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19 Cards in this Set

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Allergic Rhinitis
*Inflammation of nasal region caused by inhaling allergens
*Seasonal or Perrenial
*Degranulation of mast cells release histamine
Allergic Acute Phase Symptoms
sneezing
watery discharge
itchy eyes, nose and throat
Allergic Transitional Phase
*asymptomatic
*activation and recruitment of leukocytes into nasal tissue from the blood
Allergic Late Phase
*local leukocyte infiltration
*occurs 4-6 hours after allergen exposure
*nasal congestion is most common characteristic symptom
Normal function of Sinuses depend on:
*patent ostia
*ciliary function
*quality of mucous
Most impt. pathological process in sinusitis is ___1___ of nasal otia. ___1___ leads to ______2____, which leads to ___3____ dysfunction and ___4____ __4____ quality. ___3____ dysfunction leads to ____5___ of secretions.
1-obstruction
2-hypooxygenation
3-ciliary
4-poor mucous
5-retention
Sinusitis is causes by
anything that reduces drainage. bacteria are generally already present, but are unable to leave area and so become problematic
Acute sinusitis
*infection lasting less then 1 mos
*treated medically
Chronic sinusitis
*infection lasting more than 3 mos
*TREATED SURICALLY
~oscygentation of the sinuses through opening of the ostia is the primary treatment
Acute sinusitis presents w/:
*pain over infected areas w/ or w/out headache
*fever, malaise, nasal discharge present
Anterior sinsusitis consists of the:
Maxillary and Frontal sinuses

*pain to palpation common
Posterior sinsusits consists of the :
Posterior sinusities presents as:
sphenoidal and ethmoid sinuses
*bitemporal or vertex headache
*pain w/ palpation over area is usually absent
Chronic sinusitis signs and symptoms
*mucopurulent discharge (fever usually not present)
note:
*facial edema
*tenderness
*mucosal edema
*septal perforations and deviations
Acute Bacterial Sinusitis
Treatment
*drainage and antibiotics
1st line: amoxicillan
2nd line: cephalosporins, quinnolones
*topical and/or oral decongestants
Bacterial agents involved in Acute Sinusitis
1. S. pneumo 30%
2. H. flu 20%
3. M. carrahalis 10%
Nasal polyps are:
end products of ongoing inflammation from bacterial, viral, or fungal infections.

chronic inflammation causes blood vessels in your nasal and sinus epithelium to dilate and become more permeable. water accumulates in the tissues and over time aggregate into polyps
nasal polyp can cause sinusitis due to _____
blockage/obstruction
Treatment: Nasal Polyps
*tend to remove themselves
*nasal steroids, esp. w/ allergic component
*surgical snaring
Epistaxis
Nose bleeds
Anterior: most common
Posterior: less commmon, but more severe