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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
American Revolution
2 revolutions:
-1st was an external, economic conflict btn England and Colonies...settled militarily
-2nd was internal among the colonists, political, settled peacefully
-colonies were labor units expected to support England
-various acts of Parliament regulated American merchants
Navigation Acts of 1651
regulated ways merchants could buy and sell
-Colonies must buy/sell from/thru/to England
-Americans developed good smuggling tactics
-acts weren't enforced bc of conflict in england and distance
-Parliament started looking at colonies for their taxes
-several acts for the purpose of taxation known as the Greenville Measures
Proclamation Act of 1763
-froze further English settlement at Appalachian Mtns
-this cut defense costs
-increased income (from a stabilized population)
-Greenville Measure
Currency Act of 1764
-outlawed all colonial currency
-made gold the standard
-Greenville Measure
Sugar Act of 1764
-consumption tax
-external, voluntary, hidden, broad-based, small
Stamp Act of 1765
-taxed embossed paper
indirect tax on property and literacy
-involuntary, obvious, large
-affected only literate property owners
Internal Control of Colonies
Parliament controlled the placement of troops in colonies
External Control of Colonies
-customs service
-naval patrols
-admiralty courts
Decade of Radicalization 1765-1775
-Colonial leadership originally just wanted to reform the system thru Parliament
-then the demand changed from reform to revolution (change the sys)
Differences in Regions/Classes
-northern seaboard: made $ on trade
-southern tidewater: exported produce, needed foreign workers
-urban: conflict btn merchants and worker class
-rural: conflict btn big farmers and small farmers
Rationalization of Revolution
-struggle for pwr
-focused on Parliamentary pwrs: commerce and taxing pwr
-they didn't like either, so they came up with loophole arguments: Charter Grant Argument, Natural Rights Contract Argument
-pwr has to be legitimated by representation
--Actual Representation: ppl using the pwr must be selected by geographical and numerical selection (colonial argument)
--Virtual Representation: not factual representation (parliament)
-Reform Argument
-Revolution Argument
-Charter-Grant Argument
-Constitution-Empire Argument
-Natural Rights-Contract Arg
Reform Arguments
-argued for change within sys
-colonists had rights of englishmen
-historically relative
Revolution Arguments
-argued change outside the sys
-rights of americans
-not historically relative
-natural rights-contract argument
Charter-Grant Argument
-neutralize internal pwr of parliament
-keep external pwr of parliament
-parliament has not pwr over colonies
-colonists have the rights of englishmen:
--no taxation w/o representation
-Franklin, Dickenson, Otis
Constitution-Empire Argument
-parliament's pwr doesn't apply outside or inside
-King has all the pwr (even though he really has no pwr...wink wink)
-Hamilton, J. Adams, Wilson
Natural Rights-Contract Argument
Parliament has no pwr, period
-colonial rights comes from charter
-unitary sys: one level of govt w/pwr (central govt) creates local govt
-colonists=rights of englishmen (right of consent)
-local govt has revenue pwr bc england has a fed sys
-parliament can't tax anything IN colonies
-agrees w/Franklin and Dickenson
-english pwr legitimated by geography:
--central govt has all external pwr
--local govt has internal pwr
-external pwr of Parliament must be legitimated by representation
-supported Constitution-Empire
-colonists not subject to Parliament bc parliament's pwr based on virtual representation which is illegitimate
-colonists owe obedience to the crown
-rights of englishmen=right of consent=right of representation
-since parliament doesn't agree, oust them
-we don't owe allegiance to parliament
--their pwr not based on representation
--rights of englishmen also include right of seperation (checks/balances)
-colonies need representation in both houses
Natural Rights-Contract Argument
-source of rights=state of nature
--right of sovereignty, consent, revolution
-Samuel Adams, Paine
Samuel Adams
-organized against england
-organized against elite upperclass, focusing on mass
-theorist: Natural rights-contract argument
-focused on middle-class moderates
Paine (theorist)
-ppl are characterized by affections and vices
-society is organized on our positive side
-govt's job to handle vices
-society=lockian, govt=hobbesian
-govt goes thru 2 stages:
--direct pop democracy
--indirect rep democracy (as population and geography increase)
-How to check tyranny:
--govt created by pop consent
--review by pop consent
-purpose of govt is to insure freedom and security
-argued against Hamilton
-argued status quo necessary in terms of pwr, rights, obedience
-argued against Adams
-we need govt to create reason and conscience and protect rights
-allegiance only to monarch is dangerous bc no checks
-argued against Paine
-status quo is valid bc natural laws/rights are invalid
-pop consent is illogical
-termination of govt is illogical
Declaration of Independence
4 parts:
Radical Success
-2nd Continental Congress
-Dec of Ind
-Articles of Confederation
Critical Years
-colonial govts=3 types: Royal, Proprietary, Charter colonies
-based on separation or pwr
--upper chamber appointed by gov'r
--lower chamber elected
-executive=appointed by King, appointed by proprietor, elected
-judiciary=appointed by exec,
National Govt (Confederate)
-based on state sovereignty
-no separation of pwrs
-all functions performed by legislature, selected by states
-ratification/ammending= unanimous agreement
Weakness of Confederate
-diplomatically (Treaty of Paris)
-could not collect taxes
-weak currency pwr
-weak borrowing pwr
-no commerce pwr
-no contract pwr
Shay's Rebellion
-Jan 1787
-symbol for weakness of Confederate system
-wanted to desensitize pwr
-separate pwr
-blend pwr
John Adams
-economics determines social determines political
-some ppl are naturally gifted, others aren't
-all oppression is naturally political (btn majorities and minorities)
-separate, equalize, blend pwr
-create dif kinds of tenures
--upper house=long-term
--lower house=short
-ppl naturally selfish, oppressive, factional
-cause of probs=factions
--expand scope of conflict (so more factions)
--shift from state to fed
--centralize and distance
-pwr is too close to ppl
-centralize/desensitize pwr
-separate/equalize/balance pwr
-purpose of govt is to benefit property
-govt should be biased (should be used)
Amending Convention
-small, fixed property not represented
--Virginia Plan (complete change)
--NJ Plan (amendment)
Virginia Plan
-3 branches
--bicameral legislature, pwr to veto, lateral appointment
--exec: 4yr terms, selected by legislature
--judiciary: 1 superior court, selected by congress, serve for good behaviour
NJ Plan
-legislature: bicameral, selected by state legis, stronger tax/commerce pwr
-exec: plural, selected by nat'l legislature, unfixed term (subject to legis approval)
-judicial: 1 court, selected by exec,
Positive Function
-limit state interference
-limit popular interference
Negative Function
-Protections of rights
-Lockian Checks
-political controls
-structural controls
Lockian Checks
-check of specification
-check of consolidation
-check of subordination
Auxiliary Prohibitions
-political democracy hostile to capitalist economy
Connecticut Compromise
-take bicameralism
-the rest is like today
-ppl are the beast
-govt should be strong, centralized, judicialized
-pwr sys should be biased