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99 Cards in this Set

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what effects purkinje fibers in cerebellum and then what do they to for the descending motor systems?

during this process, do the deep nuclei get stimulus from anything else at the same time?
climbing fibers and mossy fibers send excitatory to purkinji. Stellate and Basket cells send inhibitory to purkinji.

Purkinji eventually send inhibitory signlas to cerebellar deep nucleui which does two things

1. sends excitatory info to descending motor systems
2. sends a copy of instructions ot inferior olivary nucleus

yes, afferent fibers send excitatory
Name Cerebellar Cells

Name cerebellar fibers

Name Deep cerebellary nuclei


What deep cerebellar nuclei influences the thalamus and sends info to the motor and pre motor cortex
dentate nucleus
what two tracts does the intermediate cerebellum use to issue correcting signals to the spinal cord
1. cortical spinal tract
2. rubrospinal tract
what cerebellar peduuncle recieves somatosensory input?
inferior cerebellar peduncle
What is unique about the inferior olive?
they have a second decussation
Describe the principal output circuit through which cerebllar hemispheres influence movement~
1. The cerebellar hemispheres send siglnals out through superior cerebellar peduncle

2. the signals decussate at these peduncles

3. then go to the VL/VA

4. then leave, go back down and descussate at pyramids

5. enter spinal cord
(pre motor and motor cortex are involved)
Describe the principal circuit through which intermediate zone of cerebellar cortex influences movement.

This pathway effects what?
1. intermediate zone sends signals to the superior cerebellar penduncles where they decussate

2. 1/2 goes to the red nucleus and the other 1/2 goes to the VL/VA

-At the red nucleus, they go through the rubroal spinal tract to the spinal cord
- At the VL/VA they leave to go to the pyramiddal desucations to the spinal cord

only limb areas of motor cortex are effected. Premotor is not involved!
What two pathways are really important for modifying and adapting to learning??
Intermediate zone of cerebellar cortex and the cerebellar hemisphere circuits.
The cerebellar Vermis includes representation of

the vermis is concerned with?
trunk - conveyed by spinocereballr pathways

posture and rythmic movements like walking
What cerebellar lobe has principal connections with the vestibular system????

This lobe is also involved with?
floccularnodular lobe

- equilibrium
- coordination of slow eye movements
Vestibulo-ocular reflex

result =

Describe the pathway-


This system will not work if _________ is damaged
eyes move same amount as head but in opposite direction (degree for degree)

gaze constant direction stabilization

3 neuron chain!
1. afferent vestibular
2. synpasose on nuclei vestibular
3. synapse on motor neurons of extraocular mucles

adjudsts the operation of the motor centers in the cortex and brainstem during movement excecution. PLASTICITY!

flocculus and inferior olivary lobe
fourth ventricle tumors in kids effect what lobe of the cerebellar?

what symtoms is seen with anterior lobe syndrome?

paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration =
- loss of equilibrium and eye movements


sntibodies attack purkinji cells in response to cancer. the cerebellar problems are detected before the CA
What is the best way to deflect cupula?
rotate its semicirculuar duct about an axis perpendicular to it. Then the endolymph pushes against cupula
Vestibular afferents have their cell bodies in?

Where do they end up?
scarpas ganglia in the internal auditory meatus

some end up in flocculus
Most end up in vestibular nuclei of the rostral medulla and caudal pons.
the 4 vestibular nuclei (treated as a complex) are connected with specific...

the nucli get input from ...
semicircular canals and otolithic organs

vestibular aferents
sp[inal cord
collateral vestibular nuclei
The lateral vestibulaospinal tract is concerned with___ and projects to...
postural changes

all levels of the ipsilateral spinal cord
The medial vestibulospinal tract is concerned with ___ and projects to...
stabilizing head positions

bilateral cervical spinal cord
can we compensate with a damaged vestibular system?
yes as long as we have good vision
The vestibular apparatus does NOT provide information about....
Body Position!!
FYI Card about VOR and +/-
Surface of cornea is + relative to the back of the eye so deviation of an eye toward a nearby electrode wil cause the electrode to become more positive.

