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193 Cards in this Set

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Afterload
the resistance against which the heart must pump to eject the blood into the circulation
Atherosclerosis
the buildup of fatty plaque within the arteries
Angiography
a diagnostic procedure enabling X-ray visual examination of the vascular system after injection of a radiopaque dye
Atria
two upper hollow chambers of the heart
Atrioventricular (AV) node
conduction pathways that slightly delay transmission of the impulse from the atria to the ventricles of the heart
Atrioventricular valve (AV)
between the atria and ventricles of the heart, the tricuspid valve on the right and the bicuspid or mitral valve on the left
Automaticity
an electrical impulse and contraction independent of the nervous system and generated by the cardiac muscle
Blood pressure (BP)
the force exerted on arterial walls by the blood flowing within the vessel
Bundle of His
the right and left bundle branches of the ventricular conduction pathways
Cardiac output
(CO) the amount of blood ejected by the heart with each ventricular contraction
Code blue
emergency announcing cardiac/respiratory arrest and initiating interventions
Contractility
the inherent ability of cardiac muscle fibers to shorten or contract
Coronary arteries
a network of vessels known as the coronary circulation
Creatine kinase (CK)
enzyme that is released into the blood during a myocardial infarction (MI)
Electrocardiogram (ECG)
a graph of the electrical activity of the heart
Endocardium
an layer of the heart wall lining the inside of the heart's chambers and great vessels
Epicardium
the visceral pericardium adheres to the surface of the heart, forming the heart's outermost layer
Heart failure
a condition that develops if the heart can not keep up with the body's need for oxygen and nutrients to the tissues; usually occurs because of myocardial infarction, but it may also result from chronic overwork of the heart
Homans' sign
calf pain produced by dorsi-flexion of the foot
Myocardial infarction (MI)
heart attack; cardiac tissue necrosis owing to obstruction of blood flow to the heart
Myocardium
a layer of the heart wall; cardiac muscle cells that form the bulk of the heart and contract with each beat
Pericardium
double layer of fibroserous membrane of the heart; the parietal, or outermost, pericardium serves to protect the heart and anchor it to surrounding structures
Peripheral vascular resistance (PVR)
impedance or opposition to blood flow to the tissues; determined by viscosity, or thickness, of the blood; blood vessel length; blood vessel diameter
Preload
the degree to which muscle fibers in the ventricle are stretched at the end of diastole
Purkinje fibers
fibers of the ventricular conduction pathways that terminate in ventricular muscle, stimulating contraction
Semilunar valves
crescent moon shaped valves between the cardiac ventricles and the pulmonary artery (pulmonic valve) and the aorta (aortic valve)
Septum
a dividing structure such as that between the cardiac chambers or between the two sides of the nose
Sinoatrial (SA or sinus) node
the primary pacemaker of the heart located where the superior vena cava enters the right atrium
Stroke volume (SV)
the amount of blood ejected with each cardiac contraction
Troponin
enzyme that is released into the blood during a myocardial infarction (MI)
Ventricles
two lower chambers of the heart
Biot's respirations
shallow breaths interrupted by apnea
Bronchoscopy
visual examination of the bronchi using a bronchoscope
Cheyne-Stokes respiration
respirations rhythmic waxing and waning of respirations from very deep breathing to very shallow breathing with periods of temporary apnea, often associated with cardiac failure, increased intracranial pressure, or brain damage
Diffusion
the mixing of molecules or ions of two or more substances as a result of random motion
Dyspnea
difficult or labored breathing
Emphysema
a chronic pulmonary condition in which the alveoli are dilated and distended
Erythrocytes
red blood cells, or RBCs
Expectorate
to cough and spit up mucus or other materials
Hemothorax
a collection of blood in the pleural cavity
Humidifiers
devices that add water vapor to inspired air
Hypercapnia
a condition in which carbon dioxide accumulates in the blood
Hypercarbia
see Hypercapnia
Hyperinflation
giving the client breaths that are 1 to 1.5 times the tidal volume through the ventilator circuit or via a manual resuscitation bag
Hyperoxygenation
done with a manual resuscitation bag or through a ventilator, increases oxygen flow (usually to 100 percent) before suctioning and between suction attempts
Hypoxemia
see Anoxemia
Hypoxia
