Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/56

Click to flip

56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
DVT vs Superficial Thrombophlebitis vs Arterial Occlusion
DVT: Calf pain w/ + honan sign
-Varicosities(non-painful)
-Stasis dermatitis(Brown skin from hemosiderin deposition)
-Emboli cause PE not stroke

Dx: Doppler or Veinography if Doppler non-diagnostic

Tx: Heparin

Superficial Thrombophlebiis:
-Painful swollen varicosity

Tx: NSAID

Aterial occlusion: Pain,pallor,pulselessness. Skin is cool and shiny w/o hair.

Tx: Embolectomy
Fetishes
Things that cause sexual arousal:

Exhibiton: Exhibit genital

Frottorism: Rub genitals on someone

Transvetic: Wear womens clothes

Voyeurism: Watch an unsuspecting person undress
Gender identity disorder
Feel more comfortable as other gender not because it sexually excites them.
CGD
Pathophys
S/S
Dx
Defective NADPH oxidase and cannot make free radicals from oxygen(No Oxidative burst)

Recurrent Staph lung abscess

Abnormal NBT test(neutrophils do not turn blue)
Complement defect
Low C3 and prone to alot of nissiera & encapsulated orgs(S.Pneumoniae,Salmonella) infections because cannot opsonize the bacteria
Allergies
S/S
Type of HS
Dx
Allergic shiner
Allergic salute(nasal crease)
Boggy nasal mucosa
Asthma

Type I HS(Eosinophilia)

Wheal & flare reaction or look for eosinophilia
Spinal cord compression
-S/S
-Associations
-Tx
Motor(weak/paralyzed) & sensory(No t.pain, No PVT) deficits in LE.

Common causes are:
1) Prosate Mets to spine
2) Miliary TB.
3) Epidural/Subdural abscess
4) Hematoma post tap

Give Steroids immediately and order MRI later
Osteomyelitis
-culprits
-S/S
-Dx
Staph
Salmonella-Sickler
Pseudomonas-nail through a shoe (lives in foam)

Need trauma to break skin then get fever,chills & leukocytosis.

Dx via bone scan
Pathological fractures
Osteoporosis
Malignancy
Hyperparathyridism
Legg Calve Perth
-pathophys
-Symptoms
-DDx
-Dx
-Tx
Avascular necrosis of femoral head seen in a sickler or kid 4-9 years old(SCFE=9-14)

Hip pain 7 painful limp

Dx=X-ray AP & LATERAL

DDx: SCFE but they have medial knee and groin pain and are usually overweight

Tx: Urgent surgery
sickle cell disease
-mutation & inheritance
-S/S
-complications
-Dx
-Tx
Point mutation val becomes glu(AR)

earliest sign is painless hematuria. Can get crises after 4mo-moms HbF runs out(aplastic: parvo B-19, Splenic sequestration :Splenomegaly & shock). can get dactylitis.

Dx via Hb electrophoresis(high Hbs & HbF)

Tx:
Attack=opioid,o2,morphine
Preventative tx= s.pneumoniae & Pneumococcal vaccine. folate. hydroyurea.
Post op pancreatitis
secondary to common bile duct exploration
C1 Esterase deficiency
S/S
Dx
AD condition known as hereditary angioedema.

Swelling of face & extremities with abdominal pain b/c of increased vessel permeability

Dx: C4 complement assay
Meningitis in kids: most common pathogens by age level.

#1 meningitis sequelae?
<1mo: GBS(agalactae)>E.coli>listeria

1mo-2years: S.Pneumoniae>nissiera

2-18years: Nissiera>S.Pneumoniae

18+: S.Pneumoniae

Hearing loss so do auditory testing
#1 congenital anomaly
Hypospadias>clubfoot=cleftlip
PID
S/S
Dx
Tx
Fever & leukocytosis w/ CMT, pelvic pain, adnexal tenderness & D/C from Chlmydia(#1) or Gonnhorrhea(gram -ve diplococci)

Dx: Culture D/C

Tx: Gent & Clinda(pen allergy) or Cef/Doxy
Endometriosis
S/S
Dx
Tx
Pain w/ peeing, pooping, menstrating & sex secondary to pieces of endometriom outside the endometrial cavity.

Dx: laparoscopy(chocholae covered cysts) & feel nodularities in the pouch of douglas on manual exam.

