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161 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Premotor cortical areas are defines as having a dual pattern of projections, that is they project to two different parts of the NS. Which 2 do they project to?
Primary motor cortex and Spinal Cord
Which of the following nuclei give rise to descending projections to the SC for controlling limb and/or trunk muslces?
Magnocellular red nucleus
Which of the following nuerons receive a monosynpatic projections from corticospinal neurons?
1. Reticulospinal neurons
2. Propriospinal neurons
3. Segmental interneurons
4. motor neurons
Which oof the following statements best describe the functional distinctions between the medial and lateral descending motor pathways?
The medial pathways are inmportant in trunk control and the lateral pathways are important in limb control
Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area are involved in the control of?
A. movement
B. Body Temperature
C. Breathing
D. None of the above
None of the above.

Dopaminergic nerons in the ventral tegmental area fire stongly upon an unexpected award, then slowly dissapate firing as a reward is conditioned and becomes expected, only basline activity when the reward has been fully learned. Encode difference btw expected and unexpected
Individual Cranial Nerves can have?
A. Only sensory
B. Only motor
C. Both Sensory & Motor
D. All of the above
D. All of the above
Which of the following neurotransmitters is produced mainly (or only) in neurons located outside the brain stem?
A structure importantly involved in producing a coordinated fear response is the?
The electroencephalogram (EEG) records activity generated primarily by..
Synaptic activity on apical dendrites of pyramidal cells
The cellular event that characterize a cortical seizure focus and underlies spike discharges in the EEG is the ...
paroxysmal depolarization shift
All the following are inhibitory neurons of the cerebral cortex EXCEPT
A. basket cells
B. spiny stellate cells
C. chandelier cells
D. double bouquet cells
spiny stellate cells
The thalamocortical cicuit involved in generating sleep spindles and 3 hz spike-wave activity depends on
cortical pyramidal cells, thalamis reticular neurons, and thalamic relay neurons
Patients with surgical section of the corpus callosum
can read normally except when reading stimuli are flashed in the right visual field only
Which of the following statements are true?
Patients with bilateral damage to the hippocampus and adjacent rhinal cortex
1. lose the ability to remember their own experience
2. maintain the ability to learn non-verbal motor skills
3. have aubtle deficits in language
1 & 2
Which of the following statements are true?
The pariental cortex...
1. provides sensory information about movement targets to the motor system
2. associates tactile, visual, auditory, and vestibular information to represent space
3. compensated for eye movement by shifiting the receptive fields of visual neruons
1, 2, & 3
Which of the following is true?
Damage to the frontal lobe causes an inability to
1. suppress automatic responses to sensory stimuli
2. make spatialy accurate movements
3. shift behavioral strategies
1 & 3
Neuroscientists have used the concept of set point to help explain
regulation of both body weight and temerpature
Body temerature is regulated by nuerons located in
both anterior hypothalamus and posterior hypothalamus
Which statement is NOT true
a. changing the number and strength of excitatory and inhibitory synapses in the hypothalamus could modulate biological set points for body weight
b. leptin and insulin are adiposity signals that influence neural circuits in the hypothalamus
c. biological set points for bodyweight gain may in part be determined during development, since leptin can promotre the growth of prejections from the arcuate nucleus to the paraventricular nucleus within the hypothalams
d. leptin acts only on anabolic pathways in the hypothlamus
Which of the following nerual pathways influences satiety?
a. signals form the vagus nerve
b. afferents from the upper GI tract going to the spinal cord
c. both a & b
d. netiher a & b
With regard to the amygdala, which statment is true?
Neural activity in the amygdalas central nucleus acts directly on neural circuits that mediate autonomic reactivity
With regards to the central nucleus of the amygdala, which statement is false?
a. drug infusions do not influence the formation of memories induced by an emotional arousing event
b. lesions do nto influence the formation of memories induced by an emotionally arousing event
c. Stimulation does not influence hormone secretion
d. stimulation can modulate the startle relfex.
Which of the follwoing are true?
Midbrain dopamine neurons supply signals critical for reward-based leanring
Which statement is true?
Amygdala lesions in humans can spare declaritive memory while still impairing fear conditioning
Which of the following molecules are correctly matched with its effect on growing axons
1. laminin-axon extension
2. semaphorin- repulsion
3. netrin- attraction
4. netrin- repulsion
Guidance cues are dected by the growth cone of the growing axon?
The filopodia and veils that protrude from the edge of the growth cone are filled with neurofilaments?
