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30 Cards in this Set

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What are the two types of cases that are prone to death in radiology?
skull pulmonary trauma
cardiac failure
What bones can be seen on the lateral view of the skull?
frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital, frontal sinus can be seen
what structures can you see on the open mouth dorsal caudal view?
tympanic bulla, occipital condyles, foramen magnum, odontoid process, and petrous temporal bones
young animals have suture lines in skull until what age?
3-4months
In the horses a unique growth plate exists bt what two bones, and until what age?
basisphenoid and basioccipital and is decteable to around 3 yrs
What part of the skull has a laminated appearnce dur to ridges within the bone that are densely calcified?
calvarial vault
how do you detect hydrocephalus in adults animals?
ultrasound through fontanel
keyhole shaped foramen magnum can predispose an animal to what?
herniation of cerebellum and brain stem, best seen on frontal view
What is the weak point of the neonatal equine skull?
growth plate bt basisphenoid and basioccipital bones, If a young horse rears back and strikes the occiptial bone, a fracture of this growth plate often occures which causes displacment and severe hemorrhage from cavernous sinuses
A grid should be used to make spinal radiographs on patients greater than how many cm
8
lateral survey radiographs of cervical spine should be centered where?
1. bt c3 and c4
2. bt c6-c7
ventral dorsal radiographs of the cervical spine should be centered where?
1.bt c3-c4
2.bt c6-c7 with beam angled 15degrees cranially
where is the first intraveratbral disk located
c2-c3
In the cervical spine disk spaces get wider or narrower as you move towards the c/t junction?
wider
which common domestic species has large intervertebral foramen in the cervical spine
cats
where do you center the beam on lateral radiographs of the thoracic spine?
1.t5-t6, pull legs forward
2.t11-t12
where do you center the beam on ventrodorsal radiographs of the thoracic spine?
t6-t7
What interverbral disk spaces are gerenally not a problem in the thoracic spine and why?
T2-t9, intercapital ligament holding the ribs together provides additional support
narrowing of the thoracic spine occurs where?
anticlinal junction t9-t10
where are lumbar spine radiographs centered on the lateral view
t13-l1
l3-l4
where is the beam centered on venrodorsal radiographs of the lumbar spine
l3-l4
where is there the highest incidence of disk prolapse of the canine spine?
t12-l3
unique things about cat lumbar spine
1.lumbar vertbra get longer in length caudally
2.endplate wedge shaped at t-l junction, allows more flextion
3.interverbral foramen are large
What is the appearence of hemivertbra on lateral radiographs, and which type of breeds are predisposed to this condition?
butterfly wedge, cork screw tail breeds
causes of wobbler syndrome
1.OCD at cervical intervertebral junction
2.malformation of intervertbral canal
3.ligament hypertrophy secondary to chornic joint dz
causes of changes in interverbral foramen
1.small
2.large
3.radiodense
4.change in shape
1.intervertbral disk rupture
2.nerve root tumors
3.calcified disk herniates dorsally
4.fractures
indications for myelography
1.non contrast spinal radiographs are negative or equivocal for a compression lesion, such as; disk herniation in non-chondrodystrophic dogs, meningeal or spinal cord tumors, chondrodystrophic dogs with no evidence of the disk protrusion or with two or more disk protrustions, spinal haematomas or abscesses
2.a congenital or acquired spinal abnormality is seen on survey films but the degree of cord compression cannot be evaluated, eg vertbral instability, hemivertebrae
contra indications for myelography
1.patient general condition precludes anaesthesia
2.myelitis or meningitis
3.when diagnosis can be made from the history, clinical findings, and survey radiographs
side effects of myelography
appear on recovery and range from CNS irritability to grand mal seizures. reduce incidence in well hydrated animals, animals left on anesthesia for an additional 30 mins post procedure, keep head elevated
You observe periarticular marginal osteophytes on the patella and proximal tibia accompanied by subchondral bone sclerosis in the proximal tibia. These radiographic signs would be most diagnostic of:
degenerative joint disease