Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

145 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Phonological and Lexical Development
Normally organize by how they sound
Speech Acquisition Theory
Nativist -- Cognitive Behaviorist
Nativist Speech Acquisition Theory
Jakobson Phonemic contrast Vowels contrast with consonants – Ditinctive Feature Theory Jakobson, Roman. He coined the term structural linguistics and stressed that the aim of historical linguistics is the study not of isolated changes within a language but of systematic change. Prague school of linguistics. They argued that synchronic phonology, the study of speech sounds in a language at a given time, must be considered in light of diachronic phonology, the study of speech sounds as they have changed over the course of the language's history
Behaviorist Speech Acquisition Theory
Olmstead Most frequently occurring phonemes would be learned first External reinforcers are the reasons for change What sounds like a word would be reinforced like a word
Behaviorist and Nativists Limitations
behaviorists Problem: speech acquisition isn’t always linear .
Cognitive Speech Acquisition Theory
Piaget Child is attempting to meet the adult model “I want to be part of the adult word. Assimilation and accommodation! – Testing skills by using sounds over and over (reduplication) Firgureing out sounds through hypothesis testing. Avoidance of difficult soundsExploitation of easy sounds
Developmental Sequence of Speech
Syl able shapes -v b – CV ba – VCV aba – CVCV bada /a/e//u/ Reduplicated babbling is very “word like developing from sylable shapes. Occasionall a closed syllable consonant on the end of a wide open syllable
Stage 1 B-1month
reflexive crying/vegetative sounds babies normally makes sounds when you move them or when they move around, if they don’t it may be a concern
Stage 2 2m-4m
cooing and laughter Mostly vowels – coo and laugh when they are comforatable
Stage 3 4m-6m
vocal play Entertaining self with voice. Listening to what other voices ound like Range of pitch, loudness, sustained sounds, more consonants dropped in Mainly open syllable structure
true laughter
Stage 4
6m-speech canonical babbling mamama (strings together, reduplicated babblilng)makking noise to see how mouth workds. Non reduplilcated lamadamalama Reeal word s reflect back word
Stage 5 10m
Jargon Parents just think they are real words. Sounds like they should be Conversational rhythmn present
Babbling and later language development
Proto conversation: attempts at real conversation How is it related?Quality of babbling is predictive of language development A child who is not as babbly—later develoment
melody, liliting of voice
Part of language form
stream of output Clothesline a lot of vowles
hanging on the vowles like Clothes on a clothesline
Phonetic Characteristics of Speech Sounds
motor, concrete, acoustic
The motor production
: tongue at alveolar ridge
Concrete acoustic information
motor change of /s/ can create a lispy sound
Phonemic Characteristics of Speech Sounds
Meaning and function of what the speech sounds mean /f/at and /s/at
The FUNCTION of the sound
The way the sound is used contrastively contrastive
Classification Systems of Phonology
Place (tongue) Manner (stop/bilabial) Voicing (+ or -) Distinctive Features
Developmental Sequence of Phonemes
Discrepancies across research and Sequence is key, not age
Typical Phonological Errors phonological processes
Phonological Processes
Syllable structure Process
Consonant blends; Reduplication;Final consonant deletion;Syllable reduction, epenthesis
Same syllable repeated 2x, consonants stay the same. CVCV construction Erin becomes RARA
Final Consonant Deletion
Dog becomes daw . This can impact intelligbililty. We like colsed syllables. If you take away the last piece of phonological information it becomes a guessing game and requrires rich interpretation.
Syllable Reduction
Unstressed syl able deletion; Elephant becomes efint; Banana becomes nana
Consonant Cluster Reduction
Initial consonant clusters Final consonant clusters Sniff becomes niff Waist becomes wait ccvccvc
ccvc= vcc ADD a Vowel. (assimilation) Insertion of a vowel into a consonant cluster; Sport becomes support Sweep becomes suweep
Substitution Processes
; Stopping; Fronting; liquid gliding
Sounds that keep going (continuing sounds like s ʧ ʤ s z) are replaced with sounds that don’t (replaced with stops like /t/ and /d/). It is a CHANGE in the MANNER of production. Often paired with final consonant deletion.Sick becomes tick Zoo becomes doo. Sheep becomes teep
Sounds that are made in the back of the mouth are replaced with sounds that are
Liquid Gliding
/l/ /r/ are replaced by /j/ /w/ Sounds that are classified as liquids are replaced with sounds that are classified as glides Rats becomes wats Lounge becomes younge
Sequence of process suppression
Syllable Structure Processes
after second birthday suprression of baba, gaga by 12-18 months
– Final Consonant Deletion
36 months or 3 years
– Unstressed Syl able Deletion
as late as 4 years
– Cluster reduction
can last the longest up to 5-6 years
– Epenthesis
3-5 years most commmon but can be up to preschool -6 years
Substitution processes
stopping, fronting, gliding
– Stopping
3.5 years (this can really hinder intelligbility. Worry after 3.5 years)
3.5 years
– Gliding
up to 7-9 years old
Developmental Sequence of Semantics
Situational: meaning Begins in a specific situation “going for a walk” shoes. In kitchen, “juice” Then begins hypothesis testing….”shoes?” “ shoes?” “no, book” “ no, dog” Testing: Is it intellilgible? When is it no longer cute? Are parents repeating things that shouldn’t be continued?
also called Phonetically Consistent forms: sounds like a real word, inflection, should have meaning, but doesn’t’.