Neurotrophins (e.g. NGF) probably promote cell survival by
preventing activiation of caspases
An experiment is preformed in which the eyeball of a frog is rotated 180 degrees in its socket and the retinal axons are allowed to regrow into the optic tectum. However, before the regenerating axons arrive in the tectum, an antibody is applied which blocks the functioning of ephrins throughout the posterior half of the optic tectum. Retinal axons originiationg from what is now the anterior half of the retina will
form synapses in the pesterior, as well as the anterior half of the optic tectum
Nerve-derived signals at the neuromuscular junction result in
1. increased AChR expression in extra-synaptic nuclei
2. AChR clustering
3. muscle depolarization
2 & 3
Which of the following statements is true for neurons of the CNS?
multiple innervation is common
Agrin & neuregulin (ARIA) differ in their:
1. receptor
2. cellular source
3. dependence on muscle proteins for their effects
4. effect on the distribution of cholinergic receptors
1 & 3
Postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors and presynaptic vesicles are only sythesized
None of the above
The conversion from poorly to sharply defines ocular dominance columns is probably primarily caused by the
loss of axonal branches
Which statement is on the expermental findings of the Harlows is FALSE?
1. infant mokeys raised in isolation in cages from 6-12 months of age are healthy but behavioraly impaired.
2. the addition of animate surrogate mother or a peer improves the behavioral outcome of the monkey
3. monkeys isolated in a cage at 18 moths or older do not develop normally
4. there is a critical period for primates and humans during which extrinsic influences can induce permanent changes in btoh structures and function of cicuits
The notion of "winner takes all" during the establishment of synaptic cicuitry during development incorporates which of the following
1. neurons that fire together tend to remain synaptically connected to one another, whereas neurons that fire asychronously or weakly tend not to maintain their synaptic connections.
2. neurotrophins released from neurons postsynaptic to neurons that are firing AP are taken up by the active neurons and promote axon growth of the active neruons
3. synchronous firing by multiple axons carring information from one eye casues sufficient postsynaptic depolarization to open NMDA receptor channels
4. the relative balance, rather than absolute levels, of activity is important in determining the breadth of ocular dominace columns
All of the above
Which is our true of the mature brain?
1 once a synapse is formed, it can be eliminated
2 dendritic spines, postsynaptic structures receiving excitatory input, can be motile
3. the functional plascity that is seen in the critical period can return in the adult brain after applying proteases to the cortex
4. abnormal anatomical connections that form from abnormal sensory experience during development persists even after normal sensory input is restored
all of the above
A patient who receives a blow to the head and takes a memory test several months later is likely to exhibit amnesia for
events shortly before the blow
A patient who undergoes bilateral removal of the hippocampus and takes a memory test several motnsh later is likely to exhibit amnesia for
a events shortly before the surgery
b events days before the test
Damage to the temporal lobe is likely to produce a deficit in learning
a to recognize new people
b lists of words (free recall)
learning can involve neuronal plasticity in
spinal cord
Action of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase contributes to long-term but not short-term facilitation of the Aplysia sensory-motor synapse.
Activation of this kinase during ling-term faciliations contributes to changes in the synthesis of certain proteins
Early long-term potentiation (e-LTP; lasting minutes to one or two hours) at the CA3-CA1 synapse in the hippocampus is triggered by the influx of Ca++ through channels coupled to _____recepotors and _____depend on cAMP-dependent protein kinase.
does not
Inactivation of CREB locally at presynaptic terminals of Aplysia sensory neurons should prevent facilitation of sensory-motor neuron sysnapses form lasting several days.
Bloackage of pretein synthesis locally at presynaptic termianls of Aplaysia sensory nuerons should prevent facilitation of sensory-motor synapes from lasting several days.
Place maps are representations of the external space that form in the h=mouse hippocampus. The formation of a place map is a type of spatial leanring. the infusion of a dopamine receoptor anatagonist into the brain of a mouse placed in a novel environment will
prevent the long-term retention of the newly formed place map
Which of the following brain regions contain neurons whose axons give rise to the corticobulbar tract?
1. primary motor cortex
2. supplementary motor area
3. cingulate motor area
Which if the following nuclei receives a major projection from the corticobulbar tract?
