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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
living or derived from living things
non-living components of the biosphere (sun, temp., moisture, etc.)
grouping of plants, animals & other organisms interacting w/ eachother & with their environment
event that interrupts ecological succession & creates new conditions at a site.

Creates variable succession across an ecosystem

May be natural or human induced

Natural disturbances have + influence on ecosystem biodiversity.
predictable & orderly changes in the composition or structure of an ecological system.

Primary - initiated by formation of new, unoccupied habitat (volcanic eruption)

Secondary - some form of disturbance (fire, severe wind) of an exisiting community

More succession stages present simultaneously within a species - greater biodiversity
Human Disturbances
- fire supression
- air pollution leading to climate change
- agricultural development
- urbanization
- resource consumption
Human Disturbance VS. Natural Disturbance
- something biota has never encountered OR
- something occurring @ such a large scale that natural system is simply overwhelmed

- larger the disturbance the harder it is to reestablish
Population x Affluence x Technology
People in developed countries:
1. Consume greater amounts of non-renewable resources
2. Generate greater amounts of pollution
Ecosystem Sustainability
meeting needs of present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs
Environmental Science
systematic study of our environemnt & our proper place in it
Environmental Dilemmas
perception of environmental problems
objective nature of env. science (hard because humans are subjective)
Efforts to implement environmentally sound solutions (ex. human pop. growth)
Ecosystem Ecology
studies how the system operates as a whole.
Processes that link biotic components to abiotic components

(energy tranformations & biochemical cycling)
Scientific method
intuitive process methodology for learning about the world through application of knowledge
all organisms (plant, animal, microbe) of a single kind (can mate & produce fertile offspring)
group within a single species whose individuals can interbreed
transition area between 2 adjacent ecological communities
specific environment (woods, swamp, desert) in which an organism lives
study of interactions of organisms with one another & with environment in which they occur
Major vegetation type extending over a large geographic area
plants & animals adapted to living under certain environmental conditions
Range of Tolerance
limits to conditions that they can tolerate living
Limiting Resource
Factors unique to a particular plant/animal
Ecosystem Capital
sum of all goods & services provided by natural & managed ecosystems, provided free of charges & essential to human life & well-being
Ecosystem Services
how we use ecosystem services as a society is directly related to if it is a commons or privately owned
land owned by many people or no one
Tragedy of the Commons
1. Unregulated access to a resource owned by no one
2. Harvest based on largest amount over the shortest period of time
3. No thought given to sustainable harvests
4. Usually ends with no resource for anyone
Primary Energy Source
energy sources such as coal, oil, gas, & others that exist as natural resources subject to exploration
Secondary Energy Sources
Source of energy - Esp. Electricity - depends on primary energy sources for origin
* Renewable Energy
energy obtained from sources that are essentially inexhaustible
* Fossil Fuels
energy sources - mainly crude oil, coal & natural gas that are derived from prehistoric photosynthetic production of organic matter on earth
Point Source Pollution
specific points of origin of pollutants (factory drains, or outlets from sewage treatment plants)
Non Point Source Pollution
Sources of pollution such as general runoff of sediments, fertilizer, pesticides from farms & urban areas
Source Reduction (Reduse)
Consuming less & throwing away less

- purchasing durable, long-lasting goods
- seeking products & packaging that are free of toxins as possible
- Redesigning products to use less raw material in production
* most ideal , prevents waste in 1st place
Recycle Approach
Recovery of materials that would otherwise be incinerates or in landfalls
* Integrated Waste Managment
Approach to municipal solid waste that provides for several options for dealing w/ wastes including recycling, composting, waste reduction, & landfilling & incineration where unavoidable
Urban Sprawl
extension of city perameters outward in the countryside, one development after the next (w/ little plan as to where the expansion is going & no notion where it will stop)
Highway Trust Fund
$25 billion for construction of more than 40,000 miles of highways
More development
districts located in a city's outer rim or just out of its offical city limits
small neighborhoods in otherwise rural areas
Sprawl Score
1. Residential Density
2. Neighborhood mix of homes, stores & workplace
3. Accessibility of street networks
4. Strength of activity centers & downtowns

Lower the score = more sprawl
Smart Growth
forces communities to purposely choose to develop in more environmentally sustainable ways
Urban Blight
general deterioration of structures & facilities such as bldgs. & roadways, in addition to the decline in quality of services, such as education that has occurred in inner-city areas
Diversity of living things found in the natural world.
Instrumental Value (biodiveristy)
Directly beneficial to humans (ag., forestry, sources of medicine, recreational, aesthetic)
largest foreign exchange, generating enterprise in developing countries
Intrinsic Value (Biodiversity)
Spiritual, Religious, Cultural
study of distribution & determinants of health & disease in a population
Pathogenicity, virulence, strains
Susceptibility, Innate resistance due to
age, sex, breed, Acquired resistance:
vaccination, prior exposure
Environement (epidem.)
Environment: Location, climate, husbandry,
water, soil managment
Invasive Species
introduced species, species that spread rapidly & undergo explosive population increase such that they dominate a community (pushes out biodiversity)
Geographic Information Systems

System of computer hardware & software for: Storing, Organizing, Analyzing & displaing info tied to a special location
Grid Based Data (cells or pixels)

Satellite or aerial photos
Liner, points, lines & polygons

Ex - maps on mapquest
Chaparral Biome
Southern Cal.
West coasts of Continents
Latitudes 30-45 N & S of equator
Resource limitations: nutrient poor soils & low levels of precip.

Characterized by:
Evergreen shrubs, decidous trees, adaptations for a warm dry climate
Division of landscape into patches of habitat by road construction, agricultural lands, or residential areas
Wildlife Managment
The art & science of making decisions & taking actions to manipulate wildlife to achieve specific human objectives

The application of ecological knowledge to populations of vertebrate animals in a manner that strikes a balance between the needs of those populations & the needs of people
Determines which animals will not be bred
Game Species
Animals that are managed for sport hunting, trapping & fishing
Non-Game Species
Animals not hunted, trapped or fished
No management, nature takes it course without human interventions
planned management of a natural resource to preven exploitation, destruction, or neglect of wildlife species
transition area between 2 adjacent ecological communities
low area of land surrounding water bodies, which holds the overflow of water during a flood
Conservation Tillage
A tillage practice or system of practices that leaves plant residues on the soil surface for erosion control and moisture conservation
any organism (plant/animal) that are considered BY HUMANS to be noxious or destructive
Population Supression
lowering of overall population abundance
Population Regulation
Reductions in the magnitude of fluctuations
Chemical Pesticides
- Costly repeated application
- developed resistance & pest resurgence
- impacting non-target species
Cultural Control
- Sanitation
- Polyculture crops
- trap crops --> attracts pests to a minor crop
- removal of refuge habitat
Biological Control
- use of natural enemies by humans to reduce abundance of pest population
Organisms that attach themselves to another organism, the host, and feed on it over a period of time without killing it immediately, but usually doing it harm
Death of host species