Tx:
OCP: No kids now
Laser: Want kids now
TAH w/ b/l OOP: No kids ever
dysparenunia DDx
Narrow Hymen: virgin
Endometriosis
PID
HPV condyloma accuminata
DKA vs Hyperosmolar coma
-How to differentiate
-Tx
-Other concerns about electrolytes
DKA HO coma
Ketones/Kusslman None
PH<7.35 PH NORM
Glu>250 Glu>600
HCO3<15 HCO3 norm

Tx: Fluids and insulin

-May get low PO4 causing resp depression
-High to low K+ b/c H+-K+ exchange initially then lose K+ w/ excess glucose in urine
Post op urine in vagina
Cause
Tx
Fistula has formed b/w urethra & vagina.

Dx: IV indigo carmine scan
Histoplasmosis
Pneumonia in pt from Ohio & missisipi river valley who likes caves or is exposed to bird/bat droppings

Common cause of non-malignant calcified lung granuloma along w/ TB (caseous) & Sarcoid (noncaseating). Most lung masses are benign granulomas.
Chlamydia psittaci`
Pneumonia after having contact with a parrot/bird.

Cold agglutin titer negative
How do differentiate psychosis in dementia vs that in schizophrenia or delusional d/o
Schizo & Delusional have intact cognitive functioning but dementias don't.
TOF
-Describe condition
-S/S
-Severity depends on what
R to L shunt causing cyanotic heart disease in kids. kids may not be cyanotic at birth but later they will e and must squat to increase VR to heart.

-VSD
-RV hypertrophy(R axis dev)
-Overriding aorta
-Pulm sten(determines severity)

Tx: surgery
Genital warts DDX
Both are Condylomas & are either syphillus (1-lata) or HPV 6 & 11(many cauliflower like: accuminata)

HPV
-STD which will give painful intercourse.
-Biopsy to dx and will have koilocytosis.
-Must use chloroacetic acid to remove or surgery
Correlation coefficient
Tells how similar 2 variables are
T-Test
Compares 1 variable in no more than 2 groups(ie blood pressure)
ANNOVA
Compares 1 variable in >2 groups
chi squared
compares multiple variables within multiple groups
Heart Defects in kids w/
Downs
FAS
Kawasaki
Rubella
Turner
SLE
Down=Septal & endocardial cushion defects

FAS=VSD,ASD

Kawasaki: Coronary A aneurysm

Rubella: PDA

SLE: Heart block

Turner: COA
SBO
S/S
Dx
Tx
Diffuse abd pain, billous vomiting, increased peristalsis & obstipation hx.

See dilated bowel loops on x-ray w/ multiple air-fluid levels

NPO-NG tube w/ fluid unless get worse then do surgery.
LBO
-DDX
-SS
-Dx
-Tx
DDx:
**R/O cancer after treating any of these conditions**

Volvulus(Bird beak barium)
Diverticulitis(LLQ pain)
Cancer(Apple core lesion)

Same as SBO but may vomit feces

NPO-NG tube-Fluid unless volvulus then decompress w/ colonoscope.
AIDS Pneumonia
Either PCP or CMV

PCP
-CD4<200 get SMX-TMP or pentamadine prophylaxis
-Must silver stain bronchioalvelar lavage

CMV
-Has IC inclusion bodies
-Tx is gancyclovir or foscarnet
Klebsiella Pneumonia
S/S
Tx
A gram negative aspiration pneumonia seen in alcoholics who have currant jelly sputum.

Gen3 ceph & aminoglycoside
mycoplasma Pneumonia
S/S
Population
Labs
Tx
College dorm kid or military & have NP cough, fever, malaise & headache for a long time.

-CXR has patchy infiltrates all over
- + cold agglutination titer

Tx with azithromyacin
Legionella Pneumonia
S/S
Tx
Guy in hotel by AC unit w/ pneumonia & gastroenteritis.

