Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/38

Click to flip

38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
SA NODE NORMAL RHYTHM SHOULD BE:
60-100
AN AV NODE NORMAL RHYTHM SHOULD BE:
40-60
A VENTRICULAR PACE MAKER SHOULD MAKE HEART RHYTHM:
30-40
WHAT IS THE AVE STROKE VOLUME?
70 ML
WHEN IS A P WAVE CONSIDERED ENLARGED?
IF ITS MORE THAN 3 SMALL BLOCKS TALL OR 3 SMALL BLOCKS WIDE
ENLARGEMENT OF THE P WAVE INDICATES:
ENLARGEMENT OF THE ATRIUM (MITRAL STENOSIS)
AN INCREASE IN THE PR INTERVAL INDICATES:
ASHD AND RHEUMATIC FEVER
THE PR INTERVAL IS AFFECTED WITH:
CERTAIN CARDIAC MEDS..MOSTLY DIGOXIN
WIDENING OF THE QRS COMPLEX INDICATES:
DEFECTS IN VENTRICLES AND CAN LEAD TO BLOCKING
THE ST SEGMENT IS ELEVATED DURING AN:
ACUTE MI
THE ST SEGMENT IS DEPRESSED WHEN:
1.HEART MUSCLE ISNT GETTING ENOUGH OXYGEN (ISCHEMIA)
2.PT IS ON DIGITALIS
AN ELEVATION IN T WAVE INDICATES:
SERUM K+ IS ELEVATED
A FLAT T WAVE INDICATES:
THE HEART IS NOT GETTING ENOUGH OXYGEN, AS IN ASHD
A U WAVE INDICATES:
HYPOKALEMIA (LOW POTASSIUM)
SINUS TACHYCARDIA:
RATE?
CAUSE?
TREATMENT?
1.100 BPM (100-160)
2. NORMAL CARDIAC RESPONSE TO INCREASED O2 DEMANDS (STRESS,PAIN,FEVER)
B.CAFFEINE,NICOTINE,ALCOHOL
C.HYPOVOLEMIA
3.TREAT THE CAUSE
AC INTERFERENCE
CAUSED BY LEAKAGE OF ELECTRICAL POWER
RATE OF 60 CPS
(SEEN IF TOO MUCH EQUIPMENT AROUND)
SOMATIC TREMOR
BODY TREMOR PRESENTS AS GROSSLY UNEVEN
-SEEN IN PTS EXPERIENCING TENSION
-TENSED MUSCLES PICKED UP BY THE ELECTRODE
SINUS RHYTHM
RHYTHM-REGULAR
RATE- 60-100
PR- .12-.20 SEC AND CONSTANT
QRS- LESS THAN .12 SEC
SINUS TACHYCARDIA
RHYTHM-REGULAR
RATE- ABOVE 100 BPM
P WAVE
PR- .12-.20 SEC AND CONSTANT
QRS- LESS THAN .12 SEC
CAUSES OF SINUS TACHYCARDIA (ST):
TXT:
1.NORMAL CARDIAC RESPONSE TO INCREASED O2 DEMANDS OF HEART:STESS,PAIN,FEVER
2.CAFFEINE
3.HYPOVOLEMIA
TXT-TREAT CAUSE
SINUS BRADYCARDIA (SB)
RHYTHM-REGULAR
HR- BELOW 60 BPM
P WAVE
PR- .12-20 SEC AND CONSTANT
QRS- LESS THAN .12 SEC
CAUSES OF SINUS BRADYCARDIA:
TXT:
1.NORMAL IN ATHLETES/WELL CONDITIONED PPL
2.INCREASED ICP (HEAD INJURY)
3.PAIN
4.VOMITING,INTUBATION,MECH VENT,HYPOTHYRODISM
5.MEDS:DIG,BETA BLOCKERS
6.MI
TXT:ASYMPTOMATIC-OBSERVE
IF SYMPTOMATIC-ATROPINE:.05 MG TO .04MG OR EXTERNAL PACEMAKER
SINUS ARRYTHMIA/SINUS DISRHYTHMIA
**RATE IS IRREGULAR***-INCREASES W/INSPIRATION AND DECREASES ON EXPIRATION
**COMMON IN CHILDREN**
RATE-IRREGULAR (R-R INTERVALS VARY)
P WAVE
PR- .12-20 SEC
QRS- LESS THAN .12 SEC
CAUSES OF SINUS ARRHYTHMIA/SINUS DYSRHYTHMIA:
TXT:
1.NORMAL IN CHILDREN AND PHYSICALLY FIT ADULTS
TXT:NONE IS ASYMPTOMIC
**ATROPINE-IF SYMPTOMS AND HEART RATE SLOW
ATRIAL FIBRILLATION
***NO P WAVES !!!! **
SEEN IN PTS WITH ASHD
ATHEROSCLEROSIS LEADS TO SCARRING OF THE ATRIUM
ATRIAL FIBRILLATION CAUSE:
TXT:
1.ATRIAL IRRIATATION
2.CHF,COPD,MITRAL VALVE,DIG TOX
TXT:DIGITALIS
PVC'S (PREMATURE VENTRICULAR CONTRACTIONS)
1.PREMATURE
2.NOT PRECEDED BY P WAVE
3.HAVE WIDE/BIZZARE QRS WAVE
4.ST AND T WAVE IN OPPOSIET DIRECTION
5.FOLLOWED BY COMPENSATORY PAUSE THEN THE NORMAL RHYTHM MARCHES BACK IN
CAUSES OF PVC:
1.IRRITABILITY AROUND INFARCTED AREA
2.HYPOXEMIA
3.ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE-HYPOKALMIA
4.ACIDOSIS OR ALKALOSIS
5.SLOW HR
6.MECH STIMULATION OF RT.VENTRICLE FROMA CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETER,MALPOSITION OF A PACING WIRE,DISPLACEMENT OF PULM ARTERY CATH
7.PTS WHO SMOKE,COFFEE,ALCOHOL
TXT OF PVC'S
GIVE *LIDOCAINE* 1-1.5 MG/KG IF IRRITABILITY FROM AREA OF INFARCTION
2.IF HYPOXEMIA-GIVE O2
3.IF DIG TOXICITY- D/C DIG
4.GIVE *ATROPINE* IF PVC DUE TO SLOW RATE
5.BRETYLIUM,PROCAINAMIDE,QUINIDINE
5.
PVS ARE DANGEROUS IN THE MI PT WHEN:
1.OCCUR MORE FREQUENTLY THAN 1 IN 1O BEATS (6/MIN)
2.OCCUR IN GROUPS OF 2 OR 3
3.LAND NEAR T WAVE
4.ARE MULTIFOCAL
INTERPOLATED PVC'S
PVC WHICH FALL BETWEEN 2 NORMAL BEATS W/OUT INTERRUPTING THE RHYTHM
VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA
A SERIES OF MULTIPLE (3 OR MORE) PVC'S AT A RATE OF ** 100-220/MIN**
-LEADS TO REDUCED CARDIAC OUTPUT
-WIDE QRS COMPLEX
CAUSES OF VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA:
TXT:
CAUSES: MI,MI IRRITABILITY,CAD,HEART FAILURE,DIG TOXICITY,HYPOKALEMIA

