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593 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Afebrile
absence of a fever
Apical pulse
a central pulse located at the apex of the heart
Apical-radial pulse
measurement of the apical beat and the radial pulse at the same time
Apnea
a complete absence of respirations
Arrhythmia
a pulse with an abnormal rhythm
Arterial blood pressure
the measure of the pressure exerted by the blood as it pulsates through the arteries
Arteriosclerosis
a condition in which the elastic and muscular tissues of the arteries are replaced with fibrous tissue
Auscultatory gap
the temporary disappearance of sounds normally heard over the brachial artery when the sphygmomanometer cuff pressure is high and the sounds reappear at a lower level
Basal metabolic rate
(BMR) the rate of energy utilization in the body required to maintain essential activities such as breathing
Body temperature
the balance between the heat produced by the body and the heat lost from the body
Bradycardia
abnormally slow pulse rate, less than 60 per minute
Bradypnea
abnormally slow respiratory rate, usually less than 10 respirations per minute
Cardinal signs
see Vital signs
Chemical thermogenesis
the stimulation of heat production in the body through increased cellular metabolism caused by increases in thyroxine output
Conduction
the transfer of heat from one molecule to another in direct contact
Constant fever
a state in which the body temperature fluctuates minimally but always remains above normal
Convection
the dispersion of heat by air currents
Core temperature
the temperature of the deep tissues of the body (e.g., thorax, abdominal cavity); relatively constant at 37°C (98.6°F)
Costal (thoracic) breathing
use of the external intercostal muscles and other accessory muscles, such as the sternocleidomastoid muscles
Diaphragmatic (abdominal) breathing
contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm, observed by the movement of the abdomen, which occurs as a result of the diaphragm's contraction and downward movement
Diastolic pressure
the pressure of the blood against the arterial walls when the ventricles of the heart are at rest
Dysrhythmia
a pulse with an irregular rhythm
Elasticity of the arterial wall
pliability or expansibility of the vessels
Eupnea
normal, quiet breathing
Exhalation
(expiration) the movement of gases from the lungs to the atmosphere
Expiration
(Exhalation) the movement of gases from the lungs to the atmosphere
External respiration
the interchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the alveoli of the lungs and the pulmonary blood
Febrile
pertaining to a fever; feverish
Fever
elevated body temperature
Fever spike
a temperature that rises to fever level rapidly following a normal temperature and then returns to normal within a few hours
Heat balance
the state a person is in when the amount of heat produced by the body exactly equals the amount of heat lost
Hematocrit
the proportion of red blood cells (erythrocytes) to the total blood volume
Hyperpyrexia
see Hyperthermia
Hypertension
an abnormally high blood pressure; over 140 mm Hg systolic and/or 90 mm Hg diastolic
Hyperthermia
an extremely high body temperature (e.g., 41 degrees C [105.8 degrees F])
Hyperventilation
very deep, rapid respirations
Hypotension
an abnormally low blood pressure; less than 100 mm Hg systolic in an adult
Hypothalamic integrator
the center in the brain that controls the core temperature; located in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus
Hypoventilation
very shallow respirations
Inhalation
the act of breathing in; the intake of air or other substances into the lungs
Insensible water loss
continuous and unnoticed water loss
Inspiration
(Inhalation) the act of breathing in; the intake of air or other substances into the lungs
Intermittent fever
a body temperature that alternates at regular intervals between periods of fever and periods of normal or subnormal temperatures
Internal respiration
the interchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the circulating blood and the cells of the body tissues
Korotkoff's sounds
a series of five sounds produced by blood within the artery with each ventricular contraction
Meniscus
the crescent-shaped upper surface of a column of fluid
Orthostatic hypotension
decrease in blood pressure related to positional or postural changes from lying to sitting or standing positions
Peripheral pulse
a pulse located in the periphery of the body (eg, foot, wrist)
Point of maximal impulse
(PMI) the point where the apex of the heart touches the anterior chest wall
Polypnea
abnormally fast respirations
Pulse
the wave of blood within an artery that is created by contraction of the left ventricle of the heart
Pulse deficit
the difference between the apical pulse and the radial pulse
Pulse oximeter
a noninvasive device that measures the arterial blood oxygen saturation by means of a sensor attached to the finger
Pulse pressure
the difference between the systolic and the diastolic blood pressure
Pulse rhythm
the pattern of the beats and intervals between the beats
Pulse volume
the strength or amplitude of the pulse, the force of blood exerted with each heart beat
Pyrexia
a body temperature above the normal range, fever
Radiation
the transfer of heat from the surface of one object to the surface of another without contact between the two objects
Relapsing fever
the occurrence short febrile periods of a few days interspersed with periods of 1 or 2 days of normal temperature
Remittent fever
the occurrence of a wide range of temperature fluctuations (more than 2 degrees C [3.6 degrees F]) over the 24-hour period, all of which are above normal
Respiration
the act of breathing; transport of oxygen from the atmosphere to the body cells and transport of carbon dioxide from the cells to the atmosphere
Respiratory character
(Respiratory quality)
refers to those aspects of breathing that are different from normal, effortless breathing, includes the amount of effort exerted to breathe and the sounds produced by breathing
Respiratory quality
refers to those aspects of breathing that are different from normal, effortless breathing, includes the amount of effort exerted to breathe and the sounds produced by breathing
Respiratory rhythm
refers to the regularity of the expirations and the inspirations
Surface temperature
the temperature of the skin, the subcutaneous
Systolic pressure
the pressure of the blood against the arterial walls when the ventricles of the heart contract
Tachycardia
an abnormally rapid pulse rate, greater than 100 beats per minute
Tachypnea
abnormally fast respirations, usually more than 24 respirations per minute
Tidal volume
the volume of air that is normally inhaled and exhaled
Vaporization
continuous evaporation of moisture from the respiratory tract and from the mucosa of the mouth and from the skin
Ventilation
the movement of air in and out of the lungs; the process of inhalation and exhalation
Viscous
thick, sticky
Vital signs