insufficient oxygen anywhere in the body
Incentive spirometers
devices that measure the flow of air inhaled through the mouthpiece
Intrapleural pressure
pressure in the pleural cavity surrounding the lungs
Intrapulmonary pressure
pressure within the lungs
Kussmaul's breathing
hyperventilation that accompanies metabolic acidosis in which the body attempts to compensate (give off excess body acids) by blowing off carbon dioxide through deep and rapid breathing
Laryngoscopy
visual examination of the larynx with a laryngoscope
Lung compliance
expansibility of the lung
Lung recoil
the tendency of lungs to collapse away from the chest wall
Lung scan
also known as a V/Q (ventilation/perfusion) scan, records the emissions from radioisotopes that indicate how well gas and blood are traveling through the lungs
Orthopnea
ability to breathe only when in an upright position (sitting or standing)
Oxyhemoglobin
the compound of oxygen and hemoglobin
Partial pressure
the pressure exerted by each individual gas in a mixture according to its percentage concentration in the mixture
Pneumothorax
when air collects in the pleural space
Postural drainage
the drainage, by gravity, of secretions from various lung segments
Respiratory membrane
where gas exchange occurs between the air on the alveolar side and the blood on the capillary side; the alveolar and capillary walls form the respiratory membrane
Stridor
a harsh, crowing sound made on inhalation caused by constriction of the upper airway
Suctioning
the aspiration of secretions by a catheter connected to a suction machine or wall outlet
Surfactant
a surface-active agent (eg, soap or a synthetic detergent). In pulmonary physiology, a mixture of phosopholipids secreted by alveolar cells into the alveoli and respiratory air passages that reduces the surface tension of pulmonary fluids and thus contributes to the elastic properties of pulmonary tissue.
Torr (t.o.r.r.)
millimeters of mercury
Vibration
a series of vigorous quiverings produced by hands that are placed flat against the chest wall to loosen thick secretions
Adventitious breath sounds
abnormal or acquired breath sounds
Alopecia
the loss of scalp hair (baldness) or body hair
Angle of Louis
the junction between the body of the sternum and the manubrium; the starting point for locating the ribs anteriorly
Antihelix
the anterior curve of the auricle's upper aspect
Aphasia
any defects in or loss of the power to express oneself by speech, writing, or signs, or to comprehend spoken or written language due to disease or injury of the cerebral cortex
Astigmatism
an uneven curvature of the cornea that prevents horizontal and vertical rays from focusing on the retina
Auricle
flap of the ear
Auscultation
the process of listening to sounds produced within the body
Blanch test
a test during which the client's fingernail is temporarily pinched to assess capillary refill and peripheral circulation
Bruit
a blowing or swishing sound created by turbulence of blood flow
Caries
tooth cavities
Cerumen
the wax-like substance secreted by glands in the external ear canal
Clubbing
elevation of the proximal aspect of the nail and softening of the nail bed
Cochlea
a seashell-shaped structure found in the inner ear; essential for sound transmission and hearing
Conduction hearing loss
the result of interrupted transmission of sound waves through the outer and middle ear structures
Conjunctivitis
inflammation of the bulbar and palpebral conjunctiva
Cyanosis
bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes caused by reduced oxygen in the blood
Dacryocystitis
inflammation of the lacrimal sac
Diastole
the period during which the ventricles relax
Dullness
a thudlike sound produced during percussion by dense tissue of body organs such as the liver, spleen, or heart
Duration
the length of time that a sound is heard
Edema
the presence of excess interstitial fluid in the body
Erythema
a redness associated with a variety of skin rashes
Eustachian tube
the part of the middle ear that connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx; stabilizes air pressure between the external atmosphere and the middle ear
Exophthalmus
a protrusion of the eyeballs with elevation of the upper eyelids, resulting in a startled or staring expression
External auditory meatus
the entrance to the ear canal
Extinction
the failure to perceive touch on one side of the body when two symmetric areas of the body are touched simultaneously
Fasciculation
an abnormal contraction or shortening of a bundle of muscle fibers
Flatness
an extremely dull sound produced, during percussion, by very dense tissue, such as muscle or bone
Gingivitis
red, swollen gingia (gums)
Glaucoma
a disturbance in the circulation of aqueous fluid; causes an increase in intraocular pressure
