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36 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what is the communication process?
a system of sending and receiving messages. it forms a connection between the sender and the receiver.
what are the two types of communication?
verbal and non-verbal.
what are the 5 elements of the communication process?
the sender, the receiver, encoding, communication channel, feedback.
the sender sends the message, and the receiver gives feedback.
what is verbal communication?
it involves the spoken or written word. clarity, vocabulary, denotative/connotative meaning, timing, humor.
what is non-verbal communication?
the transmission of messages without the use of words. it may be more powerful than verbal communication. touch, eye contact, gestures, body posture, movement.
what factors may influence communication?
perceptions, values, emotions, gender, roles, relationships, socio-cultural background, knowledge, environment.
what is important about the nurse/client helping relationship?
it is centered around the patient's healthcare needs. the client feels cared for. the family is included. health teaching.
what are the 3 phases of the nurse/client relationship?
1. orientation- purpose for being there.
2. working phase- who you are.
3. termination phase- what you'll do.
what are some important characteristics of nurses?
empathy, positive regard, openness, assertiveness, genuine, respectful.
what is assessment?
understanding the role and goals, and assessing the patients ability to communicate.
what is intervention?
asking open ended questions, active listening, informing, restatement, reflecting, summarizing.
what are some things to avoid when communicating?
false reassurance, giving advice, changing the subject, being non-professional, excessive questions, universalizing, being judgmental.
what are some special situations to consider when communicating?
older adults, foreign language, ICU clients.
S.O.L.E.R.
sit facing the patient, open posture, lean forward, eye contact, relaxed but attentive.
what are some characteristics of a safe environment?
physiologic, psychological, and social needs are met. physical hazards are reduced. sanitation is maintained. pollution is controlled.
what are 4 major safety risks in health care?
falls, client inherent accidents (faint, seizures), procedure related accidents (meds), equipment related accidents (IV, catheter).
what are some ways to prevent falls?
call bell within reach, bed in low position, lock all wheels, eliminate clutter, personal items in reach.
what is a restraint?
any device, mechanical or chemical, used to immobilize a patient.
when and how are restraints used?
in extreme cases, Rx only. it must be documented and use the least restrictive methods first.
what is an infection?
an invasion of the body by pathogens (microorganisms capable of producing disease).
what is a nosocomial infection?
an infection acquired while an individual is receiving services in a health care facility.
what is the chain of infection?
infectious agent-> reservoir-> portal of entry-> mode of transmission-> portal of exit-> susceptible host (patients, elderly).
what are the 3 normal defenses against infection?
normal flora, body system defenses (sneeze, cough, cilia, skin), inflammation (a sign for you to not use body part).
if you have impaired primary defenses, you are at higher risk for infection...
broken skin, mucus membranes, tissue trauma.
if you have impaired secondary defenses, you are at high risk for infection...
decreased/ suppressed WBC, suppressed inflammatory response.
what are some other risk factors for infection?
age, poor nutritional status, stress, disease process, medical treatment.
what are some methods of prevention?
maintain defenses, immunization, precautions.
what are some infection control precautions?
standard precautions, universal precautions, body substance precautions.
what do you do with protective (reverse) isolation?
private room, handwashing, limited number of visitors, no fresh fruits, no flowers.
transmission precautions:
airborne
private room, air flow, wear mask, patient wears mask if leaving room.
transmission precautions:
droplet
private room or with a pt with the same infection, wear mask within 3 inches, patient wears mask when leaving room.
transmission precautions:
contact
private room or with a pt with the same infection, gloves and other barriers.
what is medical asepsis?
routine techniques used to prevent infection and to control its spread (clean, not sterile). decreasing germs.
what are the 6 steps of medical asepsis?
control or eliminate infectious agents, control portals of exit, control transmission, control portals of entry, protect susceptible host, protect health care personnel.
what might influence patient hygiene?
body image, socio-cultural factors, personal preferences, self care ability.
what are some nursing interventions for hygiene?
bathing, care of hair and scalp, care of feet and nails, perineal care, back rub, oral hygiene.