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40 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the theoretical bases for development derived from?
Temperment, attachment, coping and environmental interaction.
Waht are the components that make up temperment?
Activity level, regularity of biological funtions, approach/withdrawl tendencies, adaptability, sensory thresholds, quality of moods, distractibility, peristence, attn span
At what time is temperment apparent?
It is important to consider the compatibility of the child's temperment to the...
parents and other caregiver
task demands
What are the indicators of Dysfunction?
difficulty regulating activity level and attn span to participate in activity, biological schedules are erratic or inconsistant, hyper or hypo response to sensory stimulation, mood often negative, emotional reponses intense and poorly regulated, attn to short or too long for the given age and situation, adaptation to new situations may be erratic disorganized or withdrawn
What is attachment?
the special relationship between an adult and a child. It involves reciprocal interactions between the child's attachmetn behaviors and the care providers responses to that behavior.
What are the attachment behaviors that a child displays?
crying, whining, playful tug, yawning, behaving aggressively
Waht are the vunerabilities that can contribute to difficulty in establishing a secure attachment?
developmental disabilities, parent chronic illness, deffent temperments between child and care provider
What are the indicators of attachment dysfunction?
inconsistent or unclear signals about needs, absence of or minimal initiation or response to playful interactions, avoidance or rejection of care providers attempts to assist or engage in interaction, does not seek hel or support as needed, overly or indeiscriinately dependent, resistive to support structure and limits from authority figures
What is the role of peer interaction in development?
Peer interaction is developmental in nature. Early secure attachment relationships help a child to engage in and develope skills for positive peer interaction.
Waht are successful peer interactions?
approaches peers positively for play, takes turns and negotiates with peers, responds to verbal and nonverbal social cues, compromises in the interest of the group play, willing to help and accepts help from peers.
Waht are the indicators for dysfunction in peer interaction?
avoids peers, approaches peers aggressively or intrusively, lack of awareness of verbal and nonverbal cues, problems negotiating compromising, giving and accepting help, using aggression to reach personal goals, or withdrawl from group
What is ability to cope?
the manner in which children deal with new and difficult situations that cause them to experience physical or psychological stress. Children develop basic coping skills as caregivers interpret the childs responses to the stress or manipulate the environment to reduce stress and promote the childs ability to adapt.
If coping is successful the child is able to...
engage in new experiences often spontaneously and with excitement, when challenged in play, will seek solutions or find substitute activity, quickly returns to equallibrium state after experiencing stress
Indicators of dysfunction in the ability to cope include...
avoids new experiences, requires much encouragement to attempt new tasks, will withdrawl or revert to more infantile behaviors when experiencing a challenge, takes extended time to recover from stress
What is play?
A healthy child is invested and motivated for play. Play results in the development of physical cognitive andpsychological skills. Through play a child learns to manage everyday stresses of life and interact appropriately with peers and family. Play can occur individually or with others.
Waht are the three types of play?
physical play or games. These release tension or aggressive feelings and help to develop internal control over personal impulses and understanding of rules.
Constructive play-promotes attn creativity and problem solving as well as a sense of mastery and self efficacy
Imaginary play- tests out and explores behaviors that they observe.
Indicators of functional play skills...
approaches play with vigor and interest, expores and experiments in new play situations, and is flexible during peer play accepting rules of the group play.
Inducators of dysfunction in play...
tentative or avoids play situations, narrow range of play interests with rigid approach to play, not effective at initiating play with children, difficulty following sequence, structure, and rules of group pla activity.
What are the three primary environments for children?
School and Community
Waht do the environments need to provide for skill development?
developmental stimulation
What constitutes an adequate home environment for a child?
living space that is safe fromintruders, has no safety hazard, and is relatively clean, has dev appropriate materials and activities and has an interested, loving care giver who is consistantly available to affer the child support and affection, consistently available and capable of offering child appropriate limits and structure, and focused on keeping child safe and meeting the childs developmetal needs.
What is the cping frame of reference?
It organizes concepts related to stress and coping in children.
What is coping competence?
Coping competence is determined by the match between the needs or demands and the availability of resouces for managing them.
How do children aquire coping strategies?
through experience, children try out, practice and integrate coping strategies into a behavioral repertoire. coping strategies that were previously acquired can be modified to create new coping strategies building an adequate repetoire for the child to pull from during stressful encounters.
Waht are the two types of stressors?
Internal- thoughts, feelings interests motivations physical sensation and presence of disability
External-demands of the environment range in intensity and duration
What are the coping attributes for children older than 3 years of age?
frustration tolerance, expression of needs and feelings, initiation of action ato meet needs, ability to request help when needed, balance of independence and dependence, flexibility in changing plans/behavior to meet goals, task persistence, experience of pleasure in successful accomplishment of activities.
Indicators of ineffective coping are...
lacks necessary internal and external resources to manage routines, opportunities, challenges, and frustrations in daily life. is unable to meet personal needs and interact productively with people and objects. lacks cognitive abilities to develop self awareness. has negative sense of self and has expectations of failure. displays minimally effective coping styles.
What are the coping styles?
task oriented behaviors-sticking with the task, subing the task
interactive behaviors-responding to social cues
emotion based behaviors-ability to express anger, love frustration
psychologically based behaviors-reappraisal of the situation
what are the types of coping styles?
consistently effective-copins strategies are used effectively in a variety of situations
situationally effective-child experiences difficulty generalizing coping strategies effective in one situation to another situation
minimally effective-copong stategies are erratic and unpredictible , rigid and often reduce immedialte stress but tend to generate negative outcomes over time
Assessing coping...
childs repetoire of available coping stategies, flexibility in use, circumstances under which they are applied, their success in managing specific stressors.
Three postulates for improving a childs ability to cope.
effective coping is facilitated by modification to the environmental demands so that they are congruent with the childs capabilities.
effective coping is enhanced by expansion of internal and external coping resources
effective coping is encouraged by appropriate contingent responses to the childs coping efforts.
Intervention for situationally effective coping styles...
intervention geared toward helping child generalize use of effective coping strategies to situations that they are having difficulty with, indirect strategies preferred to foster self initiation-adapting task, preictable sequence, previewing the situatuion.
Intervention of the minimally effective coping style...
intervention geared toward teaching the child developmental skills and coping behaviors, indirect strategies are used as well, direct strategies are used -verbal guidance to help child solve task, modeling of desired behaviors, physical prompting, feedback through reinforcement schedules.
Aquisition frame of reference...
focuses on the learning of specific skills required for optimal performances within the environment. Involves environment, functional behaviors, and learned skills
What is the defininition of reinforcement?
refers to the environmental stimulus that rewards or does not reward behavior
What is the definition of shaping?
rewarding close approximations of a desired skill
What is the definition of generalization?
once a behavior/skill is firmly established and the ability to maintain the behavior/skill is intrinsically reinforced
Types of reinforcement?
Positive reinforcement-strengthens behavior by rewarding desired behavior
Negative reinforcement-
used to extinguish the non adaptive behavior, ignoring the behavior is an example
punishment is a type of reinforcement that involves the use of physical or verbal acts.
Vicarious reinforcement-occurs through observation of the positve or negative reinforcement of behavior in other children. i.e.John watching Meg
What is the schedule of reinforcment?
the ways, time intervals, and methods of organizing reinforcment so that it will promote the acquisition of functional behaviors and learned skills.
Continuous- thought to lead to rapid acquisition of behavior, although not the most effective
Partial-best for internal motivation
intermittent-fixed ratio or intervals of reinforcement.