The First 50 Words
phonetic variablity and pragmatics
Phonetic Variability
cv- vc –v open syllables and single syllables most meaning is in head Sound Structures stops develop first /t/ b/ most poupular in mouth /ɛ/ / ʌ/ /u/ – Dominant syl able shapes CV • VC • CVC • CVCV*
[na] with gesture
Primitive Speech Acts
Child says something and adult assigns meaning “na” plus gesture” “oh,you want juice” Adult does most of the work, child not representational Requesting action Protesting Labeling Greeting
Intentions in first words
(intention, control, representation; expression, social, tutorial, procedural)
Intention develops
as representation begins:
make demands, protest, request
talk about something there…define want more information In front of them
Intent just to express themselves: chatering while doing something
“ I love you so much” greeting, please, thank you, , Well Hi, what we do when we talk.
Open mouth and let words come out. Practice Phonetic activity
Procedural --
tries to get attention. Wants communication to start over again
Conversational abilities with first words
18m-2 y 1st 50 words
What they see everyone sees. You know what I know. Presupposition makes it possible to use I and it, he and she. Upset when someone doesn’t’ understand becauuse they have presupposed knowledge.
Turn Taking
Developing an ability to have conversation later in life
Initial Lexicons
All the words you know how to use and how they relate to one another. Synonyms, antonyms, Not just a bucket, use. (nominals, verbs, modifiers, pronouns)
Nominals (nouns)–
~50% of first words “Naming” usually general. Too specific then it’s too hard to create relationships, and too much.
Action words–
~ (7 words) 11-14% of first words “gimme” “ up” “ fix”
~9-10% of first words 4-5 words “mine” dirty” “no”
Personal social~
9-10% of first words 4-5 words “please” thank you” “tatoo” PCF or frozen Phrase – (tatoo: symbol for thank you – idiosyncratic/personal/ known by a few)
4% of first words “Uh”
1St 50 Words:
building blocks… Will move into representation and then phrasies End of 1st 50 around 2 years
Meaning of Single Word Utterances
(sign.) don’t need Tasha in front of me to talk about her. Not just labeling it now, but refering to it when Tasha is out of the room CONCEPTUAL y
Understanding precedes production It is impossible to know what a 12 – 24 month old knows. Probably doesn’t know everything we say (parent education)
Concept Formulation
(Scarlet Frogs Associate) Semantic feature hypothesis Functional core hypothesis Associative and Prototypic Complexes
Semantic Feature Hypothesis
Defined by perceptural features Every referent can be defined by a certain set of semantic features, human/non human round square. The child assigns meaning via these perceivable parameters Size shape touch smell. Scheme for a cat: Little furry, “meow” a Tiger might have to be accommodated into this scheme. Dissects into tiny pieces and sometimes misses relational information. Hear doorbell: “Pizza”
Functional core hypothesis
Referents are defined by FUNCTION between 2.5 and 3 kids talk about what things do! Mommyis the person who puts me to bed. (hard time with baby sitter) You EAT an apple.
Associative and Prototypic Complexes
Different systems for different situations
Each time you use the word the word shares a feature with other core concepts: REFINING. It is broad so many things fit.
EXPANDING broadening understanding of juice Prototypic is specific.. smoothie may not fit concept of juice, so we have to expand our concept to include it.
Extensions of Concepts
(Over and Under)Will use evocative utterances and hypothesis testing to see if they are right. This will help to broaden or narrow a meaning for them.
Overly restricted meanings Common in both expressive and receptive language Under-extensions This is what I understand (may be prototypic) It’s not white like my cat, so I’m not sure it’s really a cat
Meanings are too broad General y only in expressive language Over-extensions Only spoken, this is what I speak “Everyone is a mom”
Three types of over-extensions
Cats Attack Police Categorical inclusions, analogical over extensions predicate statments
Categorical over-inclusions
Anyone in a unifor m is a police officer
Analogical over-extensions
-- Perceptural or functional Functional similarity: red ball is an apple becauuse it is red. Earphones are hats because they go on the head
Predicate statements
child recognized a relationship between an object and a person. Sees father’s slippers says, “DADDY!:”
Semantic Class Relations
Before word combinations emerge Understanding how words relate to one another
Substantive And Relational Categories
Substantive Words
Entities or classes of entities SPECIFIC Naming something or a group: 1st 50 words are 50% nominals CAT JUICE
Relational Words
Relationship between thing they just labled and theinformation they are trying to communicate “that cat” “ allgone” ABSENCE
Semantic development
1st 50 at 18-2 years beyond 1st 50 begins combining at 2 years – two word phrases
After 50 words
Semantic Development
AT two years they need to be into semantic relations
Then begins interrogatives how? Why? Where? Want more information. But don’t understand how to respond to why? (why did you do that? -- don’t have concept for that yet)They have no way to explain importance yet. Parent education. They don’t know why. May finally understand “why” about 7 or 8.
