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99 Cards in this Set

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Founder of American Red Cross

Called the "Angel of the Battlefield"
Clara Barton
head of nurses for the Union army during the Civil War

organized hospitals for Union army
Dorothea Dix
cleaned up hospitals for soldiers

organized the first ambulance service
Mary Ann Bickerdyke
first public health nurses (2)
Lillian Wald

Mary Brewster
helped found the Nurses' Associated Alumnae of the U.S. (became ANA) and the American Society of Superintindents of Training Schools for Nurses (became National League for Nurses)
Isabel Hampton Robb
findings from a federal committee that said that more $ needed to be put into nursing and that nursing should be at a college level
Goldmark Report
anything you do in medicine must have research behind it
evidenced-based practice
activities one engages in to prevent him from getting sick
health promotion

ex. prenatal care, exercise classes
a person has been diagnosed with a disease and is trying to prevent complications
illness prevention
The Dept. of Health and Human Services and the FDA are what type of health care agency?
governmental (public)
The CDC and NIH are what type of health care agency?
federal
The American Cancer Society is what type of health care agency?
voluntary (private)
DCH hopsital is what type of health care agency?
not-for-profit
The Mayo Clinic is what type of health care agency?
for-profit
The respitatory services, nutritional services, environmental services, and laundry make up what part of the internal structure of the health care agency?
interdisciplinary team
What is functional nursing?
Each nurse has one job to do for the day (give IVs, clean wounds, etc.)

This is not seen much anymore.
What is team nursing?
The RN, LPN, and PCA take care of 5-6 patients together.

Best way to practice.
What is primary nursing?
The RN takes care of all care for the patient.
What is case management nursing?
looks at quality of care
The registered nurse collects comprehensive data pertinent to the patient's health or situation.
Standard 1. Assessment
The registered nurse analyzes the assessment data to determine the diagnoses or issues.
Standard 2. Diagnosis
The registered nurse identifies expected outcomes for a plan individualized to the patient or situation.

Ex. "Prior to discharge, this patient will be able to walk to the length of the hall and not be out of breath."
Standard 3. Outcomes Identification
The RN develops a plan that prescribes strategies and alternatives to attain expected outcomes.
Standard 4. Planning
The RN implements the identified plan.
Standard 5. Implementation
What 4 things are part of Standard 5 (Implementation)?
Coordination of care
Health teaching and health promotion

For APN/CNS:
Consultation
Presciptive authority and treatment
The RN evaluates progress toward attainment of outcomes.
Standard 6. Evaluation
The RN systematically enhanaces the quality/effectiveness of nursing practice.

Is ethical, accountable, responsible, creative, and innovative.
Standard 7. Quality of Practice
The RN attains knowledge and competency that reflects current nursing practice.
Standard 8. Education
The RN evaluates her own nursing practice in relation to professional practice standards and guildelines, relevant statutes, rules, and regulations.

Involves peer review and course evaluations.
Standard 9. Professional Practice Evaluation
The RN interacts with and contributes to the professional development of peers and colleagues.
Standard 10. Collegiality
The RN collaborates with the patient, family, and others in the conduct of nursing practice.
Standard 11. Collaboration
The RN integrates ethical provisions in all areas of practice

(Preserves and protects human dignity, provides autonomy for patients, patient rights, confidentiality)
Standard 12. Ethics
The RN integrates research findings into practice.
Standard 13. Research
The RN considers factors related to safety, effectiveness, cost, and impact on practice in planning and delivery of nursing services.
Standard 14. Resource Utilization
The RN provides leadership in the professional practice setting and the profession.
Standard 15. Leadership
The scope of nursing practice has 4 defining characteristics. They are:
1. Boundaries - what we can do and not do

2. Intersections - with patient, family, and physician

3. Dimensions - healthy person to dying person, young, old, big hospital, jungle clinic

4. Core - caring, ethics, critical thinking, lifelong learning, tech skills, evidence-based practice, communication, knowing when to ask for help, etc.
a group of related concepts, definitions, and statements that propose a view of nursing phenomena from which to describe, explain, or predict outcomes
theory
a mental image of an object or event

a building block of theory

helps describe or label a phenomena
concept
an occurrence or circumstance that is observable
phenomenon
What are the 4 concepts basic to nursing theory?
person
health
environment
nursing
a dynamic state of being in which the developmental and behavioral potential of the individual is realized to the fullest extent possible
health
the diagnosis and treatment of human responses to actual or potential health problems
nursing
defines the essential knowledge, values, and professional behaviors expected of the BSN nurse graduate
Essentials Document
a concern for the welfare of others
altriusm
the right to self-determination
autonomy
valuing and respecting all patients and colleagues
human dignity
acting in accordance with an appropriate code of ethics and standards of practice
integrity
upholding moral, legal, and humanistic principles
social justice
What does HIPAA stand for?
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996
information that has any components that could be used to identify the subject

