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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
In Terms of Time, Distinguish Between Chronic and Acute Pain? (P.333)
- 6 Months
What are Exotoxins? (P.197)
- Exogenous Proteins (They don’t come from Host, Rather a Bacterium)
- Proteins from Normal Bacterial Growth
What are Endotoxins? (P.197)
- Contained Within Gram Negative Cells
- Released During Lysis
- Pyrogenic Bacteria since they cause Fever
What is a Capsule in a Bacteria? (P.197)
- Protects Bacteria from Ingestion and Destruction
- Made of Thick Polysaccharide
What is a Symbiotic Relationship? (P.193)
Bonus: Name Two Examples Mentioned in Class? (P.194)
- Benefits Only the Human (According to Book, Not Me)
- E. Coli in GI Tract; Normal Flora of Vagina
Describe the Manifestations of Acute Inflammation? (P.170)
- Serous - Watery
- Fibrinous – Thick and Clotted
- Purulent - Pus
- Hemorrhagic - Bleeding
What is Cerebral Edema? (P.373)
- Increase in Fluid Content of Brain Tissue
- Caused by Trauma, Infection, Hemorrhage, Tumor, Ischemia
Infarct, Hypoxia
What are the Symptoms of Hyperkalemia? (P.117-118)
- Acidosis
- Neruomuscular Irritability
- Intestinal Cramping
- Diaherria
What are some of the causes of Hyperkalemia? (P.117)
- Increased Intake
- Shift from Cells to ECF
- Decreased Renal Function (< 30 ml/hr) or Failure
Process that Activates Fever Response?
Thermoregulatory Mechanism
What are some of the functions of B-Endorphins? (P.228)
- Response to Stress Stimuli (Distress or Eustress)
- Inflamed Tissue Activate Endorphin Receptors
- Inhibit Blood Pressure Increase
What are Catecholamines? (P.227)
- Made in the Brain
- Consist of alpha and beta adrenergic receptors
- Activate and Bind to Epi and Norepi
- Basically Increase Blood Flow to Muscle and Slows GI (P.228)
What are the Risk Factors for Dehydration? (P.113??)
- Decrease Lean Body Mass
- Increase Adipose Tissue
Describe the Thermoregulatory Change with Increse in Epinephrine? (P.336)
- Causes Vasoconstriction
- Stimulates Glycolysis
- Increased Heat Production
What Causes Respiratory Acidosis? (P.123-124)
- Pneumonia
Type of Cellular Adaptation that Results in Decreased Cellular Size? (P.66)
- Atrophy
Describe the Type of Adaptation when a Cell goes from Columnar Cilated to Stratified Squamous? (P.66)
- Metaplasia (Can Be Reversed)
What Organ Disease Effects Oncotic Pressure? (P.108)
- Liver Disease
- Protein Malnutrition
What Chemicals are Released in Acute Inflammation? (P.157)
- Leukotrienes
- Prostaglandins
Underlying Reason for Hypoxic Injury? (P.71)
Ischemia (Reduced Blood Supply)
What is Metabolic Alkalosis and Name One Cause? (P.122-123)
- Loss of Acid
- Vomiting
- Nasogastric Suctioning
What Inflammatory Cytokines are Responsible for Fever? (P.144)
(Part of the Immune Response)
- Interleukens (IL)
- Interferon
- Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)
What is the Body’s Ability to Prevent Reaching Exhaustion Stage? (P.222)
- General Adaptation Syndrome
What is the Wound Healing Vitamin? (P.???)
- Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)
What is Apoptosis? (P.92)
- Active Process of Cellular Self-Destruction
What Electrolyte is Responsible for Water Balance? (P.109)
- Sodium
Describe the Uniqueness of Thermoregulation in Infants? (P.337)
- Large Skin Area/ Less Weight
- Less Subcutaneous Fat
- Most Difficult Time Conserving Heat
Hydrol & Enzymes (Did not take Proper Notes)
Hydrol & Enzymes (Did not take Proper Notes)
How do Bacteria become Resistant to Anti-Microbial Drugs?
Bonus: How can this be prevented?
- Mutate
- Killing All Bacteria
What are the Conditions for Effective Evaporation? (P.336)
- Ability to Bring Moisture to Surface of Skin
Put in Order the Four Forms of Accidental Hyperthermia? (P.338)
Heat Exhaustion, Heat Stroke, Malignant Hyperthermia, Heat Cramps
- Heat Cramps, Heat Exhaustion, Heat Stroke, Malignant Hyperthermia
What Fluid Imbalance Causes Hyperthermia? (P.338??)
- Dehydration
What are the Complications of Fever for Children Under Five? (P.338)
- Febrile Seizures
Why is Protein NOT found in Urine? (P.813???)
- Negative Charge of Glomerular Filtration Membrane Repels Protein
What Influences the Glomerular Filtration Rate? (P.813)
- Perfusion Pressure on Glomerular Capillaries
- Renal Blood Flow
Describe the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System? (P.111)
- Renin – Released when circulating blood volume is lower
- Angiotensin – Stimulates Secretion of Aldosterone
- Aldosterone – Promotes Sodium, Water Reabsorption
- Increasing Blood Volume
- Vasoconstriction promotoes higher blood pressure
Where should E.Coli be found, and where should it NOT?
What does it cause in the wrong place? (P.834)
- Gastrointestinal Tract
- Urinary Tract
- Urinary Tract Infection
What are the Principal Manifestations of Renal Calculus Obtrusion? (P.835)
- Flank Pain
What is Pyelonephritis and Name Some Symptoms? (P.835)
- Infection of Renal Pelvis & Interstitium
- Caused by Urinary Infection & Reflux of Urine from Bladder
- Dysuria
- Flank Pain
- Frequency
- Hypertension
- Acute Could be Caused by E.Coli
What is Glomerulonephritis? (P.836)
- Inflammation of the Glomerulus
- Caused by: Ischemia, Free Radicals, Drugs, Toxins
- Acute could be caused by Streptococcal Infection
How can Kidney Failure be Tested? (P.821)
- Creatin Clearance (Requires Blood and Urine Sample)
How can Erythropoietin be Harmful to Kidneys? (P.821)
- Stimulates Bone Marrow to Produce RBC
- Decreases Oxygen Delivery to Kidneys
- Leads to Renal Failure
What Dietary Restriction do Patients with Renal Failure Have? (P.821)
- Decrease Protein Consumption
What happens when the Kidneys Fail to Activate Vitamin D?
- Hypocalcemia
- Bone Fracture
What happens in End Stage Renal Failure? (P.840)
- 10% of Renal Function Remains
- Includes Elevated Blood, Urea, and Creatine Levels
- Causes Fatigue, Anorexia, Nausea, Vomiting, Pruritis
What type of Cellular Adaptation is Associated with Cancer? (P.68)
- Dysplasia (NOT a Form of “Adaptation”)