Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

181 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Successful performance of mental functions, resulting in the abililty to engage in productive activities, enjoying fulfilling relationships and change or cope with adversity
Mental health
Clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome experienced by a person and marked by distress, disability or the risk of suffering disabilitly or loss of freedom
Mental illness
Medical diseases that can be identified along a mental health contimuun
Mental disorders
Quantitative study of the distribution of mental disorders in human populations
Applications of epidemiology:
studies that produce bastic estimates of the rates of disorder in teh general polulation and subgroups
Applications of epidemiology:
studies that explore the rates of variation in illness among different groups to identify risk factors that may contribute to development of a disorder
Applications of epidemiology:
Studies that test the presumed assumption b/w a risk factor and a disorder and seek to reduce the occurrence of the illness by controlling risk factors
Broad field that addresses what happens to people with illnesses who are seen by providers of clinical care
Clinical epidemiology
These are examples of _____:
Studies of natural hisotry of an illness, studies of diagnostic screening, observational and experiemntal studies of interventions
Clinical epidemiology
Propotion of a population with a menal distorder at a given time
Prevalance rate
Mental disorders caused by neurotransmitter dysfunction, abnormal brain structure, inherited genetic factor or other biological causes
Biologically based mental illness
Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression and OCD, PTSD, Autism are examples of _____
Biologically based mental illness/ psychobiological disorder
Support systems, family influences, developmental events, cultural beliefs and values, health practices and negative influences
Factors that affect mental health
In the DSM-IV-TR, the disorder must be a manifestations of ______, ______ or ______
behavorial, psychological or biological dysfunction
DSM-IV-TR Multiaxial System:
Refers to teh collection of signs and symptoms that together constitue a particular disorder
Axis 1
DSM-IV-TR Multiaxial System:
Personality disorders and mental retardation; long term disturbance
Axis II
DSM-IV-TR Multiaxial System:
General medical conditions believed to be relevant to the mental disorder in question
Axis III
DSM-IV-TR Multiaxial System:
Psychosocial and environmental problems that may affect the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of the mental disorder
Axis IV
DSM-IV-TR Multiaxial System:
GLobal assessment of functioning; gives an indicaiton fo the person's best level of psychological, social and occupational functioing during the preceding year; rated from 1-100
Axis V
DSM-IV-TR Multiaxial System:
Major depression disorder
Axis I
DSM-IV-TR Multiaxial System:
Dependent personality disorder
Axis II
DSM-IV-TR Multiaxial System:
Axis III
DSM-IV-TR Multiaxial System:
Divorce 3 months previously
Axis IV
DSM-IV-TR Multiaxial System:
31 years old and unable to work or respond to family and friends
Axis V
DSM-IV-TR Multiaxial System:
Persistent danger
score = 10
DSM-IV-TR Multiaxial System:
Superior functioning
Score = 100
DSM-IV-TR Multiaxial System:
Serious symptoms or impairment
Score = 50
Signs of mental health:
finds life enjoyable
Signs of mental health:
Can recognize and act on cues, responds to rules
Control over Behavior
Signs of mental health:
Accurate picture of what is happening; good sence of consequences, can see difference b/w "as if" and "for real"
Appraisal of reality
Signs of mental health:
Within limits set by abilities; when meeting mild failure, persists
Effectiveness in Work
Signs of mental health:
sees self approaching ind task; self-confidence
Health self-concept
Signs of mental health:
Experiences satisfaction and stability in relationships; socially integrated
Satisfying relationships
Signs of mental health:
uses stress reduction; in healthy way
Effective coping stratagies
The scope of psychiatric mental health nursing is referred to as
Phenomea of concern
The diagnosis and treatment of human responces to actual or potential mental health problems
Psychiatric nursing
These provide comprehensive services to memebers only within a defined provider network for a fixed yearly rate
Health maintaince organziation
These give members a choice of using providers in a defined network for a fixed copayment or using providers outside the network for a higher copayment
Preferred provider organizations
These monitor psychiatric care through preadmission reviews, continuing treatment authorizations, or retroactive chart reviews
Managed behavioral health care organ.