Which of the follwoing statements describe the anatomy of the corticobulbar tract?
corticobulbar axons course within the internal capsule and descend ventrally within the brain stem
Which of the following symptoms would be prominent in a patient that has a lesion of the genu of the internal capsule?
weaknes of the contralateral lower facial muscles
The nuclei of which of the follwoing pairs are part of the same CN nuclear column?
nucleus ambiguus
facial nucleus
Which of the follwoing describe the nuleus ambiguus?
a. upper part of the nucleus contains motor neurons that innervate pharyngeal muscles
b. lower part of the nusleus contains motor nuerns that innervate laryngeal muscles
c. receives a bilateral projection from the corticobulbar tract
d. all of the above
all of the above
Which of the following is considered a negative motor sign in basal ganglia disease?
a. tremor
b. rigidity
c. chorea
d. loss of postural reflexes
e. dementia
loss of postural relfexes
A sudden onset of high fever, muscle rigidity and autonomic signs
can be associated with malignant hyperthermia
Deep brain simulators
deactivate subcortical nuclei to improve movement disorder symptoms
Bells palsy
never results in double vision
Which of the following statements accurately describe how neurons in the primary motor cortex influence neurons in the spinal cord?
1. through monosynaptic projections to motor neurons
2. through monosynaptic projections to interneurons
3. through projections to brain stem nuclei that, in turn, project to motor neurons
4. all of the above
all of the above
Which of the following statements best describe the pattern of convergence of motor pathways in the spinal cord?
corticospinal and reticulospinal tracts converge on neurons in the lateral and medial gray matter of the spinal cord
Which of the following statements best describe the control of the pattern of muscle contaction during rythmic leg movements?
rhthmic movements are organized by circuits within multiple segments of the lumbar spinal cord
The reticulospinal tract differs from the rubrospinal tract in that only the reticulospinal tract
has bilateral projections to the spinal mtotr neurons
The locus coeruleus
an important source of noradrenergic projections in the CNS
Which has the greatest peripheral distribution of all cranial nerves?
Degeneration of Neurons in the eubstantia nigra leads to
Parkinson's Disease
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are used to treat
the diagnosis of a minimally concious state MCS
is based on inconsistant command-following and responsiveness
Nueral responses to unconcious, but behaviorally effective, fearful faces are observed in the
basolateral amygdala
Contralateral neglect syndrome is most commonly associated with lesions in the
Right parietal lobe
The "binding" theory of conciousness accounts for perceptual unity by proposing
Synchronized firing of multiple active brain areas
Which of the following statements about neurons in the neocortex is FASLE?
1 spiny stellate cells are excitatory
2 pyramidal neurons are the main excitatory neurons
3 granule cells are inhibitory neurons
4 chandelier cells are inhibitory interneurons
Which of the following elemenst is NOT important in the thalamocortical circuit that underlies generalized 3/sec spike-wave activity ("petit mal epilepsy")
a. thalamis reticular nucleus
b. thalamis relay nucleus
c. T-tyoe Ca++ cahannels
d. NMDA and AMPA receptors
e. GABAa and GABAb receptors
A drug could have anti-convulsant effects if it
enhanced recurrent inhibition
Which if the follwoing is not true of primary (idiopathic) generalized-onset seizures?
a. they are almost always associated with a loss of conciousness
b. abnormal repative firing neurons occurs across the entire brain from the onset of the seizure
c. neither clonic nor tonic muscle activity is required for a seizure to be classified as a primary generalized form of epilepsy
D. Complex partial seizures are almost never seen in patients with primary generalized epilepsu
Which of the following statements best describe the function of the cotocobulbar tract?
control of cranial and facial muscles
Which of the follwoing nuclei receive input from the corticotubular tract?
Which of the following signs best describe a patient with unitlateral damage to the corticotubular tract?
paralysis of contralateral lower facial muscles
Which of the following statements best characterizes the organization of motor neurons innervating the pharynx and the larnyx?
Pharyngeal and laryngeal motor neurons are located in the nucleus ambiguus
Which of the following statements accurately describes the cortical origins of the corticobulbal tract?
1. located in the primary motor cortex
2. locatecd in the cingulate cortex
3. located in the supplementary motor cortex
4. located in the premotor cortex
5. all of the above
all of the above
Which of the listed structures contains corticobulbat axons?
1 internal capsule
2. basis pedunculi
3. pyramid
4. all of the above
4. all of the above
Bell's Palsy..
can resemble in some ways, but is impotant to differentiate from, a stroke
Loss of postural reflexes, one of the cardinal signs in parkinson's disease, results in
difficulty in getting out of a chair
Which of the following is NOT associated with a malignant hyperthermia?
