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270 Cards in this Set

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who built chaco canyon?
the anazasi?
how big is chaco canyon?
nine miles long
when were the settlements built in chaco canyon?
between 10th and 12th century.
when was chaco canyon abandoned?
the 13th century
how many Anazasi lived in Chaco Canyon?
500,000
How long was Chaco Canyon left untouched?
100 years
_______ was found in CC.
human bones
Did the Anasazi of Chaco Canyon have a written language?
no written language was developed, it was thought maybe to possibly keep their culture alive
Ancient Chacoians put the ________ before themselves.
earht
Anasazi studied _________ and placed important occurance on ______.
sun

time
the __________ placement in chaco canyon baffles scientists.
window
As the winter solistice nearsed, windows in chaco canyon revealed _________.
the break of dawn
Where the Anasazi involved in trade?
Yes, because stone tools, artifacts and shells were discovered as distant as the coast of mexico
the ________ were masters of architecture
anasazi
scientists used anasazi ________ to recreate the appearance.
skull
The Anazasi believed that humans evolved from....
bugs
Some think that the Anasazi may have left in order to return to....
simpler times
Colonisers first destroyed the _______ and it was a way of destroying how they were as a people.
Mayan libraries
what are we reading, when we read about history?
narrative
Why is it important to know we are reading narrative?
different cultures present different narrative

the perspective of their event is invisibilized
Many cultures trasmit narratives...
orally
Much US History has been invisibilized due to no recognition to...
oral traditon
____________ is something that hasn't been tken too much account of.
oral documentation
In order to understand a story, you have to realize that __________ is more important than narrative.
history
WHat is the traditional narrative of whites?
pilgrims are what is celebrated on Thanksgiving
narrative is all important becuase traditionally it is narrative of _______________
the conqueroe
Why is the narrative of the conquerer more stuied?
becuase it defeated inferior people
"Surviving Columbus" Question:

Recently, natives have reached a celebration of ______ of euro contact.
500 years
some natives remember going to school and __________________
that Columbus found America, and Columbus had to tame the "brutal savages"
"Surviving Columbus" Question:

The guy says that his grandfather was telling stories before....
christ was born
"Surviving Columbus" Question:

what does one man say about the death of some of his relatives?
wherever we talk, we leave breath and sweat, and be ause of this, we can still partake in their blood and spirit
"Surviving Columbus" Question:

Our homes, art and religion are similar to _________
the earth
"Surviving Columbus" Question:

How do some believe they will be remembered?
through designs. in the surviving columbus movie, the example of the parrot is given


when the grandmother is dying, she tells the granddaughter that she will always be rememebered for her design
"Surviving Columbus" Question:

Father Sky fertilized _____________ and from that everything grows
mother earth
"Surviving Columbus" Question:

Many spent much time praying for ___________ to hope that more would be available.
good weather
Who are the preemient socities of the Americas?
Aztecs
Incas
Mayans
Why is it that we believe the Aztexs, Incas and Mayans to be sucessful societies?
large population
complex architecture
technology/sciene
agriculture
trade
complex social org
ruling class
military
medicine men are the same )_________
as doctors
Typically, Aztecs, Incans, and Mayans are _____________
sedentary
While we are obessed with sendentary culture, nomadic cultures are often not thought of as a __________________
major civilization
semi-sedintary people slived on the __________ of these empires
preripheries
some higher soceities obligated _________ to pay taxes
smaller scoties
what are some example of semi-nomadic tribes?
anpache, navajo, comanche
what is the main difference between sedentary and semi-sedentary?
population
Barre Tolken "Seeing with the Native Eye: How many sheep will it hold?"


when Tolken's grandfather asks how many sheep a building will hold, how does Tolken interpert this?
Tolken understands that his grandfather was asking what the function of a big building had
Barre Tolken "Seeing with the Native Eye: How many sheep will it hold?"

What was one thign that emphasizes Pueblo life?
religion and community
Barre Tolken "Seeing with the Native Eye: How many sheep will it hold?"