measurements of physiological functioning, specifically body temperature, pulse, respirations, and blood pressure; may include pain and pulse oximetry
Auditory
related to or experienced through hearing
Awareness
the ability to perceive environmental stimuli and body reactions and to respond appropriately through thought and action
Cultural care deprivation
lack of culturally assistive, supportive, or facilitative acts
Cultural deprivation
(Cultural care deprivation) lack of culturally assistive, supportive, or facilitative acts
Culture care
professional health care that is culturally sensitive, culturally appropriate, and culturally competent and is essential for the new millennium
Gustatory
referring to the sense of taste
Kinesthetic
refers to awareness of the position and movement of body parts olfactory
Sensoristasis
the need for sensory stimulation
Sensory deficit
partial or complete impairment of any sensory organ
Sensory deprivation
insufficient sensory stimulation for a person to function
Sensory overload
an overabundance of sensory stimulation
Sensory perception
the organization and translation of stimuli into meaningful information
Sensory reception
process of receiving environmental stimuli
Tactile
related to touch
Visceral
referring to viscera
Visual
related to sight
Actual loss
can be identified by others and can arise either in response to or in anticipation of a situation
Advance health care directive
a variety of legal and lay documents that allow persons to specify aspects of care they wish to receive should they become unable to make or communicate their preferences
Algor mortis
the gradual decrease of the body's temperature after death
Anticipatory grief
grief experienced in advance of the event
Anticipatory loss
the experience of loss before the loss actually occurs
Autopsy
an examination of the body after death to determine the cause of death and to learn more about a disease process
Bereavement
a subjective response of a person who has experienced the loss of a significant other through death
Cardiac arrest
the cessation of heart function
Cerebral death
the higher brain center or cerebral cortex is irreversibly destroyed
Closed awareness
a type of awareness in which the client is unaware of impending death
Coroner
a public official, not necessarily a physician, appointed or elected to inquire into the causes of death
Do-not-resuscitate order (DNR)
a physician's order that specifies no effort be made to resuscitate the client with terminal or irreversible illness in the event of a respiratory or cardiac arrest.
Dysfunctional grief
the state in which an individual or group experiences prolonged, unresolved grief and engages in detrimental activities
End-of-life care
care provided in the final weeks before death
Euthanasia
the act of painlessly putting to death persons suffering from incurable or distressing disease
Grief
emotional suffering often caused by bereavement
Health care proxy
a legal statement that appoints a proxy to make medical decisions for the client in the event the client is unable to do so
Heart-lung death
the traditional clinical signs of death: cessation of the apical pulse, respirations, and blood pressure
Higher brain death
(Cerebral death) the higher brain center or cerebral cortex is irreversibly destroyed
Hospice
the delivery of care for terminally ill clients either in health care facilities or in the client's home
Living will
a document that states medical treatments(s) the client chooses to omit or refuse in the event that the client is unable to make these decisions
Livor mortis
discoloration of the skin caused by break down of the red blood cells; occurs after blood circulation has ceased; appears in the dependent areas of the body
Loss
an actual or potential situation in which a valued ability, object, or person is inaccessible or changed so that it is perceived as no longer valuable
Medical examiner
a physician who usually has advanced education in pathology or forensic medicine who determines causes of death
Mortician
a person trained in the care of the dead; also called an undertaker
Mourning
the process through which grief is eventually resolved or altered
Mutual pretense
a type of awareness in which the client, family, and health personnel know that the prognosis is terminal but do not talk about it and make an effort not to raise the subject
Open awareness
a type of awareness in which the client and people around know about the impending death
Palliative care
symptom care of clients for whom disease no longer responds to cure-focused treatment
Perceived loss
the loss experienced by a person that cannot be verified by others
Postmortem examination
(Autopsy) an examination of the body after death to determine the cause of death and to learn more about a disease process
Rigor mortis
the stiffening of the body that occurs after death
Shroud
a large piece of plastic or cotton material used to enclose a body after death
Undertaker
a person trained in the care of the dead; also called a Mortician
Aerobic
requiring oxygen
Anaerobic
involves activity in which the muscles cannot draw out enough oxygen from the blood stream; used in endurance training
Approximated
closed tissue surfaces
Bandage
a strip of cloth used to wrap some part of the body
Binder
a type of bandage applied to large body areas (abdomen or chest) or for a specific body part (arm sling); used to provide support
Collagen
a protein found in connective tissue; a whitish protein substance that adds tensile strength to a wound
Compress
a moist gauze dressing applied frequently to an open wound, sometimes medicated
Debridement
removal of infected and necrotic tissue
Decubitus ulcers
any lesion caused by unrelieved pressure that results in damage to underlying tissue; formerly called decubitus ulcers, bed sores, pressure sores; also called Pressure ulcers
Dehiscence
the partial or total rupturing of a sutured wound; usually involves an abdominal wound in which the layers below the skin also separate
Eschar
thick necrotic tissue produced by burning, by a corrosive application, or by death of tissue associated with loss of vascular supply, bacterial invasion, and putrefaction
Evisceration
extrusion of the internal organs
Excoriation
loss of the superficial layers of the skin
Fibrin
an insoluble protein formed from fibrinogen during the clotting of blood
Friction
rubbing; the force that opposes motion
Hematoma
a collection of blood in a tissue, organ, or space due to a break in the wall of a blood vessel
Hemorrhage
excessive loss of blood from the vascular system
Hemorrhagic exudate
an exudate containing large amounts of red blood cells; also sanguineous exudate
Hemostasis
cessation of bleeding
Immobility
prescribed or unavoidable restriction of movement in any area of a person's life
Irrigation (lavage)
the washing out or flushing of a body cavity, organ, or wound with by a stream of water or other fluid which may or may not be medicated
Ischemia
deficiency of blood supply caused by obstruction of circulation to the body part
Keloid
a hypertrophic scar containing an abnormal amount of collagen