1. temperature rise
2. weakness of face
3. loss of brainstem functions
4. jaw clentching- unexpected after relaxation from anesthesia
2. weakness of face
Diathermy when used in the mouth
generates high frequency vibrations without generating heat in local body tissues
Which of the following are true?
1. the frontal cortex is necessary for working memory
2. the medial temporal lobe is necessary for declaritive memory
3. both are necessary for procedural memory
1 & 2
The temproal lobe pyschiatric syndrome includes
1. hyper-religiosity
2. depressions
3. sexual problems
1 & 3
Patients with prefrontal deficits:
1. have difficulty understanding complicated language
2. perseverate
3. respond inappropriately to sensory stimuli
2 & 3
Which of the following is not a prietal function?
a. transmission of sensory information to the motor system
b. generation of the specific details of a motor program
c. specification of attended objects in the world
d. construction of one's own body image
Typically, a fever occurs during infections because:
the temerpature set point in the hypothalamus rises
With regard to satiety signals, which statement is NOT true?
a. the vagus nerve carries satiety signals to the nucleus of the solitary tract
b. satiety signals can be chemical or mechanical
c. satiety signals exert short -term control on feeding behavior
d. nucleus of the solitary tract does not contain leptin recepotrs
The hypothalamus maintains homestasis by
1. influencing endocrinological responses
2. influencing the ANS
3. comparing information above the environment with biological set points
4. 2 & 3
5. 1, 2 & 3
1, 2 & 3
With regard to adiposity signals, which statement is true?
1. leptin exerts short-term control on feeding behavior but not long term control
2. Leptin influences catabolic pathways in the hypothalamus but not anabolic pathways
3. leptin can influence the processing of satiety signals directly in the nucleus of the solitary tract because some neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract contain leptin receptors
4. Leptin and insulin have opposing actions in the hypothalamic circuits mediating feeding behavior
Stimulation of the amygdala can cause
freezing through activation of the gray nucleus
Fear conditioning
a. can be studies in humans
b. can be studied in rodents
c. requires the hippocampus
d. A & B
e. all of the above
d. A & B
What statement is not true in reinforcement learning?
1. error signals are thought to update nueral respresentations of value
2. the amygdala provides a representation of learned negative value but not positive value
3. dopamine neurons fire after an unexpected reward but not after an expected reward
4. dopamine neurons are inhibited if an expected reward is not received
Removal of the temporal lobe, including the hippocampi and amygdala, produce Kluver-Bucy sundrome, where
monkey have increased sexual behavior
The classic neurotrophic factor hypothesis argues that:
survival of neurons depends on their competition for target derived factors
Polymerization of _____ drives extension of growth cone filopodia.
Actin filaments
The binding of laminin to integrin in the plasma membrane of a growth cone casues the occupied receptor to
become linked to the actin filament network
& trigger a signal transduction cascade
An axon grows into an area where its growth cone is flanked on one side, at some distance awya, by cells secreting netrin and on the other side, at a similar distance, by cells secreting a neurotransmitter. The neurotrasnmitter causes the concentraion of cAMP in the growth cone to decrease greatly. The growth cone has the DCC receptor for netrin on its surface. The axon will
turn to grow towards the cells secreting neurotransmittor
AChRs are present on the muscle surface
prior to arrival of the motor nueron
The main function of agrin in neuromuscular development is
to promote the clustering of AChRs
Which if the following molecules can induce presynaptic differentitaion?
1. neuroligin
2. laminin
3. semaphorin
4. ephrin
1 & 2
Regarding nasic mechanisms of the development of synapses, an important difference between the CNS and the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is that
a basal lamina is present at the NMJ but not at the CNS synapses
Which statement is false?
1. Social interactions in a healthy monkey kept in isolation during the critical period can become fully normal in the monkey is later placed among its fellows
2. the immature brain is highly plastic and the development of cicuits is modulated by patterns of electrical activity
3. humans afforded little social stimuli ot maternal contact as infants are likely to develop prro motor and verbal skills and be more subceptible to disease
4. neural activity can affect the development of synaptic connections, even prenatally
Which statement is false?
1. the realtive bablacne of activity is impotant in whether the "winner takes all" in the competition of axonal arbors during neuronal development
2. the addition of an inanimate surrogate mother or a peer improves the behavioral outcome of a monkey raised in isolation
3. mophologically plasticity, such as dendritic spine motility, ceases in the mature brain
4. abnormal sensory experience in one eye (occlusion or suture) leads to a reduction in occular domincane column width in those columns innervated by inputs from the closed eye
Which property of the NMDA receptor is though to make them especialy useful in the process of activity-dependent synapse elimination during development?
require substantial membrane depolarization to open
Which statment is False?