Ex. Name, address, phone number, email address, employer's name, DL #, relative's names, photos, DOB, SSN, medical record #, etc.
identifiable data (part of PHI - protected health information)
Name some exceptions where covered entities may disclose information.
- Oversight of health system
- Public health (outbreak of ebola)
- Research
- Judicial/administrative hearings
- Emergency circumstances
- Identification of body
- Facility patient directory
- National defense/security activities
What is the penalty for wrongfully accessing or disclosing PHI?
fines up to $50,000 and up to 1 year in prison
What is the penalty for obtaining PHI under false pretenses?
fines up to $100,000 and up to 5 years in prison
What is the penalty for wrongfully using PHI for a commercial activity?
fines up to $250,000 and up to 10 years in prison
A heart beating donor can donate:
organs and tissues
A non-heart beating donor can donate:
tissues only
What does DCD stand for?
Donation after Cardiac Death

*This is a donor that does not meet criteria for brain death.
*Vascular organs (liver and kidneys) can be recovered after cardiac arrest.
an irreversible cessation of all functions of the entire brain, including the brain stem
brain death
Name 4 causes of brain death.
Trauma
Anoxic injuries
Primary brain tumors
CVA (cardiovascular death)
the absence of respirations in the presence of adequate CO2 stimulus
apnea
How many people were waiting for an organ in the U.S. as of June 2006?
91,915
How many people were waiting for an organ in Alabama as of June 2006?
2,844
When looking for an organ recipient, what 3 things are the points based on?
medical urgency
time waiting
match with the donor
After blood transfusion, what is the most frequent transplant performed?
bone transplantation
the involuntary separation from something we have possessed and may even have treasured

the absence of something desired or previously thought to be available
loss
any significant loss of someone or something that can no longer be felt, heard, known, or experienced
personal loss
loss of something you can touch
actual loss
loss of something you cannot touch
perceived loss

(ex. self esteem)
any change in the developmental process that is normally expected during a lifetime

events are expected, but feelings of loss persist until adaptation occurs
maturational loss

(ex. mom crying at her daughter's wedding)
any sudden, unexpected and definable event that is not predictable
situational loss

(ex. dog hit by a car)
the emotional response to a loss
grief
What are Kubler-Ross's 5 stages of dying?
denial
anger
bargaining
depression
acceptance
the process (rituals and behaviors) that follows a loss and includes working through the grief

process leads to a gradual acceptance and adaptation to move on with one's life
mourning
What are Bowlby's 4 phases of mourning?
numbing
yearning and searching
disorganization and despair
reorganization
What are Warden's 4 tasks of mourning?
- To accept the reality of the loss
- To work through the pain/grief
- To adjust to the environment in which the deceased is missing
- To emotionally relocate the deceased and move on with life
palliative care for individuals with a terminal illness and a prognosis of less than 6 months to live
hospice care
What do infants (to age 2) understand about death?
Do not understand it.
Separation from mother causes changes.
What do children ages 2-6 understand about death?
Death is like sleeping.
Dead person continues to live and function in some ways.
Death is temporary, not final.
Dead person can come back to life.
What do children ages 6-9 understand about death?
Death is thought of as a person or spirit (skeleton, ghost, bogeyman, angel).
Death is final and frightening.
Death happens to others, it won't happen to ME.
What do children 9 and older understand about death?
Everyone will die.
Death is final and cannot be changed.
Even I will die.
act that allows you to create an advanced directive if you want one
The Patient Self-Determination Act
controls medical decision making in the terminally ill and permanently unconscious
advanced health care directive
generally controls all financial matters
durable power of attorney
controls medical decision making when the patient is unconscious but should recover
durable power of attorney for health care
if a person over 18 cannot make decisions for himself, their parents can go to court and get permission to make decisions for them
conservatorship
whatever is at the center of a person's life

the act of connecting to systems such as God, nature, or other people through relationships
spirituality
individual who does not believe in the existence of God or that any ultimate reality is unknown
atheist
individual who believes that the existence of God or a higher power cannot be proven or disproved.
agnostic
a belief or confidence in something for which there is no proof

may involve belief in a higher power
faith
an awareness of that which one cannot see or know in ordinary physical ways
transcendance
a concept that provides comfort while enduring life threats and personal challenges
hope
a set of attitudes, ideologies, values, beliefs and behaviors that influence the way members of the group view themselves

a belief system that has developed over a person's lifetime and is difficult to change
culture
socialization into one's primary culture as a child
enculturation
the process of adapting to and adopting a new culture
acculturation
an individual identifies equally with 2 or more cultures
biculturalism
the goal of transcultural nursing

care that fits the people's valued life patterns and set of meanings
culturally congruent care
an individual's belief that his/her cultural values are superior
ethnocentrism
an oversimplified belief, conception, or opinion about another person (or group) based on limited information
stereotyping
guides the nurse to assess different holistic factors that tend to influence the client's care and health, such as cultural values, religious/spiritual beliefs, economic factors, educational beliefs, technology views, family/social ties, and political/legal factors
Leininger's Sunrise Model