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40 Cards in this Set

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What is the new clinical sign of inflammation? What are the 4 original signs?
loss of FXN, reddess, heat, pain, swelling
What is the first event of inflammation?
changes in blood flow--this gives you heat and reddess
What is the 2nd event of inflammation?
Permeability changes--this causes swelling and pain
In inflammation, white cells break down and release ___?
phospholipids
phospholipids break down into ____?
prostaglandins
what is the enzyme that cleaves phospholipids to produce arachidonic acid?
Phospholipase A2
Steriods inhibit what enzyme?
phospholipase A2
NSAIDS block which enzyme?
Cyclo-oxygenase
_____ and ____ block the Cox pathway.
aspirin and acetaminophen
What are the 4 products of prostaglandins?
1- PGE2
2- PGF2
3- PGI2
4- TxA2
PGE2 causes ___ and ____ and _____?
vasodilation, pain sensitizstion, and gastric cytoprotection
PGF2 causes ___ and ___?
bronchoconstriction and uterine contraction
PGI2 causes ___ and _____?
Inhibition of platelet aggregation, and gastric cytoprotection
TxA2 causes _____?
platelet aggregation
What is a side effect of a drug that blocks PGE2?
gastric ulcers (no more gastric cytoprotection)
What can baby aspirin be used to treat? What "kind of " drug is this?
High blood pressure. It is an anti-platelet aggregation drug.
What are the 3 things that COX-1 causes?
1- cytoprotection of GI
2- platelet activity
3- renal function
If someone has a gastric ulcer, but they need some sort of anti-inflammatory drug, what would you give them? why?
COX-2 inhibitor, b/c this will block pain and fever-but will not bother the platelet activity of the gut.
THe first NSAID discovered was ____?
Salicylate
The ______ profile will determine what is the best drug to ues.
side effect
Is acetaminophen an anti-inflammatory drug.
NO NO NO!!!
For what purpose is acetaminophen used for?
fever and pain
Why do we not use aspirin in kids?
It could cause Reyes syndrome
Glucocorticoids block ____?
phospholipase
NSAIDS block _____.
COX 1 and 2
What are 4 effects of NSAIDS?
1- anti-inflammatory
2- analgesics
3- antipyretic
4- decrease platelet formation
What are 2 side effects of NSAIDS?
GI intolerance and ulceration (it has been known to cause dizziness and confusion and bronchoconstriction)
What are the 3 symptoms of aspirin overdose?
1-ringing in the ears
2- increased heart rate
3- you stop breathing
How is PGE so gastroprotective?
it enhances bicarbonate secretion and blood flow. It promotes mucus secretion and epithelial cell growth.
What are 5 renal association problems with NSAIDS?
1- Na retention
2- HTN
3- hyperkalemia
4- decreased blood flow
5- interstitial nephritis
Name 5 nonselective COX inhibitors.
1- aspirin
2- acetaminophen
3- indomethacin
4- ibuprofen
5- naproxen
Which NSAID has the shortest half life?
aspirin
Desribe the tricky half life if aspirin.
The antipyretic effect is gone in 4 hours but the acetyl part( anti-platelet) lasts for about 8-10 days.
Aspirin is a non-selective ______ inhibitor of COX.
irreversible
Ibuprofen is a _____ inhibitor of COX.
reversible
Ibuprofen is found in which 2 common OTC drugs?
1- motrin
2- advil
___ doses of ibuprofen produce analgesic but not anti-inflammatory effects.
low
T or F: selective COX-2 inhibitors are 300X more selective for COX-2 than COX-1?
True
Name 3 names of selective COX-2 inhibitors.
1- Celebrex
2- Vioxx
3- Bextra
Why were some selective COX-2 inhib itors pulled off of the market?
They cause increased thrombotic events.