With bilateral loss of vestibular hair cells, you lack the VOR at fast speeds. and your eye mucles cant compensate. So direction of gaze ocillates in phase with head movements.
another FYI from my oh so good friend Osar-
saccula = linear plane in sagittal plane
sound is conducted to tempanic membrain, then the vibrations are carried in the _____ to the _____ causing....

how much does 3000Hz at the tempanic membrane, deflect sterocilia?

why is that important?
carried in the middle ear to the oval window causing vibrations of perilymph fluid containing the organ of corti


ability to locatlize
what nerve is associated with tensor tympani?

what nerve is associated with stapedius?

why does this matter?
trigeminal nerve

facial nerve

with damage you will have hyperacustines? and austic neuroma of the 8th nerve can affect face (i think)
Core of the cochlea contains the____ that ... and then goes...
spinal ganglion with primary auditory afferent fibers that collect and form cochlear division of 8th nerve which then go and innervate auditory receptors.
is perylymph incompressable?

what deforms at cochlear duct?

what produces endolymph?

what completes the cochlear duct?
yes- but the oval window is elastic and allows the vibrations to enter

scala tympani

stria vascularis

basilar membrane
What makes the Basilar Membrane most efficient?
sounds of prgressivly decreasing frequency as one moves from the base to apex of cochlea
The organ of corti is sitting on the...
basilar membrane
Finish this pathway
1. auditory afferents in spiral ganglia go to pontomedullary junction
2. then sympase first on the DORSAL cochlear nucleus
3. goes over inferior cerebellar peduncle

4. joints lateral lemniscus (the major ascending auditory pathway of the brain)

5. almmost all terminate in inferior colliculus

6. go through inferior brachium

7. goes to the medial geniculate in the thalamus

8. goes to primary auditory cortex (superior temporla gyrus buried in the lateral sulcus)
Where is the primary auditory cortex?

what is the major ascending auditory pathway of the brain?

Damage to the auditory pathway at any level rostral to the cochlear nucleus...
superior temporal gyrus buried in lateral sulcus

lateral lemniscus

doesnt cause deafness in either ear. You have sound localization problems though.
Finish this pathway.

Auditory afferents in spiral ganglia go to the pontomedullary junctions

then to VENTRAL cochlear nucleus


(why is this important?)
Then either to the lateral lemnisucs and just continues from there


goes to the superior olivary nucleus

deccusates at the trapeziod body

then joins lateral lemniscus

this is important because it goes to the superoir olivary nucleus for sound localization (at rostral end of facial motor nucleus)
fyi- sound localization is time comparisons
there are medial and lateral subnuclei in the superiorolivary nucleus
Vestibular Nystagmus =

whats a really important structure involved with this?
occurs in the absence of visual stimuli (cupula delfections)

MLF - connects rostral to abducens nucleus.
Nystagmus =
slow phase - reflection of direct corrections from vestibular nuclei to abducens trochlear to ocular motor nuclei
fast phase - signals from reticular formation
Diencephalon has how many parts?

which part contains the habenula and penial gland?
4 thalamic parts

1. epithalamus
2. subthalamus
3. dorsal thalamus
4. hypothalamus

the epithalamus
Diencephalon is laterally bounded by

what makes the diencephalon sit on a 100 deg incline?
internal capsule

cephalic flexure
what is rostral to superior colliculi?

recives ____ _____ input

pineal gland

light regulated input

Fornix comes from

what forms the tectum?

Habenula recieves input from...
temporal lobe

superior and inferior colliculi

stria medularis
Habenula recives info from ______ and sends it to ______

this allows...
stria medullari --> interpeduncular nuclei

allows limbic system to influence brain stem reticular formation
Midbrain tegmentum continues into diencephalon as the..
(and is interconected with basal ganglia)
All sensory pathways relay ->

where does it get its blood supply?
(part of the cortex feedback loop)

Hemiballism =


lesion to subthalamic nucleus resutling in spontaneous uncontrolled flailing of contralateral limbs


VA + VL =
motor control circuits that include cerebellum and basal ganlgia (thalamic nucleus)
What thalamic nuclei is involved in an inhibitory side loop?

