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18 Cards in this Set

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What is significant about the epiphyseal plate?
It is the growth plate for elongating bone. If a child breaks the bone here it can inhibit growth.
What do blood cells and bone have to do with each other?
Bone is the place where blood cells are made: erythropoiesis.
What are the names for the joints based on movement?
synarthrotic: immovable; amphiarthrotic: slightly movable
and diarthrotic: freely movable synovial joints with bursa sac and fluid for protection upon movement.
T/F Fast metabolism helps Cartilage heal quickly due to the high vascularity and the ability for nourishment to diffuse rapidly from the synovial fluid.
False. Low vascularity is why cartilage heals slowly. Metabolism is a slow process that does happen in the synovial fluid, but the lack of direct blood flow/nutrition to the cartilage makes everything a slow process.
When an elderly patient exhibits sudden confusion what should always be considered?
Hypoxia, UTI or Electrolyte imbalance.
Name the things that decrease in the elderly that can have an effect on the musculoskeletal system:
Decreased glycogen stores, muscle cells (sarcopenia), elasticity, motor neurons, vertebral water, bone density, all leading to decreased functional status in ADLs.
Name the risks for the elderly
Risk for falls, osteoporosis, cartilage interruption, and kyphosis.
What is an antalgic gait, and what is an ataxic gait, and what is ankylosis?
Antalgic gait= shortened stride or limp (maybe due to injury), Ataxic gait=Staggering uncoordinated gait often with a sway, and Anykylosis is stiffness or fixation of a joint (picture an elderly man hunched over, especially at the neck, permanently)
What is a festinating gait?
The way a person with Parkinson's walks, out of control, jerking, stiff movements, short and quick.
What are some of the common musculoskeletal lab tests and associated normal numbers.
Alkaline phosphatase: 30-120 U/L; Calcium: 9-11; Phosphorus: 2.8-4.5; Potassium: 3.5-5.0 (if there is trauma in muscle more K+ will be released into the blood); Uric Acid: 4.5 -6.5 Men/2.5-5.5 Women, Higher can indicate gout; Rheumatoid Factor: Should be NEGATIVE; ESR: erythrocyte sedimentation rate: Should be less than 20 (elevation indicates inflammation like in RA); CRP: C-reactive protein: Should be negative, if not it indicates inflammation in the body.
What is an MRI, Xray, and CT scan used for respectively?
MRI=view soft tissue: cartilage & discs..; Xray: bones and calcifcation; CT scan= 3D imaging for soft tissue.
For good support and balance, instead of twisting try....
pivoting instead and keep a wide base for balance. Also...always ASSESS the load and use help! Use ACE: assess, coordinate & execute! Turn feet, not torso, feet should face the direction you want to go.
Name the various fowler's postions and their corresponding degrees.
High Fowler: 90, Fowlers 45-60, Low or semi- Fowlers 30.
What are the 9 lifesaving patient safety solutions from the joint commission.
On pg 816 of fundies: 1) Be aware of look alike/sound alike medication names; Use 2 forms of patient identification; Communication during patient handover: from family to HCP or floor to floor, etc..; Perform correct procedure at correct site; Use the 6 rights of medication administration with electrolyte solutions; Medication accuracy at transition: make sure you check all home medications against what you were prescribed for transfers and discharge protocol; Use the correct catheter and tubing for procedure; Never re-use single-use needles; and Improve hand hygiene.
What are some precautions to take for seizure patients?
Put them by the nurses station; pad the side rails; have oral suctioning equipment, oxygen, oral airway,
Pushing against a footboard is an example of what type of exercise?
Isometric for immobile patients
Explain atelectasis and hypostatic pneumonia and the interventions involved.
Atelectasis: (collapse of the alveoli) secretions block a bronchiole or bronchus and the distal lung tissue or alveoli collapse as the existing air is absorbed producing hypoventilation. The site of the blockage affects the severity of atelectasis. Sometimes an entire lung lobe or whole lung can collapse. Ultimately secretions increase and can lead to hypostatic pneumonia.
Hypostatic PNX
↓ Ability to cough

Assess q 2 hrs
Encourage Cough-Deep-Breathe q 2 hrs
Define orthostatic hypotension and interventions.
Orthostatic hypotension: increase in heart rate of more than 15% and drop of 15mmHG in systolic BP or a drop of 10mmHG in Diastolic BP when the client goes from supine to standing