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88 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
QUESTION: What 4 parts make up the male reproductive system?
ANSWER: testes, genital ducts, accessory glands, and penis
QUESTION: During embryonic development, how do the testes develop? (position)
ANSWER: retroperitoneally in the dorsal wall of the abdominal cavity
QUESTION: The testis descend through what canal?
ANSWER: Inguinal canal
QUESTION: The tests carry what embryological layer during their descent?
ANSWER: Double layer of mesothelium
QUESTION: The double layer of mesothelium of the testis has a potential space named what and derived from where?
ANSWER: Tunica vaginalis, derived from peritoneum
QUESTION: The tunica vaginalis consists of which 2 layers?
ANSWER: Outer parietal layer and an inner visceral layer
QUESTION: Approximately how much do the testis weigh?
ANSWER: 15-19 Grams
QUESTION: Which testis is usually heavier?
QUESTION: What are the 5 scrotal layers? (From outside to inside)
ANSWER: Skin, Dartos Muscle, Colles' fascia, External spermatic fascia, Parietal layer of tunica vaginalis
QUESTION: What is the primary role of the scrotum?
ANSWER: Temperature control
QUESTION: The testis "skeleton" contains what that divides it into how many lobules?
ANSWER: Fibrous septae dividing testis into 250 lobules
QUESTION: The testis "skeleton" is what kind of capsule?
QUESTION: What are the 3 layers of the testis capsule? (Outside to inside)
ANSWER: Tunica vaginalis, tunica albuginea, inner tunica vasculosa
QUESTION: The outer serosa of the testis is known as what?
ANSWER: Tunica vaginalis
QUESTION: The thick collagenous layer of the testis capsule is known as what?
ANSWER: Tunica albuginea
QUESTION: Each lobule of the testis contains what and how many?
ANSWER: 1-4 seminiferous tubules
QUESTION: The seminiferous tubules (or epithelium) contain which 2 kinds of cells?
ANSWER: Sertoli cells and germ cells
QUESTION: What function do the Sertoli cells serve?
ANSWER: Supporting function
QUESTION: What do the germ cells give rise to?
QUESTION: Describe the size and mitotic activity of the Sertoli cells?
ANSWER: Small and nondividing
QUESTION: Where are the Sertoli cells located within the seminiferous tubules?
ANSWER: Near basement membrane
QUESTION: Sertoli cells possess a prominent what within their nuclei?
ANSWER: Nucleolus
QUESTION: What are the 3 main functions of Sertoli cells?
ANSWER: Regulate spermatogenesis, regulate Leydig cells, secrete inhibin
QUESTION: Leydig cells are also known as what cells of the testis?
ANSWER: Interstitial cells
QUESTION: What is the significance of the Leydig cells?
ANSWER: They are the steroid-secreting cells of the testis (testosterone)
QUESTION: What is the main function of inhibin?
ANSWER: Inhibit production of FSH (Follicle-Stimulating Hormone)
QUESTION: Maturation of the germ cells takes about how many days?
QUESTION: The maturation of germ cells is continuous from what?
ANSWER: Puberty
QUESTION: The seminiferous tubules are lined by what histological cell type?
ANSWER: Stratified epithelium
QUESTION: What is the stratified epithelium of the seminiferous tubules called?
ANSWER: Germinal or seminiferous epithelium
QUESTION: The basement membrane of the seminiferous tubules is surrounded by what?
ANSWER: Fibroblasts and myofibroblasts
QUESTION: The interstitum of the seminiferous tubules contains which cells?
ANSWER: Leydig cells
QUESTION: The interstitium of seminiferous tubules contains what other material?
ANSWER: Reinke crystalloids
QUESTION: What is secreted by the interstitium?
ANSWER: Testosterone
QUESTION: What are Reinke crystalloids?
ANSWER: Crystallized proteins
QUESTION: What is the process by which spermatozoids are formed?
ANSWER: Spermatogenesis
QUESTION: What is phase 1 of spermatogenesis called?
ANSWER: Spermatocytogenesis
QUESTION: In phase 1 of spermatogenesis, what is produced via which cellular division?
ANSWER: Spermatocytes via mitotic division
QUESTION: In phase 2 of spermatogenesis, what is produced via which cellular division?
ANSWER: Spermatids via meiosis
QUESTION: Phase 2 of spermatogenesis involves how many divisions?
QUESTION: Phase 2 of spermatogenesis involves a (reduction/increase) of chromosomes by how much?
ANSWER: Reduction of chromosomes by 50%
QUESTION: What is stage 3 of spermatogenesis called?
ANSWER: Spermiogenesis
QUESTION: What is produced in phase 3 of spermatogenesis?
ANSWER: Spermatozoa
QUESTION: What type of phase is phase 3 of spermatogenesis?
