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136 Cards in this Set

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write out socialization
a proces in which a person is familiarized with the ways of a specific culture or group, it involves learning theory and skills.
what happened pre 1836 (1-500 A.D.) ?
involves meeting the hygiene and comfort needs of the individual and families. Christians working in close association with an organized church primarily provide care
nursing is no longer tied to the church and requires what?
complex responsabilities and crtitical thinking skills
what happened in 1836?
Fliedner opens a small hospital and training school in Germany *this is where Florence Nightengale receives her nursing education*
what is Nightingale called?
"the founder of modern medicine"
what happened from 1854-1860?
Florence Nightengale makes contirbutions to modern nursing. she cares for the soldiers in the Crimean War, sets up training schools at St. Thomas Hospital in London
what did Nightengale publish?
Notes on Nursing: what it is, and what it is not
what happened from 1861-1865?
Dorthea Dix established Nurse Corps of the US Army, she was not a nurse
what was dorthea Dix?
an advocate for the mentally ill
what happened in 1872?
Linda Richards graduated from the New England Hospital for women in Boston
in 1872 when Linda Richards graduated from the trainingschool in Boston what was this considered?
the beginning of Diploma education in the US
what is Linda Richards considered
America's 1st trained nurse
what happened in 1873?
3 nursing schools patterned after Nightengale's were developed in the US
in 1873 what were the 3 schools patterened after Nightengale?
-Bellevue Training School
-Conneticut Training School
-Boston Training School
what happened in 1874?
the 1st "Nightengale Model" school is set up in St. Catherine's, Ontario
what happened in 1882?
Clara Barton organized the American National Red Cross
what year was first graduate?
1892
what happened in 1893?
Wald and Brewster found the Henry Street Settlement which is the 1st home visiting nurse organization in the US. this is still up and running in New York City
since when was professional nursing org. around?
1887
what happened in 1897?
the ANA ( American Nurses Association) was primary for nurses, it's purpose was to speak for the nurses
what was the ANA's purpose?
to speak for the nurses
what happened in 1899?
the International council of Nurses was established
what happened in 1900?
the 1st publication by the AJN ( American Journal of Nursing)
what happened in 1923?
the Gold mark report came about
what did the Gold Mark report state?
financial aupport for the unniversity level was made available
what happened in 1940?
The Brown Report came out
what did the Brown report state?
all education was to be moved to the unniversity level.
what did WWII result in?
nursing shortage
what happened in 1953?
National Stuent Nurses Association is created (NSNA)
what happened in 1965?
The ANA states that all nurses must use a university to obtain an RN
where was this stated?
in the ANA's 1st position paper on Nursing Education
what happened in 1985?
National Center for Nursing research is est. at the National Institutes of Health in Maryland ( updated by clinton in 1993)
what happened in 1994?
healthcare reform is a discussion that permeates professional circles, cost-containment measures, access to healthcare, and the need for health promotions are integral components of the issues
what happened in 1999?
advanced practice roles for nurses increase, heathcare and health promotions programs become central
what happened in 2001?
implications of the supply and demand of nurses
write out deff. to HEALTH
a state of complete physical and social well being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. it is a dynamic state of constant adaption to internal and external enviromental changes. it is personally defined to one's own values and expectations
write out deff. to WELLNESS
a dynamic balance between physical, psycological, social, and spiritual aspects of a person's life
write out deff. for HOLISM
seeing the universe and the client as a system of connected parts, rather than a sum of isolated parts
draw that circle diagram of Holism
emotions and mind
body
spirit
enviroment around them all
write out deff. for SELF-AWARENESS
knowing and caring for oneself; also recognizing one's own strengths and limitations
according the the "Host-Agent-Enviroment Model" what is the host?
the person who may be at risk for an illness
according the the "Host-Agent-Enviroment Model" what is the agent?
any factor (internal or external) that can lead to illness by it's presence or absence
according the the "Host-Agent-Enviroment Model" what is the enviroment?
factors (social,physical,economical,spiritual,emotional) that may create the likelyhood for the person to develop a disease
When was the High Level Wellness Model created
?
1961
When was the High Level Wellness Model created
?
1961
When was the High Level Wellness Model created
?
1961
When was the High Level Wellness Model created
?
1961
When was the High Level Wellness Model created
?
1961
When and who created the High level wellness model?