Maceration
the wasting away or softening of a solid as if by the action of soaking; often used to describe degenerative changes and eventual disintegration
Manometer
an instrument used to measure the pressure of fluids or gases
Packing
filling an open wound or cavity with a material such as gauze
Phagocytosis
the process by which cells engulf microorganisms, other cells, or foreign particles
Pressure
a compressing downward force on a body area
Pressure ulcers
any lesion caused by unrelieved pressure that results in damage to underlying tissue; formerly called decubitus ulcers, bed sores, pressure sores
Primary intention healing
tissue surfaces are approximated (closed) and there is minimal or no tissue loss, formation of minimal granulation tissue and scarring
Purulent exudates
an exudate consisting of leukocytes, liquefied dead tissue debris, and dead and living bacteria
Pus
a thick liquid associated with inflammation and composed of cells, liquid, microorganisms, and tissue debris
Pyogenic bacteria
bacteria that produce pus
Reactive hyperemia
a bright red flush on the skin occurring after pressure is relieved
Regeneration
renewal, regrowth, the replacement of destroyed tissue cells by cells that are identical or similar in structure and function
Sanguineous exudate
an exudate containing large amounts of red blood cells
Secondary intention healing
wound in which the tissue surfaces are not approximated and there is extensive tissue loss; formation of excessive granulation tissue and scarring
Serous exudate
inflammatory material composed of serum (clear portion of blood) derived from the blood and serous membranes of the body such as the peritoneum, pleura, pericardium, and meninges; watery in appearance and has few cells
Shearing force
a combination of friction and pressure which when applied to the skin results in damage to the blood vessels and tissues
Sitz bath
referred to as a hip bath, is used to soak a client's pelvic area
Suppuration
the formation of pus
Vasoconstriction
a decrease in the caliber (lumen) of blood vessels
Vasodilation
an increase in the caliber (lumen) of blood vessels
Assessing
the process of collecting, organizing, validating, and recording data (information) about a client's health status
Cephalocaudal
proceeding in the direction from head to toe
Closed questions
restrictive question requiring only a short answer
Covert data (symptoms, subjective data)
information (data) apparent only to the person affected that can be described or verified only by that person
Cues
any piece of information or data that influences decisions
Data
information
Directive interview
a highly structured interview that uses closed questions to elicit specific information
Inferences
interpretations or conclusions made based on cues or observed data
Interview
a planned communication; a conversation with a purpose
Leading question
a question that influences the client to give a particular answer
Neutral question
a question that does not direct or pressure a client to answer in a certain way
Nondirective interview
an interview using open-ended questions and empathetic responses to build rapport and learn client concerns
Objective data
information (data) that is detectable by an observer or can be tested against an accepted standard; can be seen, heard, felt, or smelled; also called overt data
Open-ended questions
questions that specify only the broad topic to be discussed and invite clients to discover and explore their thoughts and feelings about the topic
Overt data
information (data) that is detectable by an observer or can be tested against an accepted standard; can be seen, heard, felt, or smelled; also called Objective data
Rapport
a relationship between two or more people of mutual trust and understanding
Review of systems
a brief review of essential functioning of various body parts or systems; also called Screening examination
Screening examination (review of systems)
a brief review of essential functioning of various body parts or systems
Signs
Overt data or objective data. information (data) that is detectable by an observer or can be tested against an accepted standard; can be seen, heard, felt, or smelled
Subjective data
data that are apparent only to the person affected; can be described or verified only by that person
Symptoms
information (data) apparent only to the person affected that can be described or verified by only that person. systems/subjective data/covert data
Validation
the determination that the diagnosis accurately reflects the problem of the client, that the methods used for data gathering were appropriate, and that the conclusion or diagnosis is justified by the data
Adventitious breath sounds
abnormal or acquired breath sounds
Alopecia
the loss of scalp hair (baldness) or body hair
Angle of Louis
the junction between the body of the sternum and the manubrium; the starting point for locating the ribs anteriorly
Antihelix
the anterior curve of the auricle's upper aspect
Aphasia
any defects in or loss of the power to express oneself by speech, writing, or signs, or to comprehend spoken or written language due to disease or injury of the cerebral cortex
Astigmatism
an uneven curvature of the cornea that prevents horizontal and vertical rays from focusing on the retina
Auricle
flap of the ear
Auscultation
the process of listening to sounds produced within the body
Blanch test
a test during which the client's fingernail is temporarily pinched to assess capillary refill and peripheral circulation
Bruit
a blowing or swishing sound created by turbulence of blood flow
Caries
tooth cavities
Cerumen
the wax-like substance secreted by glands in the external ear canal
Clubbing
elevation of the proximal aspect of the nail and softening of the nail bed
Cochlea
a seashell-shaped structure found in the inner ear; essential for sound transmission and hearing
Conduction hearing loss
the result of interrupted transmission of sound waves through the outer and middle ear structures
Conjunctivitis
inflammation of the bulbar and palpebral conjunctiva
Cyanosis
bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes caused by reduced oxygen in the blood
Dacryocystitis
inflammation of the lacrimal sac
Diastole
the period during which the ventricles relax
Dullness
a thudlike sound produced during percussion by dense tissue of body organs such as the liver, spleen, or heart
Duration
the length of time that a sound is heard
Edema
the presence of excess interstitial fluid in the body
Erythema
a redness associated with a variety of skin rashes
Eustachian tube
the part of the middle ear that connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx; stabilizes air pressure between the external atmosphere and the middle ear
Exophthalmus
a protrusion of the eyeballs with elevation of the upper eyelids, resulting in a startled or staring expression
External auditory meatus
the entrance to the ear canal
Extinction
the failure to perceive touch on one side of the body when two symmetric areas of the body are touched simultaneously