The scope of psychiatric mental health nursing is referred to as the
Phenomena of concern
The diagnosis and treatment of human responces to actual or potential mental health problems
Psychiatric nursing
Collection, interpretation and integration of valid, important and acclicable client-repored, clinical-observed and research- derived evidence
Evidence based practice
The goal of ______ is to provide coordination of all health services at the appropriate level of care, with emphasis on preventive care to control costs
Managed care
Communication techniques including interviewing, problem solcing, crisis intervention...
Use of the physical and social environment to influence behavior, such as orienting to the facility and setting verbal and physical limits to maintian safety
Milieu therapy
Assistance with ADL as needed
Promotion of self-care activities
Adm of meds with evaluation of effects, care duing recovery from electroconvulsive therapy, use of relaxation techniques
Psychobiological intervention
Psychotherapy, Medication prep and treatment and consultation can only be done by _____
Advanced level nurses
Integral part of psychiatric home care for the elderly, in-home services for children and adolescents and long-term treatment of the chronically mentally ill
Case management
The aging of the population, increasing cultural diversity and ever-expanding technology are...
Three trends that will affect the future
This contains all of the materail tha tthe person is aware of at any one time
This contains material that can be retrieved rather easiliy through conscious effort
This includes all repressed memories, passions and unacceptable urges; usually unable to to retrieve this without intervention
This is the source of all drives, instincts, relexes, needs, genetic inheritance, and capacity to respond as well as all the wishes that motivate us
The pleasure principle in the id works to discharge tension through the ____ and ____
Reflex action and the primary process
This is inherent and automatic part of the Id; like gagging, crying and laughing to alleviate certain formas of tension
Reflex action
This is used by the id to diminish tension by creating an image of the object that would rectify the uncomfortable situation
Primary process
This is the problem solver and reality tester; developed during the fourth or fifth month
Last part of personality to develop; represents the moral component of personality; should and should nots; represents the ideal rather than the real
THe ego develops ____ to ward off anxiety by preventing conscious awareness of threatening feeling
Defense mechanisms
Defense mechanisms operatie on an ____ level and they ___, ____ and ___ reality to make it less treatening
Deny, falsify and distort
Freud's theory is relevant to psy nursing becuase it states that: the formation of the client's personility is rooted in _____; and looks at ____ vs. _____
Conscious vs. unconscious
Studying interpersonal processes that could be ovserved in a social framwork
According to sullivan, the purpose of all bx is to get needs met through _____ interaction and decrease or avoid ______
This describes those measures that the individual employs to reduce anxiety and enhance security
Securtiy operations
What an individual uses to defend himself against anxiety and ensure self-esteem make up the self-system
Security operations
He studied healthy personalities and said that they developed until old age; 8 stages of life
Trust vs. Mistrust
Automony vs. shame/ doubt
Early childhood
Initiative vs. guilt
Late childhood
Industry vs. inferiority
School age
Identity vs. role confusion
Intimacy vs. isolation
Early adulthood
Generativity vs. self-absorption
Middle adulthood
Integrity vs. despair
Later years
Basic needs
D-motives / deficiency needs
Self-esteem and self-actualization
B-motive/ being needs
An emphasis on ____ ____ and the client's _____ is key to success
human potential and strenghts
A nurse must ____ nursing actions
Sequence (must collect all info.)
