor
A ______ is a stimulus that evokes the need to adapt and can be internal or external
stressor
The inner force an individual uses to respond or adapt to stress
adaptive energy
Individual _____ of a stressor determines the effect of stress ______
perception
response
_____ stress affects the entire body
general
_____ stress affects only a particular body part
local
Responses to stressors that cause structural and chemical changes in the body in an attempt to maintain homeostatis is called...
general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
In stage ___ of GAS, _____ or _____, the body readies itself to handle the stressors (e.g. cool, pale skin, shivering, sweaty palms, dilated pupils, dry mouth, pounding heart, nausea and diarrhea
one
crises or alarm
In stage ____ of GAS, or ____ or ____, the body attempts to defend against stressor through fight or flight response
two
adaptation or resistance
In stage ___ of GAS, ____ occurs if adaptive energy is inadequate to deal with prolonged or overwhelming stress
three
exhaustion
_____ ____ ____ is the physiologic response to a stressor on a specific part of the body (e.g. trauma, illness)
local adaptation syndrome
A type of stress which results in positive outcomes (e.g. the stress of an upcoming test motivates a student to study and they pass)
eustress
Stressors evoking an ineffective response cause ______ (procrastinating studying for a test results in a failing grade)
distress
______ is an ongoing process whereby individuals adjust to stressors and change
adaptation
______ adaptation is the way the body responds to stressors affecting the functioning of the body (e.g. living in a high elevation makes the body produce more RBCs and the lungs expand)
physiologic
_______ adaptation involves the use of defense mechanisms and learning to mentally accept new situations
psychological
______ adaptation involves education, communication, problem-solving ability and perception of people and the world
cognitive
_____ adaptation involves social relationships with family, friends and coworkers who may provide support in times of stess
social
_____ adaptation involves beliefs about a supreme being and a positive sense of life's purpose and meaning; they are a personal resource for coping with stressors
spiritual
______ occurs when a person is taught a behavior until it becomes an automatic response
conditioning
When there is an increase in pulse, BP, blood glucose and cortisol & urination, blood thickens, dizziness and sweaty palms, HA, dilated pupils, nausea, diarrhea /constipation, twitching, trembling, the person is experiencing _______ stress
physiologic
A person may be experiencing _______ stress if they are irritable, has their feelings easily hurt, appear to be sad and/or depressed and have reduced feelings of pleasure and accomplishment
psychological
A person may be experiencing _______ stress if they have impaired memory and judgement, confusion, are unable to concentrate, have poor decision making and altered perceptions and delayed response
cognitive
A person may be experiencing _______ stress if they are pacing, have rapid speech, insomnia, are easily startled and withdraw from others
behavioral
A person may be experiencing _______ stress if they appear to be alienated or socially isolated and express feelings of emptiness
spiritual
Measures for coping with stress that require a minimal amount of energy are called _____ ______ and deal directly with the stressful situation or the symptoms
adaptive measures
Someone who uses support people, uses relaxation to relieve tension, changes behavior, develops more realistic goals and solve problems are using ____ ____ to cope with stress
adaptive measures
Measures used to avoid conflict and stress are considered ____ ____ because they prevent the individual from making progress toward resolving and accepting stress
maladaptive measures
Somatic disorders, rituals, excessive use of alcohol or drugs, excessive eating and withdrawl from reality may indicate a person is using ____ measures
maladaptive
What does the acronym STRESS stand for as related to the s/s of stress?
Sweaty Palms
Trembling
Rapid pulse rate
Easily startled
Speech is rapid
Shallow, rapid respirations
A ____, or an acute state of disorganization, occurs when stressors surpass the ability to cope and the usual coping mechanisms are no longer adequate
crises
____ is characterized by extreme anxiety, disorganized behavior and inability to function and usually time limited
crises
_____ is a subjective response occurring when a person experiences a real OR perceived threat to well-being and includes a diverse feeling of dread or apprehension
