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50 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
1. Gospel of Thomas
o Some people think this is the earliest of the five gospels for three reasons:
(1) unorganized, only sayings of Jesus
(2) same sayings as in Bible – some seem to fit well with Bible
(3) use of allegory comes later, and in Thomas Jesus does not explain the Sower parable
o clearly gnostic in several ways:
(1) ascetic spirituality – celibate (woman becoming man)
(2) mysteries and elitist spirituality (one treasure, one sheep, one pearl, etc)
(3) spirit/body distinctions (wretched is the soul which depends on the body)
2. Gospel of Peter
o Outlawed for public reading in 190AD by Serapion, bishop of Antioch
o What is left today is passion narrative
o Troublesome for several reasons
(1) anti-semitic: Herod and the Jews killed Jesus, not Pilate
(2) combines material from all 4 gospels, as if he had access to all 4 at a later date
(3) Christ/Jesus distinction – “Power, Power, why have you forsaken me?”
3. Gospel of Judas
o Coptic Gnostic gospel in which Judas is the hero because he faithfully follows Christ who tells him to betray him – set him free from his physical body
4. The Jesus Seminar
o Group started in the 1980s (broke off from SBL) that is looking for the historical Jesus – third quest
o They advocate 5 gospels: 4 + Thomas
o The purpose is to liberate Jesus from the tyranny of the religious establishment and communicate these results to the public; Jesus is an intellectual, passive sage
o They vote on authenticity of texts and what the historical Jesus really did and said (reject all the passion and resurrection stuff)
5. Genre
o A group of texts that exhibit a coherent and recurring configuration of literary features involving form, content, and function
o Context of expectation, interpretive grid
o Normative role, not just descriptive, because it governs interpretation
o The genre of the gospels is highly disputed – see essay (2) and pages 1ff of syllabus
6. Chaismus
o Literary device of inverted parallelism (most basic - ABBA); the climax of the chiasm is the center.
o Note: Deppe is highly critical of huge chiasm, especially of entire books. This often seems to force a certain structure onto the text.
o Deppe says to discern a chiasm only when conventional outlines fail to resolve a problem in the structure of a text.
7. Inclusio
o Literary device that creates a frame around a certain amount of material by putting similar words at the beginning and end of a section.
o Inclusios can help a reader discern natural breaks in the text. They also highlight the material between the inclusio.
8. Quelle
o The hypothetical lost source used by both Matthew and Luke – these 2 gospels share material in common (even very close wording!) which is not in Mark
o Q is part of the Two-Source/Oxford Hypothesis [the two sources are Mark and Q]
o The argument for Q is also an element of Source Criticism: looking for order written documents which were used as sources for the gospel.
o Q/Quelle was designated such by Johannes Weiss in 1892
o Q does not have a passion narrative apparently, and so some historical-critical people say that Q must be the original gospel and Jesus must have been only a wisdom prophet.