Fasciculation
an abnormal contraction or shortening of a bundle of muscle fibers
Flatness
an extremely dull sound produced, during percussion, by very dense tissue, such as muscle or bone
Gingivitis
red, swollen gingia (gums)
Glaucoma
a disturbance in the circulation of aqueous fluid; causes an increase in intraocular pressure
Glossitis
inflammation of the tongue
Goniometer
a device used to measure the angle of a joint in degrees
Helix
the posterior curve of the auricle's upper aspect
Hernia
a protrusion (such as of the intestine through the inguinal wall or canal)
Hordeolum (sty)
a redness, swelling, and tenderness of the hair follicle and glands that empty at the edge of the eyelids
Hyperopia
abnormal refraction in which light rays focus behind the retina, farsightedness
Hyperresonance
an abnormal booming sound produced during percussion of the lungs
Incus
the anvil bone of the middle ear
Inspection
the visual examination i.e. assessing by using the sense of sight
Intensity
the loudness or softness of a sound, amplitude
Intention tremor
involuntary trembling when an individual attempts a voluntary movement
Jaundice
a yellowish color of the sclera, mucous membranes, and/or skin
Lift
an abnormal anterior movement of the chest related to enlargement of the right ventricle
Lobule
earlobe
Malleus
hammer bone of the middle ear
Manubrium
the handlelike superior part of the sternum that joins with the clavicles
Mastoid
a bony prominence behind the ear
Miosis
constricted pupils
Mixed hearing loss
a combination of conduction and sensorineural loss
Mydriasis
enlarged pupils
Myopia
abnormal refraction in which light rays focus in front of the retina
Normocephalic
normal head size
One-point discrimination
the ability to sense whether one or two areas of the skin are being stimulated by pressure
Ossicles
the three middle ear bones of sound transmission
Otoscope
an instrument used to examine the ears
Pallor
the absence of underlying red tones in the skin and may be most readily seen in the buccal mucosa
Palpation
the examination of the body using the sense of touch
Parotitis
inflammation of the parotid salivary gland
Percussion
the forceful striking of the chest with cupped hands to loosen secretions in the lungs; a method in which the body surface is struck to elicit sounds that can be heard or vibrations that can be felt
Perfusion
passage of blood constituents through the vessels of the circulatory system
Periodontal disease
disorder of the supporting structures of the teeth
Pinna
Flap of the ear; Auricle
Pitch
the frequency or number of the vibrations heard during auscultation
Plaque
an invisible soft film consisting of bacteria, molecules of saliva, and remnants of epithelial cells and leukocytes that adheres to the enamel surface of teeth
Pleximeter
in percussion, the middle finger of the dominant hand placed firmly on the client's skin
Plexor
in percussion, the middle finger of the non-dominant hand or a percussion hammer used to strike the pleximeter
Precordium
an area of the chest overlying the heart
Presbyopia
loss of elasticity of the lens and thus loss of ability to see close objects as a result of the aging process
Proprioceptors
sensory receptors that are sensitive to movement and the position of the body
Pyorrhea
purulent periodontal disease
Quality
a subjective description of a sound (e.g., whistling, gurgling)
Reflex
an automatic response of the body to a stimulus
Resonance
a low-pitched, hollow sound produced over normal lung tissue when the chest is percussed
Resting tremor
a tremor that is apparent when the client is at rest and diminishes with activity
S1
the first heart sound which occurs when the atrioventricular valves (mitral and tricuspid) close
S2
the second heart sound which occurs when the semilunar valves (aortic and pulmonic) close
Semicircular canals
in the inner ear; contain the organs of equilibrium
Sensorineural hearing loss
the result of damage to the inner ear, the auditory nerve, or the hearing center in the brain
Sordes
accumulation of foul matter (food, microorganisms and epithelial elements) on the teeth and gums
Stapes
stirrups bone of the middle ear
Sternum
the breastbone
Systole
the period during which the ventricles contract
Tartar
a visible, hard deposit of plaque and dead bacteria that forms at the gum lines
Thrill
a vibrating sensation over a blood vessel which indicates turbulent blood flow
Tragus
the cartilaginous protrusion at the entrance to the ear canal
Tremor
an involuntary trembling of a limb or body part
Triangular fossa
a depression of the antihelix
Two-point discrimination
the ability to sense whether one or two areas of the skin are being stimulated by pressure.
Tympanic membrane
the eardrum
Tympany
a musical or drumlike sound produced during percussion over an air filled stomach and abdomen
Vestibule
contains the organs of equilibrium; found in the inner ear
Visual acuity
the degree of detail the eye can discern in an image
Visual fields
the area an individual can see when looking straight ahead
Vitiligo
patches of hypopigmented skin, caused by the destruction of melanocytes in the area
Acquired immunity
a resistance of the body to infection in which the host receives natural or artificial antobodies produced by another source. Passive immunity
Active immunity
a resistance of the body to infection in which the host produces its own antibodies in response to natural or artificial antigens
Acute infection
those that generally appear suddenly or last a short time
Airborne precautions
methods used to reduce exposure to infectious agents transmitted by airborne droplet nuclei smaller than 5 microns
Airborne transmission
infectious agent transmitted by droplets or dust
Antibodies
immunoglobulins, part of the body's plasma proteins, defend primarily against the extracellular phases of bacterial and viral infections
Antigen
a substance capable of inducing the formation of antibodies
Antiseptics
agents that inhibit the growth of some microorganisms
Asepsis
freedom from infection or infectious material
Autoantigen
an antigen that originates in a person's own body
Bacteremia
bacteria in the blood
Bacteria
the most common infection-causing microorganisms
Bacteriocins
substances produced by some normal flora (e.g., enterobacteria), that can be lethal to related strains of bacteria
Bloodborne pathogens
those microorganisms carried in blood and body fluids that are capable of infecting other persons with serious and difficult to treat viral infections, namely hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and HIV
Body substance isolation
(BSI) generic infection control precautions for all clients except those with diseases transmitted through the air
Carrier
a person or animal that harbors a specific infectious agent and serves as a potential source of infection, yet does not manifest any clinical signs of disease
Cell-mediated defenses
also known as cell-mediated defenses, occur through the T-cell system. Cellular immunity
Cellular immunity
also known as cell-mediated defenses, occur through the T-cell system
