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20 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
1. Due to ↑ in size of cell from increase structural proteins, cytosol, and # of oraganelles

2. Due to ↑ functional demand and hormonal stimuli

3. Exhibits ↑ functional capacity

4. Occurs in PERMENANT cells that cannot undergo mitosis (e.g. cardiac myocytes and skeletal muscles)

5. Hypertophic organs are larger and heavier
1 example of physiological, pathological, and oral hypertrophy
1. Physiological - increase in muscle mass due to exercise and ↑ in metabolic demands

2. Pathological - increase in heart size due to ↑ functional demand due to hypertension (CARDIOMEGALY)

3. Oral - ↑ in masseter size due to unusual chewing motions after jaw surgery
T/F: In hypertrophy the number of organelles increases as well as the number of cells
FALSE: the number of organelles increase but NOT the number of cells
T/F: Permanent cells are capable of undergoing hypertrophy as well as hyperplasia
FALSE: only stable and labile (apt to change) cells have the ability to undergo both hyperplasia and hypertrophy.
Examples of permanent cells that can and cannot repilicate DNA
Cannot replicate DNA:
1. Neurons
2. Sertoli cells
3. Cells of the ocular lens
4. Adipocytes

Can replicate DNA
1. Cardiac muscle
2. Striated skeletal muscle
3. Podocytes
Pigment that occurs over aged in cells
1. An increase number of cells due to mitosis

2. Occurs labile and/or stable cells capable of undergoing mitosis

3. Due to hormone and growth factors

4. Organs are larger and heavier

5. In physiological/pathological hyperplasia, removing stimulus stops hyperplasia and can possbily revert.
Thus, hyperplastic process is controlled whereas neoplastic process is uncontrolled
2 examples of physiological, pathological, and oral hyperplasia
1. Regeneration of hepatocytes due to GF after partial hepatectomy (known as COMPENSATORY HYPERPLASIA)
2. Regeneration of endometrial cells due to estrogen hormone in menstrual cycle

1. Overgrowth of endometrial cell due to estrogen secreting tumor
2. Overgrowth of granuloma tissue in pyogenic granuloma due to GF release in persistent irritation

Oral Pathology
1. EPULIS FISSURATUM - overgrowth of CT in response to irritation from ill fitting denture
2. Overgrowth in granulation tissue in prygenic granulomas due to GF in response to persistent irritation
Name an example where hypertrophy and hyperplasia occur
In the uterus during pregnancy allowing for ↑ in cell size and number of endometrial smooth muscle cells or with a gravis (infected) uterus
Hormonal vs. compensatory hyperplasia
1. Hormonal hyperplasia occurs in examples like ↑ in breast size during pregancy

2. Compensatory hyperplasia occurs in examples of endometrial shedding and is then rebuilt
What can cause endometrial hyperplasia?
Granulation tissue
1. Stimulus (like plaque) causes hyperplasia of endothelial cells

2. Tissue characterized as red tissue because of ↑ in vascularization
1. ↓ in MASS of functioning cells due to AUTOPHAGY (catabolism of self cellular proteins)
2. Organ is smaller and less heavy
3. May become irreversibly injured and die or revert after removal of stimulus
T/F: Atrophy is synonomous to hypoplasia and agenesis
FALSE: Atrophy is the reduction in cell mass. Hypoplasia is the reduction of cell number. Agenesis is the complete absence or failed development of a body part
Examples of physiological, pathological, and oral atrophy
Physiological (aka INVOLUTION)
1. Involution of thymus in young adulthood
2. Involution of breast following menapause and loss of ovarian hormones

1. Skeletal muscle atrophy due to motor nerve denervation-induced autophagy in spinal muscular atrophy
2. Celiac disease - atrophy in gluten-sensitive enteropathy due to immune-mediated apoptosis
3. Testicular atrophy due to hypopituitarinism, ischemia, or general malnourishment. Histologically, cells are farther apart and contain voids

1. Atrophy of endentulous alveolar ridge dur to loss of natural teeth and associated forced of mastication
T/F: Involution can be associated with celiac disease.
FALSE: Involution is a physiological means of atrophy, not pathological
Residual body
Autophagic vacuoles combine with lysosomes to become autophagolysosomes and then become residual bodies
1. Replacement of one cell type to another cell type.
3. Cells are LESS fragile but also LESS specialized
4. Potentially reversible with stimulus removal
Examples of Metaplasia
1. Repiratory Squamous Metaplasia - cells converted from columnar to more resistant and less specialized (no cilia and no mucus secretion) squamous epithelium; loss of protection

2. Squamous cell carcinoma - squamous metaplasia due to carcinogens in cigarettes

3. Barrett's Disease - columnar metaplasia of distal esophagus SSE due to GERD. May lead to cancer.

4. Sialolith - Salivary stone in salivary duct causing irritation and squamous metaplasia of salivary ductal epithelium
T/F: Squamous metaplasia of columnar epithelium means that squamous cells change to columnar cells.
FALSE: The "squamous" in squamous metaplasia means the end product. So columnar cells transition to squamous in squamous metaplasia.