anxiety
_____ is the psychological response to a threat, may be an activator of stress AND a response to stress
anxiety
The most common emotional (affective) response to stress is _____
anxiety
Anxiety often increases during ____ and _____
illness
recovery
______ reduce the immune system's ability to function in stressful situations
steroids
_____ is the process of treating an individual as an object instead of a person, taking away their individuality.
depersonalization
_____ is an inevitable and constant part of life and is a dynamic process whereby an individual's response to a stressor leads to an alteration in behavior
change
______ change is unpredictable and may be imposed by others or by uncontrollable events (house on fire)
unplanned
____ change is a specific effort to modify a situation (marriage)
planned
______ changes are physical and emotional alterations occurring at different stages of life; are predictable and occur in a certian order
developmental
_____ or _____ changes are adaptive responses the change imposed by other
accidental
_____ changes are often subtle and occur without a person's conscious awareness
covert
_____ changes are obvious and identifiable and an individual is aware they are occurring.
overt
A ____ ____ is a person who intentionally creates and implements change, seek ways to make improvement, use critical thinking to develop innovative, creative solutions
change agent
Anything interfering with ____ ____ being met elicits the stress response, causing anxiety
basic needs
The nurse should decrease _____ ______ that may cause anxiety, such as closing the client's door or turning the television volume off.
environment stimuli
Freud described the process of talking out one's feelings as a ____
catharsis
Name three stress-management techniques
Regular exercise
Relaxation techniques
Cognitive reframing or Thought Stopping
____ _____ is a technique based on Beck's theory that a person's emotional response to an event is determined by the meaning attached to it
Cognitive reframing
_____ is used to alter one's perceptions and interpretations by changing one's thoughts
reframing
____ ____ is a specific technique used to help a person regain equilibrium
crisis intervention
A state of physical and emotional exhaustion occurring when caregivers use up their adaptive energy
burnout
____ ____ is the key to burnout prevention and recovery
stress management
A stress management plan begins with ___ ____
self-awareness
_____ consists of a set of attitudes, beliefs and behaviors that make individuals more resilient to the negative effects of stress
hardiness
The ____-____ process is a planned interaction that promotes behavioral change that is not a result of maturation or coincidence
teaching-learning
_____ is an active process wherein one individual shares information with another to facilitate learning and thereby promote behavioral changes
teaching
_____ is the process of assimilating information, resulting in behavior change
learning
______ teaching takes place at a specific time, in a specific place, on a specific topic
formal
_____ teaching takes place any time, any place, whenever a learning need is identified.
informal
The ____ domain is the area which involves intellectual understanding; the acquisition of facts and data; used in decision making & problems solving
cognitive
The ____ domain is the area which involves which involves attitudes, beliefs, and emotions; used in making judgements
affective
The ____ domain is the area which involves the performance of motor skills; used in physical application of knowledge
psychomotor
______ refers to learning that must be meaningful to the client, easily understood by the client and related to previously learned information
relevance
_____ is described as the forces acting on or within an organism that initiates, directs, and maintains behavior; is complex and constantly changing
motivation
____ refers to an individual's developmental stage characterized by unique skills and abilities which affect the response to various teaching tools
maturation
_____ refers to feedback provided to a learner which is immediate and positive to reinforce motivation and readiness to learn
reinforcement
_____ refers to a client's involvement in the learning process which promotes and enhances learning
participation
_____ refers to how information is presented in sequence from simple to complex and from familiar to unfamiliar
organization
_____ involves practice and repeating the presentation of the same material in a variety of ways
repetition
A ____ ____ is a peak in the effectiveness of teaching and depth of learning
learning platueau
___ learners learn by processing information visually (e.g. printed outlines, reading materials, pictures/visual display)
visual
___ learners learn by listening to words (e.g. lecture, discussion, question and answer, brainstorming)
auditory
___ learners learn by experiencing the information by touch, feeling or doing (e.g. role playing, modeling, demo/return demo, taking notes, experiential situations)
kinesthetic
Lack of privacy, extraneous stimuli and interruptions and examples of _____ barriers
external
Language, level of education and values are examples of _____ barriers
sociocultural
Anxiety, anger, fear and depression are examples of _____ barriers
psychological
Pain, oxygen deprivation, fatigue and hunger are examples of _____ barriers
physiological
Young children learn primarily through _____
play
Adolescents often benefit from ____ ____ to facilitate learning and teaching
peer support or group meetings
The nurse empowers clients in their self-care abilities through _____
teaching
______ provides clients about health-promoting behaviors, specific disease processes and treatment methods
teaching
____ is a required function of nurses in most states
teaching
Effective teaching is based on the nurse's ability to establish ____ with the client
rapport
_____ of teaching facilitates accurate communication to other health care colleagues and promotes continuity of care
documentation
Each nurse must document all teaching ____ used and the client's _____
intervention
response
The teaching-learning process and the nursing process are _______
interdependent
When lack of knowledge is the primary learning need, the diagnosis of _____ _____ _____ is applicable
Deficient Knowledge (specify what)