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56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
anoxia
deficiency of oxygen
atelectasis
a collapsed or airless state of the lungs
dyspnea
difficult or labored respirations
hypoxemia
low oxygen content in the blood
apnea
temporary cessation of breathing ; no respirations; referred to as respiratory arrest
eupnea
normal breathing
Cheyne-Stokes respirations
respirations which regularly decrease in rate and depth until a period of apnea occurs. the respirations then begin clearly to increase in rate and depth to repeat the cycle; irregular rhythm characterized by alternating periods of hyperventilation/hypoventilation and apnea
hyperpnea
abnormally deep respiration
hyperventilation
increased rate and/or depth of respirations; associated with CO2 loss and dizziness
hypoventilation
decreased rate and depth of respiration
Kussmaul respirations
deep gasping respiration; associated with diabetic coma; deep rapid respirations associated with diabetic ketoacidosis
orthopnea
difficulty breathing except when sitting upright
crackles
fine to coarse sounds from larger bronchi; heard on inspiration and expiration
rhonchi
usually coarser sounds from larger bronchi; heard on inspiration and expiration; may be cleared by coughing
stridor
noisy respirations characterized by whistling sounds as air moves through partially obstructed larynx or trachea in spasm
pneumothorax
free air in the pleural cavity between the chest wall and lung
hemoptysis
expectorating blood
pyrexia
abnormal elevation of body temperature
hyperthermia
a body temperature that is much higher than the person's normal range
febrile
of or indicating fever; when the body temperature is higher than 100.6
hypothermia
drop in the core body temperature
afebrile
free from fever
pulse deficit
the difference between the apical and radial pulse rates
asystole
a condition of weakening or cessation of systole
systole / systolic phase
the period of heart muscle contraction; the period when the heart is pumping; contraction phase of the heart
diastole / diastolic phase
the period of heart muscle relaxation; the period when the heart is at rest; relaxation phase of the heart
atrial fibrillation
when the heart has an arrhythmia and the atrium of the heart "quivers"
palpate / palpation
to examine by feeling and pressing with the palms of the hands and fingers; when you feel the pulse by touch
tachycardia
a rapid heart rate; a heart rate above 100 beats/min
bradycardia
a slow heart rate; a heart rate below 60 beats/min
tachypnea
rapid breathing; respirations are 24 or more per minute
orthopnea
DELETE
orthostatic hypotension
decrease in systolic blood pressure of 20 mm Hg or more, or diastolic blood pressure of 10 mm Hg or more after 3 minutes of quietly standing after lying supine; food ingestion, time of day, age and hydration, Parkinsons and Diabetes
hypertension
when the blood pressure is > 140/90
hypotension
when the blood pressure is < 90/60
the temperature taken in the ear is known as _______ or _______ temperature
tympanic or ear
the temperature regulating center in the brain
hypothalamus
body temperature is highest between _______ hours
night
a patient should be in the _______ position for a rectal temperature
Sims
rectal temperature is contraindicated when:
patient has a heart condition, hemorroids, recently undergone rectal surgery, or has diarrhea
the apical pulse is located _______ and taken for _______ sec/min
over the apex of the heart (left side of the chest slightly below the nipple)
prehypertension
when the blood pressure is slightly to moderately elevated (120/80 - 139/89)
normal range for oral/tympanic temperature
37 degrees C; 98.6 degrees F (+/-1 degree F)
normal range for rectal temperature
37.6 degrees C; 99.6 degrees F (+/-1 degree F)
normal range for axillary temperature
36.4 degrees C; 97.6 degrees F (+/-1 degree F)
how far do you put in a thermometer when doing a rectal temperature?
1-1 1/2 in.
normal range for pulse
60-100 beats/min. strong and regular
normal range for respirations
12-20 breaths/min. deep and regular
normal range for blood pressure
systolic: 90-140 mm Hg
diastolic: < 90 mm Hg
average: 120/80
In some patients, BP is consecutively measured _______, _______, and _______ in _______ arms.
In normal individuals, the change from lying to standing causes _______.
What should a CNA do?
lying, sitting, standing, both; a decrease in systolic BP of less than 15 mm Hg; Record the position and extremity and compare the mesurements for significant differences.
when to take vital signs
1. On client's admission to a health care facility and during visits to a clinic or doctor's office
2. According to routine established hospital policy or as directed by doctors orders; may be bid or q 8 h
3. Before and after surgical procedures or invasive diagnostic procedures. Monitoring during recovery may be every 5-15 min initially, then every 30 min, every hr, and every 4 hrs as conditions stabilize
4. Before and after administration of medications that affect cardiovascular or respiratory function and before and after temperature regulation
5. When general physical condition changes (e.g. loss of consciousness, increased restlessness, or intensity of pain)
6. Before and after nursing interventions (e.g. ambulating a client who has dsypnea on exertion)
7. Whenever clients report nonspecific symptoms of distress (e.g. "feeling funny or different"; chest pain)
melena
black tarry stool
before performing a BP reading, the pt should be...
comfortably seated with the back and arm supported, legs uncrossed, and upper arm at the level of the right atrium
Proper cuff size is critical to _______. The bladder length and width of the cuff should be _______ and _______ respectively of the arm circumference.
accurate measurement; 80%, 40%
A difference in BP between the two arms can be expected in about _______ of patients. The _______ value should be the one used in treatment decisions.
20%; higher
how long should you wait between each blood pressure change?
10 min.