Much social organization was built around....
religion and communicty survival
Where were kivas usually build
around plazas
what is polythestic mean?
recognized by more than one God
what type of society did the navajo have?
a dance soceity

Pueblo Dance was integral part of society
Rites of ommunity was always linked to _________________
community needs
Pueblo lifestyle revolved around....
farming
Much of the Pueblo society lives in and around...
the Rio Grando
Women participated in....H
harvesting crops
Pueblos were very skilled at _________d
dry farming
what is dry farming?
that you will dig deep enough to access moisture in the earth
Western Pueblos tilled deep to do ....
dry farming
Oftern plants crops among ....
arroyos
People will rotate what they plant in ....
different part of the land
what were some of the main crops for the pueblo people?
corn

squash

beans
the Pueblo people were also very skilled at...
storing food
what are moieties?
one half or two fairly equal parts. people belonged to one of two moeites.
explain a bit the structure of moietie society?
one society belonged to the summer, another belonged to the winder. one moietie was in power during a certain season
Anasazi are known through society as....
basktmkakers
Some would say that we are the .....
bomb generation
what is Dinetah?
the navajo homeland
what is a Hogan?
could be close by and house life

well developed social and organized life

important to understand wihtout privledign, nor different for Dine people
The first mother of the Dino people was....
changing woman
Kinaalda gave birth to who?
monster slayer and water
Because of changing woman story, Dine is a ___________ society.
matrenlinal
Changing woman created the first __________
navajo clans
for the dine, relgious life was not separate from thier...
everyday life
The dine have said to live around the Chaco Canyon area as early ast.....
the 1200s
what is Athabskuans?
apache and navajo in canado, some vocabulary and linguists are similar

they have some similarities in terms of creation story
what does it mean that people are made to be a homogenous people?
lack of understanding imples that they had sense pof homogenity
what is homogenity?
looked the same, talked the same, acted the same
Even among native amaericans, there were .....
different perspectives
Navajo/Apache had similar creations tories in thier ...
belief
what are some details about the Apache?
organized around single tribes
How similar is the Apache to the DIne language?
there are only a few words that are similar
"Major Problems in American Indian History"

what did the knotted cord represent?
how much time was left until the rebellion
"Major Problems in American Indian History"

what did Pope do?
he told people to burn images of Christainty

Pope moved those who were moved by the Christian relgioned

said he devil had given them that they needed to live like ancestors
Why did the indians lose faith in the Spaniards?
due to a lack of crops
How was Spain different in the 15th century?
Primarily as Spain organized in 1500 were a variety of different monarches.
Spainish colonization in 15th century had a series.....
of principalities and kingsome
racilally, spainareds were....
not all the same
Spain wasn't a _________ during the 15th century
homogenous population
Early on, Spain was part of the Roman empire from __________ to _________
19 AD TO 409 AD
Rome developed relgion that influenced large parts of _________.
SPain
Who are the Iberians?
Rome influenced Spainards
Spanish law was based largely on _______.
Roman law
________ was key to lead unification for Spaniards
Organization
With the fall of the Roman Empire, ___________ came into the Spanish penisula
Germans
The _______ had a 300 year regime in Spain
Visagoths
Visagoths created ___________
feithdoms
In ________ Spain was invaed by the Moors of Africa
711 AD
The early _______ is a period that marks the begging of regime in eastern europe
700
The Moors didn't perescute Spainards due to ________
religious belief
The Moors helped create schools and libraries so much that some people in the world considered it a _________________
cultural mecca
There are different religions in Spain. ie not everyonee was...
catholic
WHat were some other religions in Spain during the 700s?
Islam

Judaism
All of the people in Spain were living under the ______ rule
Moorish
Who becomes the biggest resistnce against the mooors for their 700 years of rule?
the castille.

Castille were engaged in protracted resistance against Moors for 700 years
What happens from 1200-1400?
Battles occur between African Muslims, Iberians, and Castillians
What happens in 1492??
Moorish King is defeated
Many ______ stayed in Spain after the defeta of the moors.
muslims
Spain is attempted to be __________ after the defeat of the moors in 1492
homogenizes
what is main lead to a homogenous population?
the inquisition starts to take place
Who were two people who contributed to the unification of Spain?
Ferdinand de Aragon