Chemotaxis
the action by which leukocytes are attracted to injured cells
Chronic infection
infection that occurs slowly, over a very long period, and may last months or years
Cicatrix
scar
Circulating immunity
antibody-mediated defense; resides ultimately in the B lymphocytes and is mediated by the antibodies produced by B Cells. Humoral immunity
Clean
free of potentially infectious agents
Colonization
the presence of organisms in body secretions or excretions in which strains of bacteria become resident flora but do not cause illness
Communicable disease
a disease that can spread from one person to another
Compromised host
any person at increased risk for an infection
Contact precautions
methods used to reduce exposure to infectious agents easily transmitted by direct client contact or by contact with items in the client's environment
Cultures
laboratory cultivations of microorganisms in a special growth medium
Diapedesis
the movement of blood corpuscles through a blood vessel wall
Dirty
denotes the likely presence of microorganisms, some of which may be capable of causing infection
Disinfectants
agents that destroy pathogens other than spores
Droplet nuclei
residue of evaporated droplets that remains in the air for long periods of time
Droplet precautions
methods used to reduce exposure to infectious agents transmitted by particle droplets larger than 5 microns
Emigration
process in which leukocytes move through the blood vessel wall into the affected tissue spaces
Endogenous
developing from within
Exogenous
developing from without
Exudate
material, such as fluid and cells, that has escaped from blood vessels during the inflammatory process and is deposited in tissue or on tissue surfaces
Fibrinogen
a plasma protein that is converted to fibrin when it is released into the tissues and, together with thromboplastin and platelets, forms an interlacing network making a barrier to wall off an area
Fibrous (scar) tissue
connective tissue repair of wounds with tissue that can proliferate under conditions of ischemia and altered pH
Fungi
infection-causing microorganisms that include yeasts and molds
Granulation tissue
young connective tissue with new capillaries formed in the wound healing process
Humoral immunity
antibody-mediated defense; resides ultimately in the B lymphocytes and is mediated by the antibodies produced by B cells
Hyperemia
increased blood flow to an area
Iatrogenic infection
infections that are the direct result of diagnostic or therapeutic procedures
Immune defenses
Immune functions directed against identifiable bacteria, viruses, fungi, or other infectious agents. Specific defenses
Immunity
a specific resistance of the body to infection; it may be natural, or resistance developed after exposure to a disease agent
Immunoglobulins
Immunoglobulins, part of the body's plasma proteins, defend primarily against the extracellular phases of bacterial and viral infections. Antibodies
Infection
the disease process produced by microorganisms
Inflammation
local and nonspecific defensive tissue response to injury or destruction of cells
Isolation
practices that prevent the spread of infection and communicable disease
Leukocytes
white blood cells
Leukocytosis
an increase in the number of white blood cells
Local infection
an infection that is limited to the specific part of the body where the microorganisms remain
Macrophages
large phagocytes
Margination
the aggregating or lining up of substances along a surface or edge (eg, the lining up of white blood cells against the wall of a blood vessel during the inflammatory process)
Medical asepsis
all practices intended to confine a specific microorganism to a specific area, limiting the number, growth, and spread of microorganisms
Nonspecific defenses
bodily defenses that protect a person against all microorganisms, regardless of prior exposure
Nosocomial infections
infections associated with the delivery of health care services in a health care facility
Occupational exposure
skin, eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials that may result from the performance of an employee's duties
Opportunistic pathogen
a microorganism causing disease only in a susceptible individual
Parasites
microorganisms that live in or on another from which it obtains nourishment
Passive immunity
a resistance of the body to infection in which the host receives natural or artificial antibodies produced by another source
Pathogenicity
the ability to produce disease; a pathogen is a microorganism that causes disease
Phagocytes
cells that ingest microorganisms, other cells, and foreign particles
Reservoir
a source of microorganisms
Resident flora
microorganisms that normally reside on the skin, mucous membranes, and inside the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts
Sepsis
the presence of pathogenic organisms or their toxins in the blood or body tissues
Septicemia
occurs when bacteremia results in systemic infection
Specific (immune) defenses
immune functions directed against identifiable bacteria, viruses, fungi, or other infectious agents
Sterile field
a specified area that is considered free from microorganisms
Sterile technique
practices that keep an area or object free of all microorganisms;
Sterilization
a process that destroys all microorganisms, including spores and viruses
Surgical asepsis
practices that keep an area or object free of all microorganisms; Sterile technique
Systemic infection
when pathogens spread and damage different parts of the body
Universal precautions (UP)
techniques to be used with all clients to decrease the risk of transmitting unidentified pathogens; currently, Standard Precautions incorporate UP and BSI
Vector-borne transmission
a vector is an animal or flying or crawling insect that serves as an intermediate means of transporting the infectious agent
Vehicle-borne transmission
a vehicle is any substance that serves as an intermediate means to transport and introduce an infectious agent into a susceptible host through a suitable portal of entry
Virulence
ability to produce disease
Viruses
nucleic acid-based infectious agents
Asphyxiation
lack of oxygen due to interrupted breathing
Burn
results from excessive exposure to thermal, chemical, electric, or radioactive agents
Carbon monoxide
an odorless, colorless, tasteless gas that is very toxic
Chemical restraints
medications used to control socially disruptive behavior
Electric shock
occurs when a current travels through the body to the ground rather than through electric wiring, or from static electricity that builds up on the body
Heimlich maneuver
subdiaphragmatic abdominal thrusts used to clear an obstructed airway
Physical restraints
any manual method or physical or mechanical device, material, or equipment attached to the client's body that restrict the client's movement
Restraints
protective devices used to limit physical activity of the client or a part of the client's body
Safety monitoring device
a position-sensitive switch that triggers an audio alarm when the client attempts to get out of the bed or chair