1. during activation of postsynaptic visual cortical cells by afferent fibers, neurotrophins released from the postsysnpaitc cell are readily taken up by the presynaptic terminals, contributing to branching and maintanance of the terminals
2. there is an exoansion of inputs to the visual cortex from an eye which is closed during the critical period, to compensate for its reduced acitivity
3. spontaneous nural activity occurs in the form of waves in the delveloping retina
4. the segregation of occular input into eye-specific layers in the lateral genticulate nucleus in the thalamus occurs by the contraction of initially exuberant and overlappingn axonal arbors
Damage to the hippocampus results in deficits in
long term memories of events that happen after the damage
Damage to the hippocampus and temproal lobes results in deficits in learning
1. mirror writing
2. personal names
3. lists of words with "priming"
4. all of the above
Personal Names
Explicit learning
is reconstructive
Classical conditioning can engage neronal plasticity in the
1. hippocampus
2. amygdala
3. cerebellum
4. all of the above
d. all of the above
Increases in the intracellualr cAMP are important for synapstic modification underlying both implicit and explicit learning. T/F
One of the important effects of the increased cAMP, in bnoth types of learning, is a change in the ion conductance? T/F
Recent workindicates that the degree of attention to a place-finding task by a mouse is directly related to the stability of the place maps that are formed in the hippocampus. _____is the neurotransmitter which seems to mediate this reinforcing effect?
The first description of a prion protein was as the causative agent of the degenerative brain disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. There is now evidence that a protein uses prion-like properties to contribute to synaptic plasticity underlying leanring. How does it do so?
it increases the synthesis of proteins within the synaptic terminals
Increase influx of Ca++ across the plasma membrane at the synapse is important for the expression of:
A. the short-term increase in synpatic transmission that contributes to sensitization of the gill withdrawal relfex in Aplysia
B. long-lasting long term potentiation (l-LTP) in the mammalial hippocampus
C. Both of the above
D. None of the above
Complex partial seizures are
focal seizures with complex symptoms
When a patient has a petit mal seizure episode
the EEG suddenly shows 3 per second spike/wave discharges
Which brain regions contains numerous neurons that produce serotonin as a transmittor?
raphe nucleus
The main function of the vagus is to enable
autonomic motor functions
Phenomena associated with temporal lobe eplilepsy:
1. depression
2. hypergraphia
3. abnormal sexual behavior
4. partail complex seizures with visual hallucinations
2, 3, & 4
Phenomena associated with right parietal lesion include:
1. inability to transfer visual information to the motor system
2. neglect of the left visual field
3. difficulty with naming objects in the left visual field even without neglecting their presence
4. diddiculy with generating complex movements to verbal commands ("toothbrush")
1, 2, & 4
The survival neurons depends on multiple factors. Which of the follwoing is NOT one of these factors:
1. neurotrophic factos
2. suppression of a cell death program
3. neurofilament expression
4. contact with their target cells
neurofilament expression
With regards to temperature reulation, which statement is not true?
1. fever results from dysfunction in the sensing of blood temperature in the hypothalaums during infection
2. Stimulation and lesions of the anterior hypothalamus have similar effects on body temperature
3. all of the above
3 all of the above
Energy homestasis, which is NOT true?
1. Leptin influences catabolic pathways in the hypothalamus
2. leptin is primarily secreted by fat cells
3. Adiposity signal exert long-term control on catabolic and anabolic pathways in the hypothalamus
4. Leptin does not influence neural circuits involved in satiety (meal consumption)
With regards to fear conditioning....
the amygdala is required for contextual fear conditioning
Reward processing
reward prediction error signals could be used as instructive signals for guiding learning
During the devleopment of the NMJ, muscle activity
supresses AChR expression in extra-synaptic nuclei
Which of the following statements are true?
Neuregulin signaling at the NMJ
1. is transmitted through MuSK
2. is transmitted through the MAP-Kinase pathway
3. is mediated through neurexin
4. increase AChR expression
5. promotes presynapstic differentiation
2 & 4

MuSK is the receptor for agrin.
Agrin clusters AChR
In an adult monkey who had one eye closed from birth to 6 months of age, single neurons in layer 4c(input layer) of primary visual cortex (area 17) respond predominately to visual input from
the other eye
Which is false?