Isabella of Castillo

ruled during 1400
What was the inquistion?
it was very much a political process, people often occured of hearseey and/or their subverson
What are the inquistion used as?
a tool to create political homeogent
what does it do?
it creates that notion that the spanish people arnd pain
who were considered terroritst of the penisula?
Basques
who was interested in the trade to the east during the 15th century?
french, port, dutch, many europeans
Spains sees ______/_______ to become involved in trade
reason/necessity
Christianity plays a major role in....
trading


the trading of an idea
what are some things that are needed in order to go to war?
money

soliders

weapons
horses
consturction
Participating in ____________ is a way for Spain to gain statue
trade with the east
Exploration becomes a __________ for these monarch
specific goal
____________ to explore new world becaomes way to gain riches, increase treasury and spread christianty
strugge
What did Queen Isabella think?
that trading might be a good way to bring the "truth" to other nations
what are the 3 "g"s of spain?
god
gold
glory
Native American people forcibly made war of ____________
new domain
David Weber refers to basic understanding as a lack of _____________
understanidng in life
Basis of misconceptions needed for ___________ of the new world
control/domain
purposes that conlict in America happened and did not allow for peaceful for _________into spanish domain
native americans
necessity to control, extract riches, to gain stutus, and wcomplete with other....
european countries
what does adelantados literally translate to?
to move forward

the first colonizsts
Very often _____________ funded their own money to discover, hoping for a discovery of wealth
adalendatos
they ________ their own money with the notion that there were _______ to be found
adelantos invested

wealth
Adelantados gained a ________ from the cron to exploration in the Americas
lisense
Sometimes __________ would be offered titles of nobiity, land, go. power, or right to mineral discovery or spoils of way
Adelantados
Often _______ specifically chosen so the cost didn't flal on the monarch
adelantado
what might be a drive for some people to go to other words?
myth
this idea of ______ becomes fuel for many to travel
mytg
what were some myths that propelled people to travel?
califas
el dorado
what was califas?
island of Amazonian women who lived in wealthy environments in terms of natural resources

it was once thought that the penisula of Baja was where Amazonian woman were
what was the andelantado who discovered the incas?
Pizzaro
Many ____________ beleived in notions of gold
adelantados
what was pizzaro seeking when he found the Incas?
the seven cities of Gold
what advantages did the europeans have?
immunity
What was the impact of disease due to contact to natives?
one out of every three natives died within a decade of spanish arrival
Esteban was the first ___________ to enter the natives
"white man"
Why were the pueblo people afraid of Estaban Binico?
because he was a slave trader
Why was Coronado so easily able to beat the Zuni?
Due to their arms
How did the pueblos try to prove to Coronoado that they did not have gold?
Bys ending a native Begotez to give a tour of the pubelos to prove they had no gold
After the Spanish let the myth of the seven cities collapse, they began to believe in....
quivera , the river of gold
how far did cornoado's expedition go?
all the way to kansas, and even there they did not find gold
"The Name of the Conquerer"


what is the name of the conquerer, according to this video?
the name that is given to the person who reeks of incredible sacrilige

fear and death
what happened in 1598?
400 soliders and indians gathered at the RIo Grande
What happened on May 30th, 1598?
Europeans said this land belonged to them
what was the name of the first spanish colony?
san juan pueblo
What is the Manta Chinna dance?
a Christmas dance that the indians still dance to this day
_______ was seen as the property of an unseen king
Acoma
________ imposed govenrmental sanctions on each pueblo
spaniards
Passing of the ________ is the pueblo's way of passing of governmental power
canes
WHen spainards came into new mexico, indian labo was not...
voluntary
Spaniards forced the Indians to allow Spanish officals to have ______ with the women...
sex

before they were married
what is the difference between exploration and colonization?
exploration is a temporary situation. it is used to map our land, and identify resources
are people considered a resource in terms of explorartion?
yes, because they were in need of peopel for mining, agriculture, and extractiong of weatlh
what is colonization?
settlement will be established
permanent presense

families are entering to create a community

need to bring people from different types of skills
indians need to transform into ....
spanish subjects
Christainization becomes process by which indian populations...
are controlled
what are ways that the spaniards used method to break transmission of culture?
coercion

seperate the people

new education

ridding oral tradition

NOT ALLOWING THEM TO SPEAK THEIR LANGUAGE (all were forced to learn how to speak spanish)
What is a good experience of how indans were not supposed to resist authority?
the onate experience
who warned the pueblos about the revolt and how did he know?
Otermin saw an indian kill a monk and he warned the pueblos
What happened on August 15, 1680?
500 inians came to attack the weak Spaniards by saying that god and santa maria were dead and that the indian never died
how many men did Otermin send out to fight the 500 indians?
100
what was one thing that truly led to the success for the indians in the pueblo revolt?
they cut off the water supply
why did the small amount of men dying of third during the pueblo revolt decide to fight the natives?
they siad that t was better to die in combat, than in thirst, so they fought
"Fransiscans Ellipsed" by Jim Norris

how many friars were among the navajo in 1740?
eight
"Fransiscans Ellipsed" by Jim Norris