TXT:IF STABLE:
***LIDOCAINE 1-1.5 MG/KG= IV PUSH Q5-10 MIN
2.PROCAINAMIDE 20-30 MG/MIN
3.MAGNESIUM SULFATE
4.HAVE PT COUGH+DB 3X
IF PT UNSTABLE:
PHYS CARDIOVERT AT 100-200-300-360
VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION
VENTRICULAR MYOCARDIUM APPEARS TO BE QUIVERING
NO CARDIAC OUTPUT & NO PULSE**
IF RHYTHM NOT TERMINATED-PT WILL DIE
CAUSES OF VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION:
TXT:
1.RESULTS FROM MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA OR INFARCTION
2.ELECTRIC SHOCK
3.HYPOTHERMIA
4.ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE
5.R ON T PHENOMENON
TXT:1ST-PROMPT DEFIBRILLATION 2ND-MEDS
EPINEPHRINE 1MG PUSH Q 3-5 MIN (DRUG-SHOCK-DRUG-SHOCK)
AGONAL RHYTHM
DYING HEART
IRREVERSIBLE
TXT SAME AS FOR VF
VENTRICULAR ASYSTOLE (CARDIAC STANDSTILL)
TOTAL ABSENCE OF VENTRICULAR ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY
-MONITOR WILL SHOW STRAIGHT LINE
-NO PULSE
-MAYBE 1 P WAVE MAY SHOW IF ATRIUM IS FIRING
ARTIFACT
ANYTHING ON AN ELECTROCARDIOGRAM THAT IS NOT CAUSED BY THE CURRENTS GENERATED DURING THE CARDIAC CYCLE