Pairing a behavior with a condition that reinforces or diminishes the behavior's occurence
Behavior can be changed or shaped by controlling the stimulus
Watson's Behaviorism Theory
Manipulation of selected reinforcers to elicit and strengthen desired behavioral responces
Operant conditioning
Refers to the consequence of behavior and is defined as anything that increased the occurrence of a bx
Nurse-patient relationship; interpersonal relationings; first nurse to identify psychiatric nurisng both as an essential element of general nursing and as a specialty area
Engineered a major paradigm shift from a model focused on medical treatments to an interpersonal relational model of nursing practice
Promoted interventions to lower people's anxiety with teh aim of improving clients' ability to think and to function at more satisfactory levels
When client experiences feelings toward the nurse or therapist that were originally held toward significant others in his life
The health care worker's unconscious and personal responce to the client; if the client reminds you of someone you don't like, you act as if the cleint were the other individual
This is a therapy technique that is priented mroe to the here and now, and less of an attempt is made to reconstruct the developmental origins of conflicts
Psychodynamic psychotherapy
An active, directive, time-limited, structured approach used to treat a variety of psychiatric disorders like depression, anxiety, phobias and pain problems
Cognitive therapy
These type of therapy was designed to identify, reality test, and correct distored conceptulalizations and the dysfunctional schemata
Cognitive therapy
This is a technique that is customized to the client's specific fears
1. the client uses relaxation technique for a certain phoic reasction
2. then client in incrementally exposed to the fear
3. Client intructed in how to design their own hierarchies of fear (most fearful to least)
4. Client practices these techniques every day
Systematic desensitization
Use of the total environment to treat disturbed children
Milieu therapy
The understanding of both normal and abnormal mental process in terms of brain function
Primary goal of psychiatry
THe ______ and the ______ serve as the communication links between the brain and the cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands of which the internal organs are composed
Autonomic nervous system
Endocrine system
Nerve cells that conduct electrical impulses and the various types of cells surrounding the cells
The three functions of neurons:
1. Respond to _____
2. Conduct _______
3. Release _______
Electrical impulses
Neurotransmitters (chemicals)
This is an example of an electrical impulse of a neuron
Inward flow of Na; outward flow of K
Chemical substance that functions as a neuromessenger; one the electrical impulse reaches the end, these are released
Neurotransmitters are released from the axon terminal a the _____ neuron on excitation
The transmitter diffused across a narrow space, or _____
After leaving the synapse, the transmitter goes to a _______ neuron where it then attaches to specialized receptors on teh cell
Once the transmitter is on the postsynaptic neuron, it can either ____ or ____ the neuron
Inhibit or excite
It is the interactions b/w the _____ and the ____ that is the major target of the drugs used to treat psychiatric disease
Transmitter and receptor
After attaching to a receptor and exerting its influence on the postsynaptic cell, the transmitter _____ and is _____
When a transmitter like norepinephrine is taked back into the presynaptic cell from whcih they were originally relased
The destructive enzyme that destroys norephinephrine, dopamine and serotonin once it has been reuptaken
Monoamine oxidase (MAO)
This acts to inhibit the further release of the transmitter
Presynaptic receptors
These may initate long-term changed in teh postsynaptic cells
These are proteins and simple gases (CO and nitrous oxide) that are released by postsynaptic cells and influence the growth, shape and activity of presynaptic cells; thought to be important during development of the brain in utero
Neurotrophic factors
These can bind to neurons, where they can cause short- and long-term changes in neuronal activity
Steroid hormones (estrogen, testosterone and cortisol)
A decrease in this can cause Parkinson's and depression
A decrease in these can cause depression
Norepinephrine; serotonin
A decrease in this can cause
anxiety disorders and schizophrenia
An increase in this can cause Schizophrenia
An increase in this can cause
anxiety states
The system that the brainstem uses to regulate the entire cycle of sleep and wakefulness and the ability of the cerebrum to carry out conscious mental activity
reticular activating system (RAS)
This plays a crucial role in emotional status and psychological function
Limbic system
What neurotransmitters the limbic system uses
Norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine
This in primarily involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle coordination and contraction and the maintenance of equilibrium
This is responsible for mental activities and a conscious sense of being; what separates humans from animals; responsible for our conscious perception; emotional status, memory, control of the skeletal, muscles, language and communication
Responsible for touch; semsory and motor
Parietal lobe
responsible for tought processes; plan, decision making, social judgment, motivation
Frontal lobe
responsible for auditory; expression of emotion
Temporal lobe
Responsible for vision
occipital lobe
Involved in the regulation of movement; integrating gray matter deep within the the cerebrum
Basal ganglia
Envolved in emotion, learning, memory and basic drives
Hippocampus and amygdala
CT and MRI are examples of
Structural imaging techniques
PET is an example of
Functional imaging techniques
Teaching for a ____:
Not painful; may feel warm/flushed
Hold still/ hold breath
Will hear clicking noise
Are you allergic to iodine?