1. Both NMDA receptors and neurotrophins are important in shaping ocular domincane columns
2. Absolute, not relative, levels of acitivyt are important in determining the breadth of ocular dominance columns
3. morphological plasticity of neruons occurs into and throughout adulthood
4. neurons are active during the prenatal period
Elevtroconvulsive therapy (ECT) typically results in
loss of recent memories
A patient with damage to the medial temproal lobes would be severely impaired in
learning the names of the US presidents
Expression of a serontonin-induced long term increase in transmission at some, but not toher presynaptic terminals of APlysia sensory neuron is probably due to the to __________some, but not other, termianls
translation of mRNA into protein at
During protocols that leat to long-term increases in synaptic transmission, cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) is activated by becoming phosphorylated.
The important role of CREB in lone-term increases in synapstic transmision is to facilitate Ca++ influx into the cell.
Which of the follwoing locations receive a projection from the corticobulbar tract?
a trigeminal motor nucleus
b. nucleus ambiguus
c. ventral horn
d. A & B
e. all of the above
d. A & B
Corticobulbar tract axons descend through which portions of the white matter of the brain?
1. internal capsule
2. pyramind
3. doral column
4. 1 & 2
5. all of the above
4. internal capsule & pyramid
Malignant Hyperthermia
can result from anesthetic use
Dystonic muscle spams
can be ameliorated with a sensory trick
**What is the key difference between corticospinal and cotrticobulbar tracts?
Spinal- projects to spinal cord nuclei- to spinal cord motor nuclei (limbs/trunk)

Bulbar- to brain stem and cranial nerve motor nuclei
**Name 4 nuclei that receive input from the corticobulbar tract?
**Are cranial nerve motor nuclei located medial or lateral to the sensory nuclei?
Hypoglossal is right on the midline
Ambiguous, facial, and trigeminal are displaced
Which pair of nuclei are part of the same cranial nerve nuclear column (neighbors in function)
A. facial motor and trigeminal motor
B. ambiguus and solitary
C. dorsal motor nucleus of vagus and hypoglossal
Facial motor
Trigeminal motor

B. ambiguus (inervate the larnyx & pharnys) and solitary (taste)
C. dorsal motor nucleus of vagus (autonomic) and hypoglossal (tongue)
**Name the set of cranial nerves that receive billateral corticobulbar projection.
Jaw muscles
tongue muscles
upper face muscles

Everything EXCEPT lower face muscles
**Name the two cortical regions that project to the facial motor nucleus?
primary motor area
cingulated motor area
**Name a set of cranial muscles that (are inervated to motor neurons that) receives a contralateral corticobulbar projection
Lower facial muscles
**What cranial nerves contain motor axons from the nucleus ambiguus?
9, 10, 11
**What is the function of the upper part of the nucleus ambiguus?
pharyngeal muscle innervation
**What is the function of the lower part of the nucleus ambiguus?
layngeal muscle innervation
**Name three motor areas on the medial brain surface
1. supplementary motor area
2. cingulate motor area
3. part of a primary motor cortex (portion that controls lower extremity)
**Through which region of the subcortical white matter do axons from the cortical motor areas travel?
Internal capule- has somatotopic organization
**Where in the internal capsule do most of the axons of the corticobulbar tract course?
**Where in the midbrain does the corticobulbar tract travel?
basis pendunculi
**Where is the pons?
**Where is the medulla?
**Describe the path of the facial nerve
first toward ventricular floor and then to the ventral surface
**In which brain stem region is the trigeminal motor nucleus?
**In which brain stem region is the facial motor nucleus?
**In which brain stem region is the nucleus ambiguus?
**In which brain stem region is the hypoglossal nucleus?
**Name one cranial motor sign (unimpairment) that occurs after lesion of the ventral pons on the right side?
droop of the left lower face (paralysis of those facial muscles)
**What is the gag reflex?
Mechanical stimulation of pharynx (stimulates mucosa of pharnyx, triggers reflex contraction)
**What are the components of the gag reflex?
Afferent limb carried by CN IX (stylopharyngeus is only muscle with IX)
Efferent limb carried by CN X
**What is the efect of the gag reflex after damage to the dorsolateral medulla?
Dorsolateral medulla are neurons that innervate the pharyngeal muscles (ambiguus). Causes loss of efferent!

Relfex is impaired, both b/c of damage to the afferent side (solitary nucleus) and to the efferent component (nucleus ambiguus)
**Name one cranial motor sign that occurs after daamge of the dorsolateral medulla
hoarse voice