lowest level typical 2 word phrase at 2 years (two words aren’t allgone or cupcake—these are ONE WORD)
“Fast mapping
start with inference about word just heard “eat your toast” then begin inferring through perceptual characteristis the meaning on part of that: square brown, warm, cruchy, eat it, get it in the kitchen… (apply functional core to gain meaning).
Semantic Development
Operating principles
Verb Definitions
Verbs have forms
hard to decipher “color the page” from “get your colors”
Principles for inferring meaning
If one word emans one thing that it always means that one thing. Start with the easiest thing. Context dependent. Depends on where they were tryingto communicate. At home a “ sucker means” something different than at the bank. Meaning is dependent on who you are with and where you are.
understand that if it isn’t something I have, then I have to lable it something else.
Relational terms
Interrogatives; Temporal Relations; Physical Relations; Locational Prepositions; Kinship Terms; Pronouns
_ Interrogatives
won’t understand “why” until 7yrs. Will ask why at 2-6,but doesn’t know the concept of causation, just uses why to get more information
_ Temporal Relations
1st. Before and after (order before duration)
Temporal Contingencies
“since” and “until” contingencies and conditions –may not understand this until 7 yrs. (since I wore the same shoes yesterday…I can’t wear them again today….
Give directions one at a time or with visual cues. Kids don’t know what to doe when parents use too much before and after language or if they give directions in too many ways. (confusing) Solution: in the middle of the first behavior, then give the second. Practice in Classroom: Simon says: first touch your head, then touch your nose.
_ Physical Relations
big –little large –small- enormous-tiny and gradations between an elephant an an ant
Positive Opposite
learns first yes, big and more
Negative opposite
learns second no , little, less
Physical realations caution
if not conserving yet, then they won’t understand
_ Locational Prepositions toddlers
IN what do kids do “dump and load” In and not in (don’t understand out until later)they will use on if they cant figure out how to put something in
3-4 years Locational prepositions
Locational “next to” “benind” “ in back”
will understand it if it is next to them, but if centrated, won’t get it.
Day care and location
may speed up the process of understanding locational terms because the will be “lining up behind” someone several times a day.
_ Kinship Terms
grandmother, mother, sister in law. Hard for kids to conceptualize. You can’t be someone’s daughter, because you are my mom.
_ Pronouns
This is the place where semantics and pragmatics come together. Him, her, it all stand for something meaningful. They are distinct in # and gender and there are rules FORM: he not them Placement: not her that trashcan. There can be a lot of presupposition with pronouns. I’m so mad at him” this kind of presupposition can interfer and affect communication.
using a pronoun without a reference
Neighborhood organization
lexicon of words seperated by one phoneme
has many relatives or neighbors like cat
has few neighbors like the
Preschool children–
2-5 years of age and not in formal daycare
School aged children
Preschool Initiating
pull on your arm or “yaknowhat?”
don’t always know how to respond. Good preschool will model good communication and show how to respond, “What do you want to say?” “he hurt me” “okay, why don’t you go tell him.”
What does a preschool child talk about?
Here and now Shared experiences. Conversation partner may have to cue about things that happened in the past. “Do you remember when we went to the zoo last week and saw the tigers…”
Short conversations
Few conversational turns ;_Monologues (egocentric…talkk themselves through things -- sleeptimetalk); Little regard for his listener (changing topics frequently “doyaknowhat?”
Conversational turn
“Can I go out to play.” “Only for 10 minutes.” Turn over.
“do ya know what? begins
maintained poorly in preschool, jumps around with topics
You really think that?, You know…? Preschoolers don’t do this.
gentle subtle shift in conversation; moving away from a sensitive conversation “shading away” Preschoolers don’t shade well they are blunt “I don’t want to talk about this anymore”
_ Topic knowledge
Everyone knows what I know, K 1, 2 surprised that you don’t
_ Pronoun referencing
assume everyone knows what they are referencing
Give me that, “more, please” (Family support: may need help making more direct requests)
_ Indirect, conventional
“do you know what time it is “ POLITE
_ Indirect, unconventional
Inferred, manipulative “I love cake Jason” rare in preschool
76 Deixis
Speaker’s point of view At first the child only understands their own point of reference and then later is able to understand things from the speaker’s point of view.
– Here/there
Come here doesn’t make sense, child thinks “I am here. Here is where I am” needs “Come stand by mommy”
– This/that
“Give me that” doesn’t make sense. I have this not that . “Hand to mommy”