o According to the order of Luke, Q seems to have a logical flow of content
9. J.J. Griesbach
o Author of Griesback (Two Gospel) Hypothesis, 1789
o [not to be confused with Two Source/Oxford Hypothesis – Markan priority]
o Matthew first, Luke dependent on Matthew, Mark dependent on both
o Proof comes the Minor agreements: where Mt and Lk agree over and against Mk
o Called “Two Gospel” because it makes Mt and Lk more important than Mark which was supposedly later and less original
o 15% of scholars still believe this
o He also coined the term “Synoptic Gospels” and made the first synopsis and not a harmonization
10. St. Augustine
o 4th and 5th century, bishop of Hippo
o He says that the gospel writers were dependent on one another in canonical order: Mt, Mk, Lk
o Explains why Matthew was always listed first
o Lk wanted to follow Mk when diverged from Mt
o This is the oldest explanation of the interdependence of the gospels
11. Criterion of dissimilarity
o The material which does not fit the interests of the early church or first-century Judaism is likely to be more historical
o Used by Tradition History method of interpretation
o We should question this because it seems logical that what Jesus said would naturally stem from his Jewish upbringing and lead to the understandings of the early church
12. Rudolf Bultmann
o Example of form criticism which was cool in 1920s
o For example, he thought there was a Signs Gospel behind John, it was good to get back to the origin of things because they were more true
o Sometimes associated with the Quest for the Historical Jesus, but not really a part of it, it was more like his followers who took his teaching and added existentialism to get the second quest
o Christ was created by the faith of his followers – different than Jesus
13. Martin Dibelius
o Example of form criticism which was cool in the 1920s
o Form Criticism:
o Gospel writers collected small units/oral sayings and strung them together loosely
o Get back to the original oral form for true meaning
o We can appreciate it because it helps us see the importance of genre and structure of text
o It is bad because it accuses the church of inventing sayings of Jesus to meet their needs; also, the authors were theologians and not just collectors
14. Hans Conzelmann
o Redaction Criticism: authors as theologians
o Kingdom of God is breaking into the present (he is not expecting an immediate eschaton)
o Noneschatological School: moral ethic is the kernel we need to look for in the eschatological husk
15. Pharisees
o Group within Second-Temple Judaism that is the basis for traditional, rabbinic Judaism today “the good guys”
o Belief in the after-life and angels
o Ethics more than theology – oral law is normative
16. Sadducees
o Strict Levitical purity – leadership in temple
o Did not believe in the after-life or angles
o Oral law is not normative
17. Essenes
o Strict and zealous, high purity standards
o Often communal living, daily worship and purification
18. Qumran
o Likely an Essene community, NW shore of Dead Sea
o Mikvot, scriptorium, dining room
o 1947 – Dead Sea Scrolls discovered here
19. Antiochus Epiphanes
o Selucid emperor ruled 175-163 BC
o Destroyed Jerusalem and desecrated the temple by slaughtering a pig on the altar
o Tried to make Jewish men eat it, but they refuse and he cuts out their tongues and kill them on the altar; leads to successful Maccabean Revolt
20. Maccabean Revolt
o Judah Maccabee and other Jews revolt against Selucid empire and win using guerilla tactics
o They cleanse the temple and install Jonathan Maccabee as the new high priest
o Beginning of Hasmonean Dynasty 165-63BC
o Commemorated by Hanukah
21. Herod the Great
o King of Judea c. 37-4BC, thought of himself as a Jew (Hellenistic)
o Massive expansion of the temple in Jerusalem
o Slaughter of Bethlehem babies, crazy and paranoid in general
22. Zealot
o 4th Jewish sect: originate during the reign of Herod the Great and die out at Masada 73AD
o opposed Roman empire with violence and no tax paying
23. The Search for the Historical Jesus
o Began in late 1700s by Reimarus who wanted to develop a picture of Jesus distinct from the Christ described in the gospels (First Quest)
o Jesus was Jewish revolutionary who was unsuccessful, Christ didn’t really rise from dead, Mark is the earliest and therefore least corrupted gospel
o Second Quest: 1950s, at this time they develop criteria like dissimilarity, coherence (themes which cohere with dissimilarity stuff is good!), and multiple attestation.
o Problem: almost no results: we can know basically nothing about Jesus! Also, people start to care more about literary criticism than historical criticism
o Third Quest: Jesus Seminar – see separate entry for them
24. Sitz im Leben
o German for “situation/setting in life” first used by Hermann Gunkel (early 20th century)
o Figure out what the original context was of a story or document
o Principle of Tradition History – tracing the historical development from Jesus himself to the gospels, don’t just look at the Bible synchronically
o In the gospels distinguish 3 audiences: Sitz im Leben Jesu, Sitz im Leben Ecclesiae (early church), Sitz im Leben Evangelium (the purpose of the evangelist)
25. Nisan 14 or 15
o Concerns the dating of the crucifixion: John says 14 and Synoptics say 15
o John tells as if Jesus is dying on Passover at the moment the lamb is slaughtered
o Mark seems to say that they are eating the Passover meal (the lamb that was slaughtered at 3)
o Harmonize and say that in Mark it may have been a anticipated-Passover meal: no mention of lamb, might have been too busy in the city to do it all in one night
26. Harmonization
o The job of biblical theology, not exegesis!