ANSWER: Maturation phase
QUESTION: At puberty, what begins to divide many times to give rise to 2 types of cells?
ANSWER: Spermatogonia
QUESTION: Spermatogonia can become what types of cells?
ANSWER: Type A or type B Spermatogonia
QUESTION: Type A spermatogonia are which types of cells?
ANSWER: Stem cells
QUESTION: Type B cells differentiate into what types of cells?
ANSWER: Primary spermatocytes
QUESTION: Primary spermatocytes are also known as which cells?
ANSWER: Progenitor cells
QUESTION: Primary spermatocytes undergo how many meiotic divisions?
QUESTION: What types of cells are produced following the first division of primary spermatocytes?
ANSWER: Haploid secondary spermatocytes
QUESTION: What types of cells are produced following the second division of primary spermatocytes?
ANSWER: Spermatids
QUESTION: Haploid spermatids mature with the formation of which granule?
ANSWER: Acrosome
QUESTION: What happens to the nucleus of the haploid spermatids during spermiogenesis?
ANSWER: Condensation and elongation
QUESTION: What is developed on the spermatids during phase 3 of spermiogenesis?
ANSWER: Flagellum
QUESTION: There is loss of what in the spermatids during phase 3 of spermiogenesis?
ANSWER: Cytoplasm
QUESTION: In the last portion of stage 3 of spermiogenesis, mature spermatozoa are released into what?
ANSWER: Lumen of seminiferous tubule
QUESTION: Where does the pathway for sperm development begin?
ANSWER: Seminiferous tubules
QUESTION: The seminiferous tubules are directly connected to what?
ANSWER: Rete testis
QUESTION: The spermatozoa leave the rete testis through the head of short tubules known as what?
ANSWER: Efferent ductules
QUESTION: The efferent ductules are involved in what?
ANSWER: Fluid resorption
QUESTION: Following the efferent ductules, sperm enters which duct?
ANSWER: Epididymus
QUESTION: Following the epididymus, sperm enters which duct?
ANSWER: Vas deferens
QUESTION: The vas deferens meet with what?
ANSWER: Seminal vesicle
QUESTION: The meeting of the vas deferens with the seminal vecile ducts forms which ducts?
ANSWER: Paired ejaculatory ducts
QUESTION: The paired ejaculatory ducts join to form what?
ANSWER: Single duct
QUESTION: The single duct meets with and parallels what?
ANSWER: Urethra
QUESTION: Ejaculatory duct meets with urethra as it enters what?
ANSWER: prostate
QUESTION: What highly convoluted tubule divided into a head, body, and tail, is continuous with the ductus deferens?
ANSWER: Epididymus
QUESTION: The epididymus is involved in what (in terms of sperm)?
ANSWER: Sperm transport, maturation, acquisition of motility, concentration and storage
QUESTION: Describe the histology of the glans
ANSWER: Stratified squamous, nonkeratinized in uncircumsized, keratinized in circumsized
QUESTION: The corpus cavernosum of the urethra is also known as what?
ANSWER: Corpus spongiosum
QUESTION: Describe the tunica albuginea, shaft of penis, and urethra histologically.
ANSWER: Tunica albuginea - condensed fibroelastic tissue surrounding corpora, shaft - keratinized squamous - much smooth muscle; urethra - stratified ciliated columnar
QUESTION: What surrounds the prostatic urethra in the prostate?
ANSWER: Transitional zone (5%)
QUESTION: What surrounds the ejaculatory ducts in the prostate?
ANSWER: Central zone (20%)
QUESTION: What are the "cylinders" of the penis called?
ANSWER: Corpus spongiosum - venous sinuses; corpus cavernosum - vascular spaces
QUESTION: What meets with excretory ducts of seminal vesicles to form ejaculatory ducts?
Vas deferens
QUESTION: What type of cells line the vas deferens?
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium with stereocilia
QUESTION: Describe the wall of the vas deferens
Thick muscle wall - inner and outer longitudinal, middle circular
QUESTION: What is the utility of the wall of the vas deferens?
QUESTION: Where are the seminal vesicles located?
Posterolateral to bladder base
QUESTION: Describe the cells of the sminal vesicles
Complex folded epithelium with pseudostratified columnar cells with foamy cytoplasm
QUESTION: What kind of wall do the seminal vesicles contain?
QUESTION: What are in the secretions of the seminal vesicles?
Fructose; PGs
QUESTION: The seminal vesicles contribute to what part of the seminal fluid?
What is the main part of the prostage?
Peripheral zone
Describe the prostate.
Fibromuscular stroma with glands with 2 layers of epithelium (inner secretory, outer flattened basal)
What do the prostatic secretions contain?
Hydrolytic enzymes which liquify coagulated semen in female genital tract