1961, Dunn
who and when was teh High Level Wellness Model created?
1961 by Dunn
what does the High Level Wellness model recognize?
health as an ongoing process toward a person's highest potential of functioning
who is involved with the High Level Wellness Model?
individual, family, and community
what is primary prevention?
you prevent disease/illness
you keep the healthy people in good health ( educational programs like bike safety)
what is secondary prevention?
you screen those at risk ( mamograms, anual pap smears)
what is tertiary prevention?
the diagnosis of a long term disease or disability has already been made (maximize functions, and minimize complications for them)
How are Health preventions different from Health promotions?
Health Prevention focuses on detection and prevention of disease

Health Promotions focus on lifestyle choices to strive toward high-level wellness
write out deff. for FAMILY
the basic human social unit, membership is based on mutual commitment, heredity, or legal arrangements. They interact with each other over time. They are a social group
write out deff. for COMMUNITY
a social group whose members may or may not share geographic boundaries, yet who interact because of common interests or shared values to meet their needs within a larger society
what is the main determinant for the stages in Du Vall's framework of family development?
they focus on developmental tasks and role expectations of parents and children throguhout the life cycle

The framework was meant to allow for biologic and cultural differences, as well as differences in values
what is stereotyping?
assuming all members of a culture act and think alike
what is ethnocentrism?
a belief that everyone should conform to the majority belief
what is the biggest problem with nurses, based on the ethnocentrism deff.?
"we know what is best for the patient"
what is cultural relativity?
principle thats meaning is created by one's culture and that truth is culture-specific, the same experiences may carry different meanings to people of different cultures
what is cultural shock?
feelings a person experiences when submersed in a different culture: stress response (honeymoon,disenchantment,beginning resolution and effective functioning)
what is an example of cultural shock?
when the amish children where sent to our hospital that has all that technology in it that they have never experienced or seen
what is culture?
shared systems of beliefs, values and behavioral expectations that provide social structure for daily living that is unique to a particular group
how is culture learned?
purpose and unconsciouely (observed others)
is culture shared equally amoung all members?
no
who is the key informant?
person who is well informed and likes to talk about the culture(leader of group)
why is culture very dynamic?
because it is always changing
why is culture so diverse?
because there are multiple ideas and many varieties of people, there is much room to broaden our own cultural backrounds
when do we fully benefit from our culture?
when we are ALL equal
each culture is resonable from the perspectives of it's own members
each culture is resonable from the perspectives of it's own members
what is ethnocentric?
view that one's own cultural view of the world is superior to that of others "don't trust any view that differs from your own"
how is culture pervasive?
culture touches all aspects of one's being/life(your thoughts, the way you dress)
what are teh 5 levels of Maslow's Human Needs?
1 psychologic needs
2 safety needs
3 love needs
4 esteem needs
5 self-actualization needs
what are psychologic needs?
the need for air
water
rest/sleep
nutrition
elimination
thermoregulation
is sex necessary for the individuals needs?
no, but sex is nec. for humankind's survival
what are saftey needs?
need for shelter, and freedom from harm and danger
what are love needs?
need for affection
feelings of belonging
meaningful relations with others
what are esteem needs?
the need to be well thought of by others as well as loved by one's own self
what are self actualization needs?
the need to be self-fulfilled
the need to learn, create and understand
to experience one's own potential
who created the change theory?
Kurt Lewin
what is the 1st thing he states?
that change is inevitable for humans
what does Kurt lewin say the reactions for change are based on?
he says that the reactions of change are based on the need for self-esteem and security
read over the 6 components under Kurt Lewins Change theory
. recognition of the area where change is needed
. analysis of a situation to determine what forces exist to maintain the situation and what forces are working to change it
. identification of methods by which change can occur
. recognition of teh influence of group mores(customs on change)
what are Kurt Lewin's 3 states under the change theory?
unfreezing, movement, and refreezing
what is unfreezing?
the recognition of need to change
what is movement?
the shift of behavior towards a better pattern
what is refreezing?
to solidify the new behavior for long term use
what other 2 things are involved when dealing with Lewin's change theory?
identification of the methods that the refference group uses to bring about change
what is one more thing to consider when dealing with the change theory?
the actual process of change
how is Change Theory used by Nurse Theorists?
change theory offers insight into expected behaviors whensignificant change occurs within an enviroment
what is an example of Nurse Theorist using change theory?