what thalamic nuclei is involved with Vision

If there is a lesion with VPM and VPL you will experience...
reticular nucleus

lateral geniculate

thalamic pain
The ___ _____ ____ recicves limbic info and projects it to the cingulate gyrus VIA the _________
anterior thalamic nucleus

mamillothalamic tract
Damage to ____ is very similar to a prefrontal lobotomy

What is involed with the pariatal-occipital-temporal association cortex?
bilateral damage to the dorsomedial nucleus

Reticular Nucleus is a principal representation of

what NT does it use?
subcortical thalamic nucleus (get tons of collateral inputs and then projects to thalamic nucles to influnce the thalamic output)

Somatosensory stimuli enters the conscious in humans at the level of

Damage to this area =
the thalamus!!

cannot localize or discriminate sense
thalamic pain
Fast pain fibers run in ______ tract and end in ...

Thalamic syndome is a combination of....


- thalamic pain
- hemianesthesia
- sensory ataxia
- mild paralysis
The internal Capsule is a route for what major tracts?

Name the five regions of the internal capsule that are based on the lenticular nucleus

which ones contain optic radiation?

Which one contains the auditory radiation?
Thalamocortical and Corticothalamic tracts

anterior limb
posterior limb

the retro and sub lenticular

What limb of the internal capsule contains Frontopontine fibers?

corticospinal fibers?


thalamis to posterior cerebral hemispheres-
anterior limb



How does the anterior nucleus of thalamus get to cingulate gyrus?

How does dorsal motor nucleus of thalamus project to the prefrontal cortex?
anterior limb of internal capsule

same way
What internal capsular limb carries inferior visial field info?

superior visual field info?

Which field is associated with Myers Loop?


superior viseual field
Blood supply to the internal capsule =

fyi- myosis is small eyeballs
lateral striate arteries
Anterior Choriodal arterys
What structure is associated with Horners Syndrome?

signs of this syndrome?

dry skin
no sweat
Hypothalamus controls what?

What is the first sign of a hypothalamic tumor?
somatic functions

visual problems
Hypothalmic inputs:

1. senseory info from brainstem and spinal cord
2. autonomic and somatic info from limbic system
3. hippocample formation
4. amygdala (VIA striaterminalis)

1. fornix
2. reciprical with all afferents
3. pituitary gland aka hypothesis
Two ways the hypothalamus influences the pituitary gland-
neuro projection
vasculary (adenohypothesis)
posterior pituitary secretes
ADH and Oxytocin
the visual system is an outgrowth of ...
outer retina layer =

Inner layer =
pigment epithelium

neural retina

Ps - These two is where retinal deattchmnt occurs
Discribe the pathway that happens after light has hit the photoreceptors
1. to bipolar and horizontal cells

2. to ganlion and amacrine cells

3. from the ganglion cells to the optic nerve

to the optic tract

to the lateral geniculate
How mnay layers does the retina have?
5 - inner and 5- outer
the outer layers are involved with visual transduction
The most front is slcera and most last is ganglion cell layer

FYI- the retina is inverted with respect to the path of light
List Characterisics of RODS
rods - for rhodopsin
1. dim light
2. HIGH convergance
3. LOW acuity
4. One type of rod ONLY
List characteristics of CONE
1. 3 types (red blue and yellow)

2. bright light
3. LOW convergance
4. High spacial acuity
Are there photoreceptors on the optc disk?

Where is the macula located?
We are blind to any object whos image falls on that part of the retina

lateral to the blind spot (fovea is in the enter of the macula)
where in the eye is the highest aquity for color?

2 types of color vision
central fovea
(midget bipolar cells?)