Glossitis
inflammation of the tongue
Goniometer
a device used to measure the angle of a joint in degrees
Helix
the posterior curve of the auricle's upper aspect
Hernia
a protrusion (such as of the intestine through the inguinal wall or canal)
Hordeolum (sty)
a redness, swelling, and tenderness of the hair follicle and glands that empty at the edge of the eyelids
Hyperopia
abnormal refraction in which light rays focus behind the retina, farsightedness
Hyperresonance
an abnormal booming sound produced during percussion of the lungs
Incus
the anvil bone of the middle ear
Inspection
the visual examination i.e. assessing by using the sense of sight
Intensity
the loudness or softness of a sound, amplitude
Intention tremor
involuntary trembling when an individual attempts a voluntary movement
Jaundice
a yellowish color of the sclera, mucous membranes, and/or skin
Lift
an abnormal anterior movement of the chest related to enlargement of the right ventricle
Lobule
earlobe
Malleus
hammer bone of the middle ear
Manubrium
the handlelike superior part of the sternum that joins with the clavicles
Mastoid
a bony prominence behind the ear
Miosis
constricted pupils
Mixed hearing loss
a combination of conduction and sensorineural loss
Mydriasis
enlarged pupils
Myopia
abnormal refraction in which light rays focus in front of the retina
Normocephalic
normal head size
One-point discrimination
the ability to sense whether one or two areas of the skin are being stimulated by pressure
Ossicles
the three middle ear bones of sound transmission
Otoscope
an instrument used to examine the ears
Pallor
the absence of underlying red tones in the skin and may be most readily seen in the buccal mucosa
Palpation
the examination of the body using the sense of touch
Parotitis
inflammation of the parotid salivary gland
Percussion
the forceful striking of the chest with cupped hands to loosen secretions in the lungs; a method in which the body surface is struck to elicit sounds that can be heard or vibrations that can be felt
Perfusion
passage of blood constituents through the vessels of the circulatory system
Periodontal disease
disorder of the supporting structures of the teeth
Pinna
see Auricle
Pitch
the frequency or number of the vibrations heard during auscultation
Plaque
an invisible soft film consisting of bacteria, molecules of saliva, and remnants of epithelial cells and leukocytes that adheres to the enamel surface of teeth
Pleximeter
in percussion, the middle finger of the dominant hand placed firmly on the client's skin
Plexor
in percussion, the middle finger of the non-dominant hand or a percussion hammer used to strike the pleximeter
Precordium
an area of the chest overlying the heart
Presbyopia
loss of elasticity of the lens and thus loss of ability to see close objects as a result of the aging process
Proprioceptors
sensory receptors that are sensitive to movement and the position of the body
Pyorrhea
purulent periodontal disease
Quality
a subjective description of a sound (e.g., whistling, gurgling)
Reflex
an automatic response of the body to a stimulus
Resonance
a low-pitched, hollow sound produced over normal lung tissue when the chest is percussed
Resting tremor
a tremor that is apparent when the client is at rest and diminishes with activity
S1
the first heart sound which occurs when the atrioventricular valves (mitral and tricuspid) close
S2
the second heart sound which occurs when the semilunar valves (aortic and pulmonic) close
Semicircular canals
in the inner ear; contain the organs of equilibrium
Sensorineural hearing loss
the result of damage to the inner ear, the auditory nerve, or the hearing center in the brain
Sordes
accumulation of foul matter (food, microorganisms and epithelial elements) on the teeth and gums
Stapes
stirrups bone of the middle ear
Sternum
the breastbone
Systole
the period during which the ventricles contract
Tartar
a visible, hard deposit of plaque and dead bacteria that forms at the gum lines
Thrill
a vibrating sensation over a blood vessel which indicates turbulent blood flow
Tragus
the cartilaginous protrusion at the entrance to the ear canal
Tremor
an involuntary trembling of a limb or body part
Triangular fossa
a depression of the antihelix
Two-point discrimination
see One-point discrimination
Tympanic membrane
the eardrum
Tympany
a musical or drumlike sound produced during percussion over an air filled stomach and abdomen
Vestibule
contains the organs of equilibrium; found in the inner ear
Visual acuity
the degree of detail the eye can discern in an image
Visual fields
the area an individual can see when looking straight ahead
Vitiligo
patches of hypopigmented skin, caused by the destruction of melanocytes in the area
