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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
synthesis of ACh
Acetyl CoA + choline -> acetylcholine

catalyzed by choline acetyltransferase

degraded by AChE and choline is taken back up
examples of catecholamines
synthesis of catecholamines
In cytoplasm:
Tyr -> L-Dopa by Tyrosine Hydroxylase

L-Dopa -> Dopamine by AAAD

In vesicle:
Dopamine -> NE by Dopamine Beta Hydroxylase

NE -> Epi by PNMT
what differentiates a neuron that produces norepi and epi?
the expression of PNMT. not in brain, but in the adrenal glands mainly
what is given to parkinson's patients along with L-dopa?
an AAAD blocker = carbi-dopa
synthesis of serotonin
Trp -> 5-hydroxytryptophan by Trp Hydroxylase

5-hydroxytryptophan -> Serotonin by AAAD
transporter for serotonin
transporter for NE?
transporter for dopamine?
characterisitics of serotonin, NE, and dopamine transporters?
use Na cotransport!
what degrades serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine?
MAO - monoamine oxidase can degrade
what are MAO inhibitors used for?
antidepressants - block the degredation of dopamine, serotonin and norepi
synthesis and degredation of glutamate
glutamate diffuses out of synaptic cleft. EAAT - excitatory amino acid transporter in the glia takes the glutamate up. glutamine synthetase converts glutamate into glutamine. glutamine is exported. neuron takes up glutamine and converts it to glutamate via glutaminase. glutamate is put in vesicles and used again
synthesis and degredation of GABA
side product of Kreb's cycle
AKG-1>Glutamate-2>GABA-3>succinic semialdehyde-4>succinate
1. GABA-T - GABA transaminase
2. GAD - glutamate decarboxylase - needs piridoxyl pyrophosphate
4. SSADH - succinic semialdehyde DH
how does severe vitamin B6 deficiency cause seizures?
vitamin B6=pyridoxal phosphate is a cofactor needed by Glutamate Decarboxylase.

If GAD cannot turn Glutamate into GABA, inhibitory neurons cannot release GABA.
how is CO synthesized as an unconventional NT?
from heme via heme oxidase

CO then acts on soluble guanylyl cyclase to make cGMP from GTP
how is NO synthesized as an unconventional NT?
from L-arginine via NOS (Nitric Oxide Synthase)

NO acts on soluble guanylyl cyclase which makes cGMP from GTP
how does viagra work?
viagra inhibits phosphoidesterase, potentiating the vasodilatory effects of cGMP
in what form are neuropeptides transported down the axon?
as neuropeptide precursors.
what kinds of vesicles contain the 2 classes on NT's?
neuropeptides - large dense vesicles

small molecule NT - small clear vesicles
where is neuropeptide precursor cleaved and folded?
w/in its vesicle at the presynaptic terminal
how can the breakdown of a neuropeptide cause even more of a response?
the breakdown products of a neuropeptide may be smaller, even more potent neuropeptides
how is neuropeptide signal terminated?
they diffuse away and are broken down by enzymatic degredation. not taken back up.
most projection neurons use __ as a NT

projection neurons reach from one area of the cortex to another.
major inhibitory NT used by 98% of inhibitory neurons in brain
major excitatory NT used by 98% of inhibitory neurons in brain
major inhibitory NT in the spinal cord
location of Ach neurons in brain
septal nucleus
nucleus basalis
NT which functions in the CNS in motor control and in the hippocampus for memory storage and recall
location of norepinephrine neurons in brain
locus ceruleus
location of serotonin neurons in brain
rostral raphe nuclei - project to all areas of brain
caudal raphe nuclei - project to spinal cord
location of histamine neurons in brain
tubomammillary nucleus of HHypothalamus
why do antihistamines cause drowsiness?
histamine neurons function in alertness and arousal, and energy metabolism
NT which functions in mood and regulating sleep/wake cycles
why do patients with depression often have sleep/wake cycle problems?
serotonin which may be depleted in depression is also important in sleep/wake cycles
NT which functions in attention, alertness, circadian rhythms, memory formation, and mood
location of dopamine neurons in brain
1 substantia nigra
2 ventral tegmentum - projects to amygdala, nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex
3 arcuate nucleus - projects to median eminence of hypothalamus
4 retina
NT which functions in motor control in the striatum and the reward system / motivation
why do parkinson's patients often suffer demotivation?
dopamine is responsible for reward system as well as motor control
why would drug abuse be related to dopamine?
dopamine is involved in the brain's reward system
NT which functions in learning and memory, development, synaptic transmission
NT which produces analgesia
opiate neuropeptides
NT that functions in neuronal survival, neuronal differentiation, and synaptic plasticity
NT that functions in feeding behavior and digestion
gut - brain neuropeptides. found in gut and brain.
4 criteria for being a NT
1. produced in neuron and present at presynaptic terminal
2. released in response to AP
3. causes a biological response via receptor
4. mechanism for termination
2 types of NT
1. small molecule NT
2. neuropeptide
what type of NT are always neuromodulators vs classical NT?
where are classic neurohormones made?
how many types of small molecule NT's does a neuron make
only one
why does it take multiple action potentials to trigger release of neuropeptides?
they do use a high affinity Ca sensor, but it sits further away from the Ca channels. senses the cell's concentration of calcium rather than microdomain. takes repetitive firing to trigger release.
what kind of transporter packages NT's into synaptic vesicle?
a proton - NT antiporter

does vesicle pH go up or down??
what kind of transporters take NT back up into presynaptic terminal
there is one for Glutamate and one for all other NT's. they involve co-transport w/ other ions
what NT's are indoleamines?
serotonin and histamine
what NT's are made from tyrosine?
catecholamines (dopamine, NE, Epi)
what NT's are made from tryptophan?
what transporter takes up Glutamate?
EAAT - excitatory amino acid transporter
what enzyme do CO and NO act on?
soluble guanylyl cyclase
what enzyme synthesizes NO and CO?
NO - nitric oxide synthase
CO - heme oxidase