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60 Cards in this Set

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What is key when running a culture
it takes time and the organism needs to actually grow
What does IgA show
Shows mucosal response and is a good marker of successful tx and can be measured in serum, stool and saliva
What conditions can an RF be high in, other than RA
CVD, MI, renal disease, malignancy, thyroid and liver disease, SLE, scleroderma and polyarteritis nodosa
What condition can present similar to RA however will have a neg RF in a woman postpartum
Parvo B 19 virus
What autoantibody is seen in Graves dz only
Thyroid-Stimulating Immunoglobulin (Thyrtrophin Receptor Ab)
What test should be run in a pt who has recovered in the past 1-3 weeks from a sore throat w/o antibiotic tx and now has joint pain, kidney problems or heart problems
Anti-Streptolysin-O test (ASO) (>200iu/ml)
Elevation in titers reflect immunologic response to streptococcus;
ASO titers clinically useful if serum is obtained in 2-3 week intervals
What is the key aspect to remember of Nystatin
It is always a topical application b/c it doesn't absorb
If it ends in conozole what type of drug is it and how do they work
antifungal - inhibits fungal p-450, degrade fungal wall
What is a concern in using permethrins in children
It is an anti-parasitic drug and is a neurotoxin and therefore can cause neurotoxic effects in a child
What is the main substance that is CI with metronidazole and what is the main side effect when used together
ETOH - acts like antabuse, you will puke a lot!!! Very hepatotoxic when done together.
What are red flags with metronidazole when it is causing liver failure
dark pee, light poop
What do some bugs produce that makes them penicillin resistant and how can we avoid this
they produce Beta lactamase and we can use clavulanate to counteract this.
If pt has a drug allergy to penicillin what drug should they also avoid
cephalosporins - they are both betalactones!!!
Azithromycin has what adverse side effects and is CI in what condition
Need less med to achieve same effect as ezithromycin anaphylaxis
Pregnancy
Doxycycline is CI in what age group
Children under 9 - causes permanent discoloration of the teeth
What type of infection is Doxycycline most commonly used for
Lung and respiratory infections
What is the most common adverse side effect of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim
rash and other skin rxns. SJS/TEN - need to be most careful of
When is nitrofurantoin CI, what type of infection is it used for
3rd trimester of pregnancy
UTIs
What is the black-box warning for ciprofloxacin (a fluoroquinolone)
tendon rupture, esp achilles tendon, it is also CI in children under 18 as it can arrest growth plate
What is a indicator that ciprofloxin should be d/c
any joint or mm pain
What is the severe side effect of aminoglycosides
ototoxicity esp in children
what class antibiotic is clinodamycin
lincosamides
What is a concern with all TB drugs
all are hepatotxic
What vitamin def does rifampin cause
B6 - can lead to micrositic anemia
What is acyclovir used for and what are the adverse side effects
antiviral - tx herpes and varicella-zoster
Not common to have side effects, if do they are nausea and rash
How does acyclovir work
inhibits DNA synthesis and act to kill new virus - not what is already around, this is taken care of by your own body
What is valacyclovir
it is a prodrug of acyclovir - it requires a lower dose b/c it is metabolized into acyclovir in the body.
What are drugs that end in sone or mide
Steroids
What type of drug is isotretinoin and what is it used for, what is the main CI
it is an anti-inflammatory oral drug used for severe nodular acne. It is CI in pregnancy - b/c it is teratogenic
What medication is used to chealate heavy metals, especially Cu
Penicillamine
What is interferon a used for
HEP B & C
High dose
Flu like symptoms
Hypothyroidism
What is interferon b used for
MS
Low dose
Fewer side effects
What infection smells like rotting apples
Clostridium - gangrene
What is the organism that causes Toxic Shock
Strep Pyogenes
What is an organism that is transmitted by dog and cat bites can lead to osteo
Pasteurella multocida
What fungus causes necrotising gardnarella associated with gardening.
Sporothrix schenckii
What organism associated with wild animals (bites)
Francicella
Why are women at higher risk then man at developing autoimmune condition
E has an inhibitory role in clearing immune complexes
SIcca syndrome
looks like sjogrn's w/o arthritis or any other connective tissue disorder
CREST stands for what and is a form of what condition
Calcinosis
Reynaudes
Esophogeal
Sclerodacty
Telantagia
Scleraderma
Most common cause of meningitis in HIV
CMV
Cryptococcys
What tests are done to dx HIV
ELISA then Western Blot
What is zidovudine and what does it tx
it is a nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) that is used to tx HIV infection
What is the most common immune deficiency condition that is associated with trisomy 18
IgA Deficiency
what system is most effected by polyarertis nodosa
GI system
High IgG, Low IgM or IgA
Probable past infection / exposure. Inactive or cured.
In food allergy testing IgG is always considered active, but delayed response allergy.
Low IgG, High IgM
New infection / Exposure
High IgG, High IgM
Reactivated infection / Exposure
High IgG, Low IgM, High IgA
Current immune response (mucosal) that is past the initial IgM response window. (On going problem).
EBV Panel
Early phase – IgM: anti-VCA
Acute illness – IgG: anti-VCA
Acute illness – IgG anti-EA
Convalescence – Anti-EBNA (Indicates past infection OR Chronic reactivation in recurrent EBV patients).
Fluconazole
oral antifungal - caution hepatotoxicity
What drug is used for scabies tx
permethrins
What is used for ringworm and round worm tx
mebendazole
what is not to be used with the anti ameboid drug metronidazole
EtOH!!!
What antibiotic is used to tx URI, GI, skin and soft tissue infections and shouldn't be used with penicilin allergies
cephalexin
Antibiotic for Bronchitis and non-gonococcal urethritis
Azithromiocin
What antibiotic should not be used in children <9 y/o b/c it will discolor their teeth
tetracycling and doxycylcine
What is the concerning potential side effects with Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole
SJS/TEN
seizures
hepato necrosis
When is Nitrofurantoin CI and what is it used for
Pregnancy
UTI
What are the concerning side effects and therefore CI with Ciprofloxacin and all other floxins
Achilles' Tendon Rupture
Can arrest growth plate in children
Do not use under age 18
(usually used for UTI, URI)