Scald
a burn from a hot liquid or vapor, such as steam
Seizure
a sudden onset of a convulsion or other paroxysmal motor or sensory activity
Seizure precautions
safety measures taken by the nurse to protect clients from injury should they have a seizure
Status epilepticus
continuous seizures
Active ROM exercises
isotonic exercises in which the client moves each joint in the body through its complete range, maximally stretching all muscle groups within each plane over the joint
Activity tolerance
the type and amount of exercise or daily activities an individual is able to perform
Activity-exercise pattern
refers to a person's pattern of exercise, activity, leisure, and recreation
Aerobic exercise
any activity during which the body takes in more or an equal amount of oxygen than it expends
Ambulation
the act of walking
Anabolism
a process in which simple substances are converted by the body cells into more complex substances (e.g., building tissue, positive nitrogen balance)
Anaerobic exercise
involves activity in which the muscles cannot draw out enough oxygen from the blood stream; used in endurance training
Ankylosed
permanently immobile joints
Anorexia
lack of appetite
Atrophy
wasting away; decrease in size of organ or tissue (e.g., muscle)
Base of support
the area on which an object rests
Bed rest
strict confinement to bed (complete bed rest), or the client may be allowed to use a bedside commode or have bathroom privileges
Calculi
renal stones
Catabolism
a process in which complex substances are broken down into simpler substances (e.g., breakdown of tissue)
Center of gravity
the point at which the mass (weight) of the body is centered
Contracture
permanent shortening of a muscle and subsequent shortening of tendons and ligaments
Crepitation
(1) a dry, crackling sound like that of crumpled cellophane, produced by air in the subcutaneous tissue or by air moving through fluid in the alveoli of the lungs; (2) a crackling, grating sound produced by bone rubbing against bone
Dorsal position
back-lying position without a pillow
Dorsal recumbent position
a back-lying position with the head and shoulders slightly elevated
Embolus
a blood clot (or a substance such as air) that has moved from its place of origin and is causing obstruction to circulation elsewhere (plural: emboli)
Exercise
a type of physical activity; a planned, structured, and repetitive bodily movement done to improve or maintain one or more components of physical fitness
Flaccid
weak or lax
Fowler's position
a bed sitting position with the head of the bed raised to 45 degrees
Gait
the way a person walks
High Fowler's position
a bed-sitting position in which the head of the bed is elevated 90 degrees
Hypertrophy
enlargement of a muscle or organ
Isokinetic (resistive) exercise
muscle contraction or tension against resistance
Isometric (static or setting) exercise
tensing of a muscle against an immovable outer resistance, which does not change muscle length or produce joint motion
Isotonic (dynamic) exercise
exercise in which muscle tension is constant and the muscle shortens to produce muscle contraction and active movement
Lateral position
a side-lying position
Line of gravity
an imaginary vertical line running through the center of gravity
Logrolling
a technique used to turn a client whose body must at all times be kept in straight alignment (like a log)
Lordosis
an exaggerated concavity in the lumbar region of the vertebral column
Low Fowler's position
a bed-sitting position in which the head of the bed is elevated between 15 and 45 degrees, with or without knee flexion
Mobility
ability to move about freely, easily, and purposefully in the environment
Orthopneic position
a sitting position to relieve respiratory difficulty in which the client leans over and is supported by an overbed table across the lap
Pace
number of steps taken per minute or the distance taken in one step when walking
Passive ROM exercises
another person moves each of the client's joints through its complete range of movement, maximally stretching all muscle groups within each plane over each joint
Physical activity
bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure and produces progressive health benefits
Prone position
face-lying position, with or without a small pillow
Range of motion (ROM)
the degree of movement possible for each joint
Semi-Fowler's position
partial Fowler's position.
a bed-sitting position in which the head of the bed is elevated to 30 degrees, with or without knee flexion
Sims' position
side-lying position with lowermost arm behind the body and uppermost leg flexed
Spastic
describing the sudden, prolonged involuntary muscle contractions of clients with damage to the central nervous system
Supine position
a back-lying position without a pillow. Dorsal position.
Thrombus
a solid mass of blood constituents in the circulatory system; a clot (plural: thrombi)
Tripod (triangle) position
the proper standing position with crutches; crutches are placed about 15 cm (6 in) in front of the feet and out laterally about 15 cm (6 in), creating a wide base of support
Urinary incontinence
a temporary or permanent inability of the external sphincter muscles to control the flow of urine from the bladder
Urinary reflux
backward flow of urine
Urinary retention
the accumulation of urine in the bladder and inability of the bladder to empty itself
Urinary stasis
stagnation of urinary flow
Valsalva maneuver
forceful exhalation against a closed glottis, which increases intrathoracic pressure and thus interferes with venous blood return to the heart
Vital capacity
the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after a maximum inhalationa
Bactericidal
bacteria-killing action
Callus
a thickened portion of the skin
Cleaning bath
a type of bath given chiefly for hygiene purposes
Corn
a conical, circular, painful, raised area on the toe or foot
Dandruff
a dry or greasy, scaly material shed from the scalp
Dental caries
tooth decay
Fissures
deep grooves, frequently occur between the toes as a result of dryness and cracking of the skin
Gingival
of or relating to the gums
Hirsutism
abnormal hairiness, particularly in women
Hygiene
the science of health and its maintenance
Ingrown toenail
the growing inward of the nail into the soft tissues around it, most often results from improper nail trimming
Pediculosis
infestation with head lice
Plantar warts
a wart on the side of the foot
Scabies
a contagious skin infestation caused by an arachnid, the itch mite
Sebum
the oily, lubricating secretion of glands in the skin called sebaceous glands
Sudoriferous glands
glands of the dermis that secrete sweat
Sweat glands
glands of the dermis that secrete sweat; Sudoriferous glands
Therapeutic baths
given for physical effects, such as to soothe irritated skin or to treat an area (e.g., the perineum)
Ticks
small gray-brown parasites that bite into tissue and suck blood and transmit several diseases to people, in particular Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, and Tularemia.