o Look at each gospel on its own first, each has its own kerygma
o It is rich and wonderful that we have 4 gospels
o Examples: did the temple cleansing happen twice, at the beginning of JC’s ministry (Jn) or at the end (Synoptics)? All 7 sayings on the cross? When did Jesus die, Nisan 14 or 15? 6 denials and 2 crowings – yet this is in none of the gospels?!
27. Apocalyptic
o Literature about the end times and meant to reveal things like hidden mysteries/heavenly secrets
o Some people think that the gospels are of the apocalyptic genre: encouragement in tough times and meant to proclaim the end of the world. They think this because Mark quotes from Daniel, Messianic Secret, mystery, etc. See essay (2) and page 1ff of the syllabus
28. Eschatological
o Having to do with end times (???)
o Perhaps this is a reference to the different interpretations of the kingdom of God and how they understand eschatology – see essay (6) and pages 85ff of the syllabus
29. Already but not yet
o View of the Kingdom of God which sees it as both a present reality and a future inheritance: dynamic view of God’s reign
o Combination of future and realized eschatology
o Deppe likes this view because we can see history according to C-F-R-C with regard to image of God, human sin, death, our bodies, presence of God, etc.
o We live in an interval period; example of DDay and VEDay
o Espoused by Cullman(?)
30. Realized eschatology
o Reaction against moral/liberal school, in favor of eschatological setting
o Kingdom of God came in Jesus’ own minstry!! Jesus said so. The future language is purely symbolic or reinterpreted by early church
31. Albert Schweizer
o Consistent Eschatological School:
o Opposite of the Moral Kingdom of Love/Noneschatological School
o Eschatology is the kernel of teaching we need to get from the husk of the moral ethic
o Kingdom of God will come VERY soon, according to Jesus. He is really talking about the end of human history.
o Opposes the first Quest for the Historical Jesus (Quest says he did not think he was Messiah, Schweizer says he had messianic consciousness)
32. C.H. Dodd
o Stressed the importance of determining the Sitz im Leben, especially with regard to parables
o Member of the Realized eschatological school
o The kingdom of God had come completely in JC’s ministry
33. Markan Framework
o Mark provides a framework for his main narrative sections
o Examples: reference to Messianic secret before and after controversy dialogues (1.40-3.12), stories which take place while crossing the sea frame the miracle narratives
34. Markan sandwich (intercalation)
o Literary device whereby one story is divided into two parts and another story is inserted in between in order to tie the two stories together
o In some cases, this can turn a miracle story into a parable: ch 5 Jarius’ daughter/woman with bleeding in the middle: both stories are meant to illustrate that Jesus comes the replace the cleanliness rites with the kingdom of God. These people become insiders and the Jewish leaders are the outsiders.
o Fig tree/temple cleansing  Jesus proclaims the end of the time of temple worship
35. Markan repetition
o Mark repeats certain phrases/words in his gospel in order to correlate glory and passion
o Examples:
o the word “skizo – tear” is found only at baptism and temple curtain at end
o wording of the feeding of 5000/4000 is similar to wording at last supper
o the confession “this is my son/the son of God” is repeated 3 times as God reveals the suffering servant theme to Jesus at baptism, disciples at transfiguration, and world through centurion by cross
36. Controversy dialogues
o In Mark, Jesus begins to come into conflict with the Jewish leaders right from the beginning of the gospel! Cross comes up really early
o 1.40-3.12 – these controversy dialogues are framed with references to Messianic secret; at the end the Pharisees and the Herodians want to kill him already
o Meant to show that the kingdom and Jesus’ identity and authority are all manifested in conflict
o Mark’s audience was living in a time of persecution and conflict, so this shows that conflict is an expected part of discipleship
37. Messianic Secret/William Wrede
o In Mark, Jesus commands silence: (1) after miracles (5.43), (2) to demons (1.24), and (3) to disciples (8.29 – Peter’s confession). It seems as if Jesus does not want people to know that he is the Messiah
o Wrede (1901) explains that the author did this with a theological motive: since early traditions were nonmessianic until Jesus’ resurrection, the church moved the Messiahship of Jesus into his lifetime by implying it was a secret.