1740- Navajo missions first mission for friars in...
over a century
"Fransiscans Ellipsed" by Jim Norris

Dominquez wrote to .... on missions
report and inspect
"Fransiscans Ellipsed" by Jim Norris

How did Dominquez find the missions?
appalling

earh floors

no church in sandia
"Fransiscans Ellipsed" by Jim Norris

Dominquez judged many friars as bieng....
physically incabable
"Fransiscans Ellipsed" by Jim Norris

Friars had to make ends meat by.......
themseleves
"Fransiscans Ellipsed" by Jim Norris

The royal treasury gave them their _________, so morale went down with the priests. T
stripend
"Fransiscans Ellipsed" by Jim Norris

Government officail took away friars power, so they could not do things such as...
destroy kachina doll
Varo wanted to put ___________ on an Inquisition Investigation
Govenor Cachupin
By 1759, friars became _________ in assisting colonial affairs
impotent
______ money started going to friars

give an example
less

1763: 11,450 pesos went to the mission
32,000 went to Santa Fe presidaneal garrision
_______ said some missions should be taken over because the monks were not doing a good job
bishop

this proposal was rejected
when did a severe drought hit new mexico?
1770-1780
During the drought of 1770, what became prominent?
indian theft
Indian theft became so prominent in 1770, that the Spanish sent ...
for 1500 horses in 1775
1780-1781: 1/4 of the NM population died, how?
smallpox
Smallpox was the cuase for how many people in new mexico, and during what time period?
1780-1781

1/4 of the new mexico pop died
When was the Great Missionary Period?
1610-1680
_______ was largely an exploratory mission motivated by desire to disover ________
wealth
The Onate expediation was different from coronado's because...
they were trying to colonize
the onate expedition has a tragic encounter with pueblo people, but they are still....
unsucessful
_______ changed with mistreatment to indians
onate
_________ was still targeted as the responsible party for faiure to colonize
onate
Coronado's expedition was the first to set sight on the ____________
Grand Canyon
Onate recognized the ___________ and the opening out of California
Colorado River
Neither expedition of Cornado or Onate is _______________ in maintainging a presense
successful
Although the conquistadors are considered failures, what did they accomplish?
establised tone for indian colonization
the experience of Onate v. Acoma is something that is....
recorded in many documents due to the excessive force they put onto the indians
one of the tings they determines is that there coulnd't be any ....
resistance to Spanish Colonization
If you don't abide to the system , you will be....


acording to navajo
severely dealt with
others felt it was a brutal and excessively sver reaction to the the region....
on how the natives were percieved
Spanish insured indains' submissions to...
colonization
Who decreed the "Laws of Discovery"?
king phillip
who endorsed campaigns of pacification?
king phillip
what does pacification mean?
not necessarily peace, but pacification
why is it that so many people wanted to make everyone chrsitain, why was it called pacification?
it was assumed that if everyone was christain, they were probably going to be peaceful
what is the matachina?
a dance that is still practiced among the indians that is still practived today
What are some of the ways that taught people about Cristian doctrine?
plays
Indians were forced to attend daily.....
mass and t pray
Daily life was regimented and organized around....
specific shceudles and specific tasks
any resistance was ....
severely punish
People were recruited to labor for missions. how?
tending to the livestck

women taught to weave and cook in practival spanish ways and other tasks
why were these culturization of tasks bad?
because men were told to build a wall, which was a woman's job in pueblo culture
What did punishment include?
brutal whippings


shaving the heads of native men
what are some details about shaving the heads of natives?
native men found this very disresepctful

ellicted such horrible responses in natives that the viceroy ordered it to stop in the 1620s
what was one cuase to the government ignoring rules?
distance between NM and other areas meant that rules were often ignored