acute coronary syndrome
develops when the oxygen supply to the myocardium is diminished and not immediately reversible
angina
chest pain that is the clinical manifestation of reversible myocardial ischemia
atherosclerosis
formation of focal deposits of cholesterol and lipids known as atheromas or plaque, primarily within the intimal wall of arteries, that obstruct circulation
chronic stable angina
chest pain that occurs intermittently over a long period with the same pattern of onset, duration, and intensity of symptoms
collateral circulation
development of arterial branching that occurs within the coronary circulation when occlusion of the coronary arteries occurs slowly over a long period
coronary artery disease
an abnormal condition that may affect the heart's arteries and produce various pathologic effects, especially the reduced flow of oxygen and nutrients to the myocardium
metabolic equivalent (MET)
a unit of measurement of heat production by the body; used to determine the energy costs of various exercises
myocardial infarction (MI)
irreversible cardiac cellular death caused by sustained myocardial ischemia
percutaneous coronary intervention
a common elective intervention for coronary artery disease in which a catheter equipped with an inflatable balloon tip is inserted into a narrowed coronary artery and the balloon is inflated
Prinzmetal's angina
variant angina; occurs at rest, usually in response to reversible, severe spasm of a major coronary artery
silent ischemia
asymptomatic ischemia that may damage the heart
stent
expandable mesh-like structure designed to maintain vessel patency by compressing the arterial walls and resisting vasoconstriction
sudden cardiac death
unexpected death from cardiac causes
unstable angina
angina that is new in onset, occurs at rest, or has a worsening pattern
autonomic nervous system
(ANS) governs involuntary functions of cardiac muscle, smooth (involuntary) muscle, and glands. The ANS is divided into two components, sympathetic and parasympathetic, which are anatomically and functionally different. These two systems function together to maintain a relatively balanced internal environment. The ANS is both an efferent and afferent system. It consists of preganglionic nerves and postganglionic nerves.
blood-brain barrier
a physiologic barrier between blood capillaries and brain tissue. The structure of brain capillaries differs from that of other capillaries. Some substances that normally pass readily into most tissues are prevented from entering brain tissue. This barrier protects the brain from certain potentially harmful agents, while allowing nutrients and gases to enter. Because the blood-brain barrier affects the penetration of drugs, only certain ones can enter the CNS from the bloodstream. Lipid-soluble compounds enter the brain easily, whereas water-soluble and ionized drugs enter the brain and spinal cord slowly. Damage to the blood-brain barrier results in the penetration of drugs and other substances into brain tissue.
central nervous system
brain and spinal cord.
cerebrospinal fluid
circulates within the subarachnoid space that surrounds the brain, brainstem, and spinal cord. This fluid provides cushioning for the brain and spinal cord, allows fluid shifts from the cranial cavity to the spinal cavity, and carries nutrients. The formation of CSF in the choroid plexus in the ventricles involves both passive diffusion and active transport of substances. CSF resembles an ultrafiltrate of blood.
cranial nerves
the 12 paired nerves composed of cell bodies with fibers that exit from the cranial cavity. Unlike the spinal nerves, which always have both afferent sensory and efferent motor fibers, some CNs have only afferent and some only efferent fibers; others have both.
dermatome
the area of skin innervated by the sensory fibers of a single dorsal root of a spinal nerve. The dermatomes give a general picture of somatic sensory innervation by spinal segments.
lower motor neurons
the final common pathway through which descending motor tracts influence skeletal muscle, the effector organ for movement. The cell bodies of LMNs, which send axons to innervate the skeletal muscles of the arms, trunk, and legs, are located in the anterior horn of the corresponding segments of the spinal cord (e.g., cervical segments contain LMNs for the arms). LMNs for skeletal muscles of the eyes, face, mouth, and throat are located in the corresponding segments of the brainstem. These cell bodies and their axons make up the somatic motor components of the cranial nerves. LMN lesions generally cause weakness or paralysis, denervation atrophy, hyporeflexia or areflexia, and decreased muscle tone (flaccidity).