Tinea pedis
athlete's foot (ringworm of the foot), which is caused by a fungus
24-hour food recall
client recalls all the food and beverages consumed during a typical 24-hour period
Anemia
a condition in which the blood is deficient in red blood cells or hemoglobin
Anorexia nervosa
a disease characterized by a prolonged inability or refusal to eat, rapid weight loss, and emaciation in persons who continue to believe they are fat
Body mass index
(BMI) indicates whether weight is appropriate for height
Bottle mouth syndrome
describes the decay of the infant's teeth caused by constant contact with the sweet liquid in a bottle
Bulimia
an uncontrollable compulsion to eat large amounts of food and then expel it by self-induced vomiting or by taking laxatives
Caloric value
the amount of energy that nutrients or foods supply to the body
Calorie (c, cal, kcal)
a unit of heat energy equivalent to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1 C
Cholesterol
a lipid that does not contain fatty acid but possesses many of the chemical and physical properties of other lipids
Complete proteins
a protein that contains all of the essential amino acids as well as many nonessential ones
Demand feeding
child is fed when hungry
Diet history
a comprehensive assessment of a client's food intake that involves an extensive interview by a nutritionist or dietitian
Disaccharides
sugars that are composed of double molecules
Dysphagia
difficulty or inability to swallow
Enteral
through the gastrointestinal system
Enzymes
biologic catalysts that speed up chemical reactions
Essential amino acids
amino acids that cannot be manufactured in the body and must be supplied as part of the protein ingested in the diet
Fad
a widespread but short-lived interest, or a practice followed with considerable zeal
Fats
lipids that are solid at room temperature
Fat-soluble vitamins
A, D, E, and K vitamins that the body can store
Fatty acids
the basic structural units of most lipids made up of carbon chains and hydrogen
Food diary
a detailed record of measured amounts (portion sizes) of all food and fluids a client consumes during a specified period, usually 3 to 7 days
Food frequency record
a checklist that indicates how often general food groups or specific foods are eaten
Gastrostomy
an opening through the abdominal wall into the stomach
Glycerides
the most common form of lipids consisting of a glycerol molecule with up to three fatty acids
Glycogen
the chief carbohydrate stored in the body, particularly in the liver and muscles
Glycogenesis
the process of glycogen formation
Ideal body weight (IBW)
the optimal weight recommended for optimal health
Incomplete proteins
protein that lacks one or more essential amino acids; usually derived from vegetables
Iron deficiency anemia
a form of anemia caused by inadequate supply of iron for synthesis of hemoglobin
Jejunostomy
an opening through the abdominal wall into the jejunum
Kilocalorie (Kcal)
a unit of heat energy equivalent to the amount of of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1 degree Celsius. also called a Calorie.
Kilojoule (kJ)
a metric measurement referring to the amount of energy required when a force of one newton (N) moves one kilogram of weight one meter distance
Large calorie (Calorie, kilocalorie [Kcal])
a unit of heat energy equivalent to the amount of of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1 degree Celsius. also called a Calorie.
Lipids
organic substances that are greasy and insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol or ether
Lipoproteins
soluble compounds made up of various lipids
Macrominerals
any of the minerals that people require daily in amounts over 100 mg
Malnutrition
a disorder of nutrition; insufficient nourishment of the body cells
Microminerals
a vitamin or mineral
Mid-arm circumference (MAC)
a measure of fat, muscle, and skeleton
Mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC)
calculated by using reference tables or by using a formula that incorporates the triceps skinfold and the MAC
Minerals
a substance found in organic compounds, as inorganic compounds and as free ions
Monosaccharides
sugars that are composed of single molecules
Monounsaturated fatty acids
a fatty acid with one double bond
Nasoenteric tube
a tube inserted through one of the nostrils, down the nasopharynx, and into the alimentary tract
Nitrogen balance
a measure of the degree of protein anabolism and catabolism; net result of intake and loss of nitrogen
Nonessential amino acids
an amino acid that the body can manufacture
Nutrients
organic or inorganic substances found in food
Nutrition
the sum of all the interactions between an organism and the food it consumes
Nutritive value
the nutrient content of a specified amount of food
Obese
(obesity) weight greater than 20% of the ideal for height and frame
Oils
lipids that are liquid at room temperature
Overnutrition
a caloric intake in excess of daily energy requirements, resulting in storage of energy in the form of adipose tissue
Overweight
BMI 26-30 kg/m2
Partially complete protein
protein that contains less than the required amount of one or more essential amino acids; cannot alone support continued growth
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG)
feeding catheter inserted into the stomach through the skin and subcutaneous tissues of the abdomen
Percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy (PEJ)
feeding catheter inserted into the jejunum through the skin and subcutaneous tissues of the abdomen
Polysaccharides
a branched chain of dozens, sometimes hundreds, of glucose molecules; starches
Polyunsaturated fatty acids
fatty acid with more than one double bond (or many carbons not bonded to a hydrogen atom)
Protein-calorie malnutrition
problem of clients with long-term deficiencies in caloric intake; characteristics include depressed visceral proteins (e.g., albumin), weight loss, and visible muscle and fat wasting
Pureed diet
a modification of the soft diet; liquid may be added to the food, which is then blended to a semisolid consistency
Regurgitation
the spitting up or backward flow of undigested food
Resting energy expenditure (REE)
the amount of energy required to maintain basic body functions
Saturated fatty acids
those in which all carbon atoms are filled to capacity (i.e., saturated) with hydrogen
Skinfold measurement
an indicator of the amount of body fat, the main form of stored energy
Small calorie (c, cal)
the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water 1 C
Triglycerides
substances that have three fatty acids; they account for over 90% of the lipids in food and in the body
Undernutrition
an intake of nutrients insufficient to meet daily energy requirements because of inadequate food intake or improper digestion and absorption of food
Unsaturated fatty acid
a fatty acid that could accommodate more hydrogen atoms than it currently does
Urea
a substance found in urine, blood, and lymph; the main nitrogenous substance in blood
Vitamin
