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45 Cards in this Set

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Erythrocyte
Red Blood Cell: Biconcave disk
Hemoglobin
Oxygen carrying protein within RBCs. Consists of Heme molecule and globin.
Red Blood Count
Number of circulating RBCs per mm3 of blood.
Men: 4.2 to 5.4 million/mm
Women: 3.6 to 5.0 million/mm
Hemoblobin (Hgb)
Amount of hemoglobin per dL (100mL) of blood.
Men: 14-16.5
Women: 12*15
Hematocrit (Hct)
Packed volume of RBCs in 100mL of blood expressed as a percentage.
Men: 40-50%
Women: 37-47%
Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV)
Average volume of individual RBCs.
85-100fL/cell
Reticulocytes
Number of immature RBCs per MM3 of blood.
1-1.5% of total RBCs.
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)
Average concentration of percentage of hemoglobin per RBC.
31-35 g/dL
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH)
Calculated average weight of hemoglobin per RBC.
27-34 pg/cell
Erythropoiesis
Red blood cell production
Erythropoietin
Hormone relased by the kidneys in response to hypoxia. Stimulates bone marrow to produce RBCs.
Hemolysis
RBC destruction
Anemia
Abnormally low number of circulating RBCs, low hemoglobin concentratio or both.
Blood Loss Anemia
Anemi resulting from acute or chronic bleeding.
Nutritional Anemia
Rsult from nutrient deficits that affect RBC formation (erythropoiesis ) or hemoglobin syntheisis. May be cause by inadquate diet, malabsorption or an increased need for the nutrient.
Iron Deficieny Anemia
Most common type of Anemia. Devlops when supply of iron is inadequate for optimal RBC formation.
Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia
Occurs when inadequate vitamin B12 is consumed or more commonly when it is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Deficiency of this vitamn impairs cell division and maturation, especially in rapidly proliferating red blood cells. As a result, macrocyic, misshapen (oval rather than concave) RBCs with thin membranes are produces.
Pernicious Anemia
Failure to absorb dietary vitamin B12. Develops due to lack of intrinsic factor.
Intrinsic Factor
Substance secreted by the gastric mucosa. Binds with vitamin B12 and travels with it to the ileum, where the vitamin is absorbed. In absence of intrinsic factor, vitamin B12 cannot be absorbed into the body.
Folic Acid Deficiency Anemia
Characterized by fragil, megaloblastic cells. Due to inadequate intake is more common among people who are chronically undernourished. Includes older adults, alchoholics and the drug addicted.
Hemolytic Anemias
Characterized by premature destruction of RBCs.
Sickle Cell Anemia
Hereditary chronic hemolytic anemia. Characterize dby episode of sickling, during which RBCs become abnormally crescent shaped. Causes synthesis of an abnormal form of hemoglobin within reb blood cells.
Thalassemia
An inheriited disorder of hemoglobin synthesisin which either the alpha or beta chains of the hemoglobin molecule are missing or defective. Leads to deficient hemoglobin production and fragile hypochromic, microcytic RBCs called target cells.
Acquired Hemolytic Anemia
Results from hemolysis due to factors outside the RBC.
Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Anemia
Caused by a hereditary defect in RBC metabolish. Relatively common in people of African and Mediterranean descent.
Aplastic Anemia
Bone marrow fails to produce all three types of blood cells, leading to pancytopenia.
Complete Blood Count
Done to determine blood cell counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cell indices.
Iron Levels and Total iron-binding capacity
Performed to detect iron deficiency anemia. A low serum iron concentration and elevated total iron-binding capacity are indicative of iron deficiency anemia.
Serum ferritin
Low due to depretion of the total ireon reserves available for hemoglobin synthesis. Ferritin is an iron-storage protein produced by the liver, spleen and bone marrow. Ferritin mobilizes sotred iron when metabolic needs are higher than dietary intake.
Sickle Cell Test
Screeing test to evaluate hemolytic anemia and tect HbS.
Hemoglobin Electrophoreiss
Separates normal hemoglobin from abnormal fors. Used ot evaluate hemolytic anemia, diagnose thalassemia and differentiate sickle cell trait from sickle cell disease.
Schilling Test
Measures Vitamin B12 absorption before and after intrinsic factor administration to differentiate between pernicious anemia and intestinal malabsorption of the vitamin. A 24 hour urine sample is collected following administration of radioactive vitamin B12. Lower than normal levels of the tagged B12 when intrinsic factor is given concurrently indicate malabsorption raterh than pernicious anemia.
Bone Marrow Examiniation
Done to diagnose aplastic anemia. In aplastic anemia, normal marrow elements are significantly decreased as they are replaced by fat cells.
Quantitative Assay of G6PD
Performed to confirm a diagnosis of glucose 6 hosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.
Iron
Iron in the diet comes from two sources. Heme iron make sup about onehalf of the iron from animal sources. Nonheme iron includes the remaining iron from animal sources and all the iron from plants, legumes, and nuts. Heme iron promotes absorption of nonheme iron from other foods when both forms are consumed at the same time. Absorption of nonheme iron is also enhanced by vitamin C and inhibited by tea and coffee.
Source of Heme Iron
Beef, Chicke, Egg yolk, Clams, oysters, Pork looin, turkey, veal.
Sources of Nonheme Iron
Bran flakes, brown rice, shole-grain breads, dried beans, dried fruits, greens, oatmeals.
Sources of Folic Acid
Green leafy vegetables, broccoli, organ meats, eggs, wheat germ, asparagus, liver, milk, yeast, kidney beans.
Sources of Vitamin B12
Liver, fresh shrimp and oysters, eggs, milk, kidney, meats (muscle), cheese
Polycythemia (Erythrocytosis)
Excess of red blood cells characterized by hematocrit higher than 55%. Two major types: Primary polycythemia (polycythemia vera) or Secondary Polychthemia
Primary Polycythemia
A neoplastic stem cell disorder characterized by overproduction of RBCs and to a lesser extent white blood cells and platelets. Classified as a myeloproliferative disorder. Cause unknown. Colonies of endogenous erythroid stem cells develop.
Secondary Polycythemia
Increeased number of RBCs in response to excess erythropoietin secretion or prolonged hypoxia. Most common form of polycythemia.
Hemostasis
Control of Bleeding
Platelet (thrombocytes)
Cell fragments that have no nucleus and cannot replicate. Metabolically active howere producing ATP and releasing mediators required for clotting.
Manifestations of Polycythemia
Hypertension
Headache, tinnitus, blurred vision
Plethora, dark redness of lips, feet, ears, fingernails and mucous membranes.
Splenomegaly (polycythemia vera)
Severe pruritus, extremity pain
Weight loss, night sweats
Gastrointestinal bleeding
Intermittent claudication
Symptoms from thrombosis within various organs