there was no one to police these rules
What were some important stategires for dominance?
relgious leaders were targeterd

the harshest punishments were resovled from missionary leaders
What was outlawed in the pueblo?
dance, song, prayer, traditional celebrations, religious iconogrpahy
To accomplish tranform missionaries, _________ were all involved in religious domination
missionaries, civilia authority, miliary
what is a custodio?
supervised church government in NM and made sure that pacification was taking place
what are alcades?
mayors, enoforced laws, handed problems, and acted as judges
________ determined that indian/spanish intereactions would be mediated by pueblo governors?
colonial authories
______ could electe their own governor
Pueblo
From onset_______ take place with pueblo people
conflcits and people
what is encomienda?
feudal relasionship, comes from resistance against moorish rule

created a labor relasionship as form of payment to the crown
what are some examples of an encomienda tribute?
a bushel of corn

blanket
In a harsh environment, it was difficult to get to make encomienda payments, esp. during...
excessive drought
if they couldn't give materials for encomienda, ....
they needed to work for it
the Colonists abused the.... practice
encomienda
Indians and future generations were forced to pay off encomienda of....
ancestors
some histrains say encomeinda led to a form of....
slavery
encomienda practice Took away from projects and...
labors of missions
missionaries and colonists fought over...
indian labor
_________ wnated to collect tribute from Taos people
Diego de Peralta
Friar said that if Deifo Peralta tried to get tribute from Taos people, he would...
excommuniacte
encomientda isn't the only institution to monopolize...
indian labor
what is a repartimeinto?
people were distrubited to different taks

prjects building bridges, unloading caravans, sepearting constructions

work wasn't allowed ot be denied

in theory, repartimeiento was supposed to get paid

rules and reg ingored so people were sometimes used excessively
what is a rescate?
meant to be freeing of captured non-pueblo people

means by which colonials exchange good, off captive people
"Rescate" process implied that people were...
colonized
what are genizaros?
non pueblo people

not entirely positive becuase they are used as captive labor and allows for seere exploitable
1667-1672, there is what, and the three work realsionships are still established during this time
a severe drought
during the drought, the indians were still prohibited from performing...
rain dances
Spaniards begin to be painfully aware that they aren't protected from outside....
raiding
what is requrimeinto?
requirement read that says tribe must follow certain rules
what is repartimento?
more like indentured servitude
what is the only difference between black slaves and indians under reepartimiento?
the indians weren't in cahins
in theory, under encomienda, people could go home and...
live lives
what are the other differences between slavery and encomienda?
people were allowed to intermarry
what were the envorionmental conditions?
drought

disease is rampant

lots of raids

one missioanry said a governor tried to shoot him

conflcit of authority is open to everyone in societies
natives might think that the reason druoght, disease, and raids occur due to why?
their gods have forsaken them
what happened in 1668?
thousands indians died of starvation, most were children and elders

many were not eating well, u
What did the Spanish think the disease was caused by?
the witchcraft of the indians
What did the Spaniards do about this witchcraft disease?
they condemened four "sourcers" to die
Who decided to retaliate?
Pope
How long was the Pueblo Revolt of 1680?
about ten days
The 1680 revolt is the reason...
the pueblo culture exist today
what is the "Great Northern Rebellion"
the pueblos get word that colonists get successfu for colonists
how long does the great northern rebllion last?
two years
within _________ spanish authorities attempt to quell frontier over new spain
12 years
what happened in the 18th century?
it was a period where different empires in costal regions of the pacific
what kind of diseases did people get when they traveled to the east?
scurvy
what was something that spain wanted to watch over?
mineral deposits
what are some of the lessons of 1680?
if pueblo rebelled in order to renew beliefs, it might be expediment not to persecute them for their beliefs

also, it is imporant to develop a cooperative, peaceful coexhistance
what is the camino real?
in parts of the northern frontier, there were very poor roads
what are carretas?
wooden carts that need to be pulleed for trade
what is a mestizo?
people of mixed race, typically a prodcut of a spanish and indegnoues
what is a castizo?
the child of a mestizo and a spainsish woman
what is a mulato?
a spanish woman and an an african woman
what is a cholo?
a castizo and indian woman
how many names were there is the racial panish heiracrhy?
100, and it was acutally registered by missionaries during marraiges/baptisms