an organic compound that cannot be manufactured by the body and is needed in small quantities to catalyze metabolic processes
Water-soluble vitamins
a water-soluble vitamin that the body cannot store, so people must get a daily supply in the diet; include C and B-complex
Afebrile
absence of a fever
Apical pulse
a central pulse located at the apex of the heart
Apical-radial pulse
measurement of the apical beat and the radial pulse at the same time
Apnea
a complete absence of respirations
Arrhythmia
a pulse with an abnormal rhythm
Arterial blood pressure
the measure of the pressure exerted by the blood as it pulsates through the arteries
Arteriosclerosis
a condition in which the elastic and muscular tissues of the arteries are replaced with fibrous tissue
Auscultatory gap
the temporary disappearance of sounds normally heard over the brachial artery when the sphygmomanometer cuff pressure is high and the sounds reappear at a lower level
Basal metabolic rate
(BMR) the rate of energy utilization in the body required to maintain essential activities such as breathing
Body temperature
the balance between the heat produced by the body and the heat lost from the body
Bradycardia
abnormally slow pulse rate, less than 60 per minute
Bradypnea
abnormally slow respiratory rate, usually less than 10 respirations per minute
Cardinal signs
Vital signs
Chemical thermogenesis
the stimulation of heat production in the body through increased cellular metabolism caused by increases in thyroxine output
Conduction
the transfer of heat from one molecule to another in direct contact
Constant fever
a state in which the body temperature fluctuates minimally but always remains above normal
Convection
the dispersion of heat by air currents
Core temperature
the temperature of the deep tissues of the body (e.g., thorax, abdominal cavity); relatively constant at 37°C (98.6°F)
Costal (thoracic) breathing
use of the external intercostal muscles and other accessory muscles, such as the sternocleidomastoid muscles
Diaphragmatic (abdominal) breathing
contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm, observed by the movement of the abdomen, which occurs as a result of the diaphragm's contraction and downward movement
Diastolic pressure
the pressure of the blood against the arterial walls when the ventricles of the heart are at rest
Dysrhythmia
a pulse with an irregular rhythm
Elasticity of the arterial wall
pliability or expansibility of the vessels
Eupnea
normal, quiet breathing
Exhalation
(expiration) the movement of gases from the lungs to the atmosphere
Expiration
Exhalation
External respiration
the interchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the alveoli of the lungs and the pulmonary blood
Febrile
pertaining to a fever; feverish
Fever
elevated body temperature
Fever spike
a temperature that rises to fever level rapidly following a normal temperature and then returns to normal within a few hours
Heat balance
the state a person is in when the amount of heat produced by the body exactly equals the amount of heat lost
Hematocrit
the proportion of red blood cells (erythrocytes) to the total blood volume
Hyperpyrexia
Hyperthermia
Hypertension
an abnormally high blood pressure; over 140 mm Hg systolic and/or 90 mm Hg diastolic
Hyperthermia
an extremely high body temperature (e.g., 41 degrees C [105.8 degrees F])
Hyperventilation
very deep, rapid respirations
Hypotension
an abnormally low blood pressure; less than 100 mm Hg systolic in an adult
Hypothalamic integrator
the center in the brain that controls the core temperature; located in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus
Hypoventilation
very shallow respirations
Inhalation
the act of breathing in; the intake of air or other substances into the lungs
Insensible water loss
continuous and unnoticed water loss
Inspiration
Inhalation
Intermittent fever
a body temperature that alternates at regular intervals between periods of fever and periods of normal or subnormal temperatures
Internal respiration
the interchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the circulating blood and the cells of the body tissues
Korotkoff's sounds
a series of five sounds produced by blood within the artery with each ventricular contraction
Meniscus
the crescent-shaped upper surface of a column of fluid
Orthostatic hypotension
decrease in blood pressure related to positional or postural changes from lying to sitting or standing positions
Peripheral pulse
a pulse located in the periphery of the body (eg, foot, wrist)
Point of maximal impulse
(PMI) the point where the apex of the heart touches the anterior chest wall
Polypnea
abnormally fast respirations
Pulse
the wave of blood within an artery that is created by contraction of the left ventricle of the heart
Pulse deficit
the difference between the apical pulse and the radial pulse
Pulse oximeter
a noninvasive device that measures the arterial blood oxygen saturation by means of a sensor attached to the finger
Pulse pressure
the difference between the systolic and the diastolic blood pressure
Pulse rhythm
the pattern of the beats and intervals between the beats
Pulse volume
the strength or amplitude of the pulse, the force of blood exerted with each heart beat
Pyrexia
a body temperature above the normal range, fever
Radiation
the transfer of heat from the surface of one object to the surface of another without contact between the two objects
Relapsing fever
the occurrence short febrile periods of a few days interspersed with periods of 1 or 2 days of normal temperature
Remittent fever
the occurrence of a wide range of temperature fluctuations (more than 2 degrees C [3.6 degrees F]) over the 24-hour period, all of which are above normal
Respiration
the act of breathing; transport of oxygen from the atmosphere to the body cells and transport of carbon dioxide from the cells to the atmosphere
Respiratory character
Respiratory quality
Respiratory quality
refers to those aspects of breathing that are different from normal, effortless breathing, includes the amount of effort exerted to breathe and the sounds produced by breathing
Respiratory rhythm
refers to the regularity of the expirations and the inspirations
Surface temperature
the temperature of the skin, the subcutaneous
Systolic pressure
the pressure of the blood against the arterial walls when the ventricles of the heart contract
Tachycardia
an abnormally rapid pulse rate, greater than 100 beats per minute
Tachypnea
abnormally fast respirations, usually more than 24 respirations per minute
Tidal volume
the volume of air that is normally inhaled and exhaled
Vaporization
continuous evaporation of moisture from the respiratory tract and from the mucosa of the mouth and from the skin
Ventilation
the movement of air in and out of the lungs; the process of inhalation and exhalation
Viscous
thick, sticky
Vital signs
measurements of physiological functioning, specifically body temperature, pulse, respirations, and blood pressure; may include pain and pulse oximetry