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33 Cards in this Set

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The two forces that determine the resting membrane potential are ____ and ____, while the ____ is indirectly responsible by maintenance of the K+ concentration gradient.
diffusional force, electrical force, sodium-potassium pump
The RMP is a consequence of two physiological parameters, the _____ and the a _______ plasma membrane with _____.
concentration of intracellular and extracellular ions, phopholipid bilayer impermeable to ions, channel proteins with selective permeability
____ channels are mostly closed during RMP and therefore rather play a role in polerization.
gated channels
The _____ equation calculates the equilibrium potential of any single ion, while the ____ equation calculates the RMP.
Nernst, Goldman-Hodgkins Katz
The major extracellular ions are ___, ___ and ___, while the major intracellular ions is ____.
Na+, Cl-, Ca²﹢, K+
The Na+/K+ pump pumps __ ions out and ___ ions in, by a ATP phosphorylation and dephosphorylation conformational change, respctively.
3 sodium ions, 2 potassium ions,
___ is when the cell becomes more positive in relation to the RMP, while ____ is becoming more negative, and ___ is a nonspecific return towards RMP.
depolarization, hyperpolarization, repolarization,
A type of gated channel that is activated by chemical binding at the receiving end of a synapse.
ligand gated channel
A type of gated channel that is activated by an internal condition response to RMP.
voltage gated channel
Hyperpolarization is caused by ___ or ___ gated channels.
Cl-, K+
Depolarization is caused by ___ or ___ gated channels
Na+, Ca++
All ___ and ____ inputs result in graded potentials.
sensory, interneuron
____ potentials do not directly cause neurotransmitter release.
Graded
The 2 type of graded potentials are ____ which causes depolarization and _____ causing hyperpolarization.
EPSP, IPSP
____ potentials decay over distance which varies according to the _____ diameter and membrane resistance
graded, dendrite,
Graded potenials reach threshold through _____ which is caused by the time delay of reaching and returning to RMP.
temporal summation
____ potential initiation can only occur at the ____.
action, axon hillock
____ gated channels only occur on the axon.
voltage
A ____ voltage change will produce an AP except during ___.
superthreshold, refractory period
At the resting state the open channels are ____ and the closed are ____ and ____.
inactivation Na+ channel, Activation Na+ channel and K+ channel
At threshold the open gates are ____.
The activation and inactivation Na+ gates, and one K+ gate opens slowly
Repolarization occurs by first the slow closing of the ____ gates and the complete opening of the ___ gates.
inactivation Na+, K+ gates
Hyperpolarization is do to the ____ channels, but restored by ____.
slow closing of K+ channels, K+ leak channels
The absolute refractory period includes all of the _____ and most of the ___, and ends when the ____ channels convert to the ____ state.
depolarization, repolarization, Na+ channels, resting
The _____ refratory period lasts until the end of the hyperpolarization phase.
relative
During the ____ refractory period a strong _____ can creat another AP.
relative, EPSP
An autosomal recessive disease that causes the K+ channels to close prior to hyperpolarization will cause _____.
Seizures do to hypersensitivities
____ are responsible for the unidirectional nature of APs.
refractory periods
The speed of AP conduction is do to the ____ and ___.
diameter of axon, and myelination
Myelination increases speed by ____ membrane resistance and restricting ion diffusion to the ____.
increasing, nodes of ranvier
MS is an attack on the myelin of the ____, while Guillian-Barre Syndrome is an attack on the myelin of the ____.
CNS, PNS
Neurochemical communication where there are receptors on a presynaptic cleft that bind NT that it is releasing.
autoreceptors
NO is an example of a postsynaptic cleft release that communicates with the presynaptic cleft, which is known as _____.
retrograde neurotransmission