meninges
The meninges are three layers of protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord. The thick dura mater forms the outermost layer, with the arachnoid layer and pia mater being the next two layers.
neuroglia
glial cells, provide support, nourishment, and protection to neurons. They constitute almost half the brain and spinal cord mass and are 5 to 10 times more numerous than neurons. Different types of glial cells, including oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells, and microglia, have specific functions. Oligodendrocytes are specialized cells that produce the myelin sheath of nerve fibers in the CNS (Schwann cells myelinate the nerve fibers in the periphery) and are primarily found in the white matter of the CNS. Astrocytes provide structural support to neurons, and their delicate processes form the blood-brain barrier with the endothelium of the blood vessels, and play a role in synaptic transmission (conduction of impulses between neurons). They are found primarily in gray matter. When the brain is injured, astrocytes act as phagocytes for neuronal debris. They help restore the neurochemical milieu and provide support for repair. Proliferation of astrocytes contributes to the formation of scar tissue (gliosis) in the CNS. Ependymal cells line the brain ventricles and aid in the secretion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Microglia, a type of macrophage, are relatively rare in normal CNS tissue. They are phagocytes and are important in host defense.
neuron
a nerve cell, comprised of a cell body, an axon, and several dendrites. The cell body containing the nucleus and cytoplasm is the metabolic center of the neuron. Dendrites are short processes extending from the cell body. They receive nerve impulses from the axons of other neurons and conduct impulses toward the cell body. The nerve axon projects varying distances from the cell body, ranging from several micrometers to more than a meter. Its function is to carry nerve impulses to other neurons or to end organs. The end organs are smooth and striated muscles and glands. Axons may be myelinated or unmyelinated. Many axons present in the CNS and the PNS are covered by a segmentally interrupted myelin sheath composed of a white, lipid substance that acts as an insulator for the conduction of impulses. Generally, the smaller fibers are unmyelinated.
neurotransmitter
a chemical agent involved in the transmission of an impulse across the synaptic cleft. Some neurotransmitters are excitatory: they cause an increase in Na1 permeability at the postsynaptic cell membrane, increasing the likelihood that an action potential will be generated. This type of synaptic input results in an excitatory postsynaptic potential. Other neurotransmitters are inhibitory: they cause an increase in permeability of K1 and chloride (Cl2) ions, decreasing the likelihood that an action potential will be generated. This type of synaptic input results in an inhibitory postsynaptic potential.
peripheral nervous system
consists of the cranial and spinal nerves and the peripheral components of the autonomic nervous system (ANS).
reflex
an involuntary response to a stimulus. The components of a monosynaptic reflex arc (the simplest kind of reflex arc) are a receptor organ, an afferent neuron, an effector neuron, and an effector organ (e.g., skeletal muscle). The afferent neuron synapses with the efferent neuron in the gray matter of the spinal cord. More complex reflex arcs have other neurons (interneurons) in addition to the afferent neuron influencing the effector neuron. In the spinal cord, reflex arcs play an important role in maintaining muscle tone, which is essential for body posture.
synapse
the structural and functional junction between two neurons. It is the point at which the nerve impulse is transmitted from one neuron to another or from neuron to glands or muscles. The essential structures of synaptic transmission are a presynaptic terminal, a synaptic cleft, and a receptor site on the postsynaptic cell (Fig. 56-4). There are two types of synapses: electrical and chemical.
upper motor neurons
(UMNs) originate in the cerebral cortex and project downward. The corticobulbar tract ends in the brainstem, and the corticospinal tract descends into the spinal cord. These neurons influence skeletal muscle movement. UMN lesions generally cause weakness or paralysis, disuse atrophy, hyperreflexia, and increased muscle tone (spasticity).
NANDA

Ineffective Tissue Perfusion (Cardiopulmonary)
Decrease in oxygen resulting in the failure to nourish the tissues at the capillary level.
NANDA

Decreased Cardiac Output
Inadequate blood pumped by the heart to meet metabolic demands of the body
NANDA

Activity Intolerance
Insufficient physiological or psychological energy to endure or complete required or desired daily activities