Tx: erythromyacin
Atypical vs Typical Pneumonia
TYPICAL
Productive cough w/ consolidation(ergophony).
-Fever>102, Prodrome<2days
-+ve Blood cultures
-Age>40

May be:

1) S.Pneumoniae(+ diplococci)
2) H.Influenzae(- cocobacilli)

Dx: Sputum Culture & G. Stain

Tx: Azithro(S.pneumo)
Ampi/Amox(H.Influenzae)


ATYPICAL
Legionella(AC unit)-erythro
C.Psittaci(bird)-Azithro
Mycoplasma(dorm,+agglutins)
Viral(RSV,Adeno,Parainfluenza)

-Cough is NP & x-ray has interstitial infiltrates.
-Long prodrome
-Fever<102
-Age<40
Varicella
SS
When to give Ig vaccine
Vessicles all over body that crust over(face only is impetigo-staph/strep 7 use topical mupirocin or erythromycain)

Give vaccine or Ig if
- <3 days exposure
- >15 years old
-Immunocompromised(premie,aids)
-Mom has it before birth or just after
Toxocara canis
Visceral larva migrans

Eosinophilia & wheezing w/ hepatomegaly in kid that plays in sandbox where there are dogs and cats
Pinworm
SS
Dx
Tx
Anal/genital itching at night

Dx: scotch tape test
tx: mebendazole
Multiple Myeloma
S/S
Dx
Malignant plasma cell monoclonal gammopathy.

-Bone Pain w/ lytic lesions on x-ray that cause hypercalcemia(high osteoclast activating factor) or pathological fx.

-Pancytopenia w/ relaux on smear

Dx: plasma electrophoresis to see monoclonal spike
or
Bone marrow biopsy (plasma cells in sheets w/ perinuclear clearing & eccentric nuclei)
or
Urine electrophoresis(bence jones proteins)
Respiratory changes in pregnancy
Elevated minute ventilation b/c tidal volume increased but RR is the same
Post term vs Premie S/S & risks
Post
-no laguno hair
-cracking/peeling skin
-long fingernails
-risk of meconium aspiration

Preterm
-pink skin & see veins
-Laguno
-Risk for RDS/NEC
If an antipsychotic works how long do you give it
6mo
Coccoides Immitus
Arizona dessert fungi that causes pneumonia(LL cavitation), eosinophilia(b/c fungus) and erythema nodosum.

Dx: culture of sputum

Tx: None unless severe and give amphoteacin B
Renal stones
-Types
-Workup
-Tx
Usually Ca (these are the only radiopaque stones) & occurs secondary to hypercalciuria(use thiazide)

Others are radiolucent & include uric acid, staghorn from proteus

Dx: U/A & culture, Ca & Po4 level to r/o Hyper PTH.

-KUB then IVP/CT non-contrast

Tx: Thiazide, fluid & lithotripsy (sound<2cm, cutaneous>2cm).
#1 cause of shock post abdominal surgery
Hemoperitoneum(hypovolemic)
Leiomyoma
S/S
Types
Dx
Tx
Fibroids cause Hard, painless, nodular, asymmetricly enlarged uterus(adenomyosis are soft & symmetric & tender enlarged). the tumors feed off estrogen.

The tumors cause irregular menstration and infertility. Only the submucosal bleed.

Tx: Just drugs unless anemic or heavy blood loss.

No OCP b/c have estrogen so give danazol,lupron,provera

1)Submucosal: Hysteroscope
2)Want kids: myomectomy
3)No kids: TAH
Proximal muscle weakness DDx
Proximal muscle weakness is cannot get up from bed or chair or stair or can't comb hair(A haiku!)

High CPK & Aldolase w/ abnormal EMG

1) Polymyostitis
2) Dermatomyostitis: Like poly but have eyelids that are black & swollen knuckles.

Normal CPK/Aldolase/EMG, HIGH ESR

1) Polymyalgia rheumatica: Aches, Pains & stiffness
Polyhydraminos vs oligo
Poly>25: DM, Twins, NT defect, trisomy

Oligo<10: Renal anomalies(alport or agenesis)or IUGR
Delirium vs dementia
delirium(acute) are not aware and attentive but dementia(chronic) unless sever are.
Effect on sens/spec if you decrease the reference interval
smaller interval means less false negatives so sens increases.
Ischemic colitis
Bloody Diarrhea
IBS
Mucous diarrhea then constipation w/ abdominal cramps in a stress case.
diverticulitis
S/S
Dx
Tx
LLQ appendiciis secondary to infection of the diverticula in the sigmoid colon.

Dx: CT w/ contrast
Tx: Antibiotics & NPO
Renal Adenocarcinoma vs Bladder TCC
SS
Dx
Tx
Both have hematuria, high incidence with smoking and can met to lung causing cannonballs but only RC can have a flank mass.

Renal Dx: CT
Bladder Dx: cystoscopy