o Wrede’s explanation was groundbreaking for a host of other explanations. Some disagree with Wrede and say the Jesus himself commanded the secrecy, not just the author.
o Deppe says: when Peter, for example, called Jesus the Messiah, Jesus wanted him to be silent because Peter did not yet understand that to be the Messiah would involve suffering – the Messiah Peter was talking about was a satanic understanding.
38. Allegory
o Why it may be good to reject allegory:
(1) comes from Greek philosophy – desire not to read things literally
(2) most people don’t agree on meanings
(3) most are anachronistic
(4) you can read anything you want into a parable
(5) overlooks the simplicity of the parable, details may just be to tell a vivid story
o Early church fathers used allegory a lot; Origen wanted to find a three-fold sense to interpret parables: body/literal, soul/moral, and spirit/spiritual…Middle Ages – add eschatological sense
o Julicher (c. 1900) rejected allegory
39. Parable
o Earthly story with a heavenly meaning
o Short narrative comparing one thing to another by employing familiar situations/people in order to illustrate or illuminate an unfamiliar or unrecognized truth
o Parables have a surprise and provide: a window to the kingdom and then a mirror to see yourself
40. Adolf Julicher
o Single Point Theory for interpreting the parables
o Influenced by Aristotle’s distinction between metaphor (allegory) and simile (parable) and Romanticism/Goethe (19th century) who rejected allegory
o All allegories in the gospels are inserted by early church, not from Jesus – the early church must have forgotten the original context
41. tertium comparationis
o there is only ‘one thing being compared’ between the illustration half and the actuality half
o Therefore, allegory is unacceptable!
o theory of Julicher
42. Joachim Jeremias
o Historicizing approach to parables
o Go behind the text to find the true meaning
o Sitz im Leben for the evangelist, for the church, and for Jesus
o Find the Sitz im Leben for Jesus by: from Hebrew to Aramaic, Hellenistic to Palestinian audience, disciples to opponents; eliminate allegory, OT influence, etc.
43. Craig Blomberg
o 1990s, evangelical
o Reacts against Julicher – says that there is not such a rigid distinction between parable and allegory, he was relying on Aristotle too much
o Multiple symbols without allegorizing
o argues that the levels of identification of the audience affects the number of interpretive points
o There is one main point per character
44. B.W. Bacon
o First to suggest Five Discourse structure for Matthew, 1918
o Ethics 5-7
o Missions 10
o Kingdom Parables 13
o Church Order 18
o Eschatology 23-25
o Jesus is the New Moses
o 5 discourses like Pentateuch
o Similar birth narratives
o Mysterious endings
47. Heilsgeschichte (history of salvation)
48. Henry Cadbury
o Quaker, 20th century
o One of the first proponents for Luke and Acts to be read together – initiatory thrust
49. Early Catholicism
50. Johannine Sign
o John calls the miracles sings. In the synoptics, the miracles show power and the coming of the kingdom of God
o In John, the signs are done in order to reveal the person of Christ, and answer the question, “Who is Jesus?” (Christological)
51. Diatesseron by Tatian
o “Through 4;” c. 170 AD, by Assyrian Tatian who was a student of Justin Martyr
o rejected in the church
o Example of harmonization
52. Ipsissima verba vs. Ipsissima vox
o The very words of Jesus which are probably impossible to reconstruct vs. the voice of Jesus
o This is part of the correct usage of the Tradition History method of interpretation
o We don’t know for sure the exact words, but we know with confidence the things Jesus said