1. photopic
2. scotopic
3 places the optic tract sends its info-

Where is the area of primary visual discrimination?
mid brain
lateral geniculate

lateral geniculate (6 layers)
Each optic tract looks at ...
contralateral visual field
Discribe the lateral geniculate layers

magnocellular layers -

Parvocellular layers-
1, 4, 6 = contralateral eye
2, 3, 5 = ipsilateral eye

(1-2) moving + contrast

(3-6) color and form
Papilledema =

Point of optic chiasm-

Optic radiation
inc pressure (brain)
inc optic disk pressure
impeed optic nerve

depth perception
anterior limb (internal capsule) devides

posterior limb devides
caudate from putamen

lenticular nucleus to thalamus
discribe meyers loop
superior visual field (inferior retina) travels with the sublenticular part of the internal capsule to the meyers loop in the temporal lobe. Then ends in the INFERIOR banks of the calcarine sulcus
Where is the auditory radtiation going?
superior tempral gyrus
How does the Inferior visual field make its way to the superior banks of the calcarine sulcus?
Travels with the retrolenticular part of the internal capsule along with the fovea info and the pulvinar info
What part of the internal capsule carries info that controls cranial nerves?
Describe the anterior pituitary
Anterior is the vascular part (adenohypothesis)

The hypothalamus sends info to the first capillary bed (that is suplied by the superior hypothalamic artery that stemmed from the internal carotid) and that bed travels (portal system) to the secondary capillary bed (supplied by the inferior hyhophouyesial artery) and that stimulates hormones to be released
Discribe posterior pituitary
neuohypothesis -
this has two nucleus from the hypothalamus (paraventricular and superior otpic nucleus) these send info the the capillary bed (supplied by inferioor hyoph arterty) and ADH and oxytocin are released
Discribe the convergence of RODs
Rods have high high high convergence
each optic tract looks at..
contralateral visual field
Discribe the layers of the lateral geniculate
1, 4, 6 = have contralateral eye info
2, 3, 5 = have ipsilateral eye info.

1-2 = magnocellular (movement and contrast)
3-6 = parvocellular (color and form)
primary visual cortex = striate nucleus
Name numbers for primary visual cortex and the visual associateion
17 = primary
18+19 = association
Pathway of signals from the optic nerve
optic nerve

optic chiasm

optic tract

optic radtion: travels to lateral geniculate which has 6 layers. and 2 spots lol

then goes to banks of calcarine culcus
Pupillary Light Reflex =
optiic nerve to optic chiasm

then some goes to brachium of superior colliculus and then to the pretectal area

the rest go to the lateral geniculate

from the pretectal area they go to bilateral EDW where they then travel with CN III to the ciliary ganglion and then travel through the short ciliary nerve and then to the ciliary musclces!!!
Accomodation reflex=
when a visual attention is directed to a nearby object, 3 things happen in a reflex manner.

1. convergence of both eyes (so image of object falls on both foveas)

2. contraction of ciailary muscles and lens thickens to accomodate and focues on retina

3. pupillary constriction inc depth of focus

this reflex does require the cerebral cortex
Nuero Syphillis-
pupil contricts during the near(accomodation) reflex but not in response to light! (retectal involvement)
How far can the eye normally see in the visual axis of temporal region?

when is binocular vision possible?
90 degrees

when the two visual fields overlap
DaMAGE of the eye is named for
VISUAL field loss, not the functioning of the retina
A large lesion of the left temporal lobe interupts meyers loop produces....
well since the superior visual field is involved....

you get a right homonymous superior quadrantanopia
what two arteries are near the occipital pole
middle and posterior cerebral

which is good because even if the PCA is completel accluded you can still have some macula sparing from blood in the MCA
What makes up the cerebal cortex
90% neocortex and the rest is paleocortex and archiocortex

paleo = uncus and olfactory
archio = hippocampal formation
two principal cells of the neocortex
granular(stallate) and purkinji cells(betz)

the purkinis have long apical dentrites and spines
the 6 layers of the neocortex are arrangeed differently through out. how can you tell if its a motor area or a sensory area?
Motor is AGRANULAR - thick

the sensory is GRANULAR
The single majoy subcortical connection is to the
Most cerebral efferents leave via
internal capsule

some leave via the external capsule
LIne of gennari=
in striate cortex that represents outer band of baillarger in layer IV. That may represent masssive projection from lateral geniculuate nuclues to the striate
Most efferents to the cortex of the contralateral hemisphere pass trhough the
corpus callosum
Interconnecting parts of the temporal lobe pass via
anterior comissure