Teaching for ____:
No metals
There will be noises
Remain still/ may feel anxiety/ claurophobic
Experience tingling/ pressure in ears
Teaching for ____:
takes about 90 mins
no sedatives used b/c pt will get instructions
no coffee, alcohol or ciggys for 24 hrs
Will be measuring glucose levels in brain; empty bladder
Client needs to remain awake and calm
Uses short acting radioactive
In clients with schizophrenia, PET scans may show a ______ use of glucose in frontal lobes
In clients with OCD, PET scans may show a ______ use of glucose in frontal lobes
This neurotransmitter seems to play a role in modulating neuronal excitability and anxiety
This refers to the actions of the drug on the person; the types of changed it produced
This refers to the actions of the person on the drug; how is it absorbed?; transformed in liver? excreted by the kidney?
This causes a greater neuron system toxicity in Afican Americans than it does whites
This causes 50% higher plasma concentrations in Asian clients with schizophrenia than in white clients
This causes agranulocytosis in Ashkenazi Jews than in other ethnic groups
Ethical dilemmas surrounding client care
Principles of bioethics:
duty to act so as to benefit or promote good of others
Principles of bioethics:
Right to make one's own decisions and respect for the rights of others
Principles of bioethics:
Treating others fairly and equally
Principles of bioethics:
Maintaining loyalty and commitment to the client and doing no wrong to the client
Principles of bioethics:
One's duty always to tell the truth
Laws _____ ethical principles
Meaning to "free the person"; procedural mechanism used to challenge unlawful detention by the government
Writ of habeas corpus
Mandates tha tthe least drastic means be taken to achieve a specific purpose
Lease restrictive alternative doctrine
Sought by the client or the client's guardian through a written application to the facility; right to demand and obtain release
Voluntary admission
1-10 days long; used in order to prevent dangerous behavior that is likely to cause harm to self or others
Emergency involuntary hospitalization
The primary purpose of this type of hospitalization is ovservation, diagnosis and treatment; application may be made by family memeber, physician, public health officers; also need medical certification by two or more physicians and judicial review
Observational or temporary involuntary hosp
Primary purpose is extended care and treatment of the mentally ill; adm solely through judicial or administrative action
Long-term/ formal commitment
Competency is related to the _______ to understand the consequences of one's decisions
The nurse's primary source for data collection is the ______
THe nurse's reactions to a client that are based on the nurse's unconscious needs, conflicts, problems or view of the world
Increased _______ about any subject is data in itself
The purpose of the MSE is to evaluate an individual's current _______ process
The MSE aids in collecting _____ data
Info like personal/ social background, strengths/ weaknesses; coping stratagies
Psychosocial assessment
THe psychosocial assesesment is the ____ part of the interview
This elicits info about the systems in which a person operates; i.e. G/D; religious practice, etc.
Psychosocial assessment
How you validate data obtained from the client; i.e. police officers
Second sources
If a second source cannot be obtained, this needs to be _____
Nursing diagnosis:
The unmet need; state of the client at present
Nursing diagnosis:
Probably cause; r/t; tells what needs to be done in order to get change
Nursing diagnosis:
Signs and symptoms; defining characteristics
Supporting data
Combination of clinical skill and the use of clincally relevant research in teh delivery of effective cleint-centered care
Evidence based practice
This is the ultimate goal of all nursing action
Maximizing the cleint's independent level of functioning
WHen the nurse maximizes communication skills, understanding of human behaviors and personal strenghts to enhance the client's growth; focus is on the client
Therapeutic relationships
Understanding the ideas expressed, as well as teh feelings that are present in the other preson; essential ingredient in a threapeutic relationship
Self-awareness of one's feelings as they arise within the relationship and the ability to communicate them when appropriate; key ingredient in building trust
This implies respect; ability to view another pson as being worthy of caring about and who has strenghts
Positive regard
Foundation of interviewing; refers to an intensity of presence, or being with a client
Process whereby a person unconsciously and inappropriately displaces onto ind in life those patterns of behavior and emptional reactions that originated in relation to significant figures in childhood
Tendency of the nurse to displace onto the client feelsing relationed to people in teh therapist's past
On of the most common signs of countertransference
Overidentification with the client
The main focus of the orientation phase with the cleint is to _____ _____
establish trust
Termination begins in the ______ phase; this should be clear here
During this phase, the nurse and the client together identify and explore areas in the cleint's life that are causing problems;
Working phase
Here the cleint and nurse deal with intense feeling regarding the expeience; summarize goals and objectives; review pt plans for future