PePlau, a psychiatric nurse,
used the theory to apply all aspects of change theory as client nneds are assessed and necessary alterations in specific patterns of behavior are determined
what is Evidence Based Theory?
-nursing care that is supported by reliable research based evidence
-clinical decision making based on best available evidence
-using evidence along with individual clinical expertise
what is nursing research?
the formal study of problems of nursing practice, the role of the nurse in healthcare and the value of nursing
what are the 2 purposes of nursing research?
-to learn about a specific problem
-to understand a situation
what are the 2 primary research types?
quantitative, and qualitative
what is quantitative research?
-systematic collection of numeric information
-there is control over the variables
-this requires 2 or more groups
-numeric info=data
what does quantitative research seek to test?
theories and hypotheses
what is an example of quantitative research?
surveys to study effects
what is qualitative research?
you gain an understanding of how individuals make sence of experiences in their world
what is qualitative research reffered to as?
"dynamic individual aspects of the human experience in a hostilic approach"
what is qualitative research used to gather?
data that is difficult to measure in numbers( qualitative is more subjective than quantitative)
what are some examples of qualitative research?
caring, body-imaging, nursing
what is the purpose of the Institutional Review Board?
any agency applying for funding for any project involving biomedical or behavioral research on humans must have the IRB lok over the research and project, and protectthe rights of human subjects
what are the 3 subject rights?
voluntarily, anonymity, confidentialtiy
explain voluntarily
the subject must doing it voluntarily and have informed consent
explain anaonymity
protection of the subject so that not even the researcher can link the subject with the info provided
explain confidentiality
this ensures that the subjects' identities will not be linked with the info they provide and will not be publically divulged
what is communication?
a process in which info is sent and received
what is communication cond=sidered?
"the heart of nursing"
silence is also a form of communication
silence is also a form of communication
out of verbal and non verbal communication, which is the most important?
non verbal ( it is where most of the communication comes from)
what is metacommunication
?
this takes what was said verbally and nonverbally and looks at the situation around it ( why it was said) and the enviroment in which it was said
what are the components of communication?
sender, receiver,communication channel, feedback
what is the job of the sender?
they get the message out there in a way that the receiver understands
what must the receiver do?
decode the messagee, and they should provide feedback
what is communication channel?
THE MEANS in which the sender gets the message out there to the receiver
what is feedback?
this is an answer back from the receiver to the sender, it can be verbal or non verbal
what must be present on order for communication to occur?
feedback
what are the types of communication?
written, verbal, nonverbal, meta(communication)
what is the difference between therapeutic and social communication?
therapeutic communication is helpful, and contains empathy,positive regard, and a comfortable sense of self
caregivers do what?
help clients promote,restore, and maintain health
decision maker does what?
choose best approaches to client care, identify obstacles, involve the healthcare team nd family to ensure best choices to be made
client advocate does what?
communicate the needs and concerns of clients and ensure that clients understand treatments, they take responsabilities forprotecting clients and helping them assert legal rights
what does manager role and coordinator role do?
manage or coordinate all activites or treatments that involve clients, they must complete client care effectivly to a manner that benefits the clients
what does the communicator roledo?
this is essential to all roles of communicator! qualiy of communication is critical to helping clients meet their healthcare needs
what does educator role do?
health promotion, disease prevention, educating on nutrition and healthy behavior, evaluate progress of client towards health
what is the educational preparation of a nurse practitioner?
they must have at least a master's degree, and must be a graduate of a nurse practioner program
what is the educational preparation of a nurse midwife?
educated in nursing and midwifery, must be certified by the american college of nurse midwives.
what does manager role and coordinator role do?
manage or coordinate all activites or treatments that involve clients, they must complete client care effectivly to a manner that benefits the clients
what does the communicator roledo?
this is essential to all roles of communicator! qualiy of communication is critical to helping clients meet their healthcare needs
what does educator role do?
health promotion, disease prevention, educating on nutrition and healthy behavior, evaluate progress of client towards health
what is the educational preparation of a nurse practitioner?
they must have at least a master's degree, and must be a graduate of a nurse practioner program
what is the educational preparation of a nurse midwife?
educated in nursing and midwifery, must be certified by the american college of nurse midwives.