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41 Cards in this Set

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QUESTION: What type of connective tissue is Cartilage?
ANSWER:

- Rigid but uncalcified matrix
- avascular
QUESTION:

How does Cartilage follow the model of other connective tissues?
ANSWER:

- has cells lying in an intercellular matrix (fibers + ground substance)
QUESTION:

What are the cells in the intercellular matrix, and what are the matrix fibers?
ANSWER:

The cell types are chondroblasts and chondrocytes.

The matrix fibers are type I collagen, type II collagen and elastic fibers
QUESTION:

What is the ground substance made up of?
ANSWER:

Proteoglycans and adhesive glycoproteins, chondronectin is the most important
QUESTION:

What are the 3 types of Cartilage?
ANSWER:

Hyaline - most prevalent *
Elastic
Fibrocartilage
QUESTION:

What are the 3 locations where Hyaline cartilage can be found?
ANSWER:

1- respiratory conducting passageways
2- tissue that makes up prenatal long bones
3- covers epiphyses of adult long bones
QUESTION:

What are the corresponding functions of Hyaline cartilage?
ANSWER:

To maintain the patency of respiratory conducting passageways, permit growth of fetal skeleton, provide a model for developing long bones, to provide a smooth surface on articular surfaces
QUESTION:

What does cartilage arise from?
ANSWER:

mesenchyme
QUESTION:

Describe the process of cartilage development
ANSWER:

mesenchymal cells divide - become closely packed, spherical chondroblasts. They secrete cartilage matrix. Chondrocytes are chondroblasts surrounded by cartilage matrix. They continue secreting matrix and are pushed apart.
QUESTION:

Where are chondrocytes located in the cartilage?
ANSWER:

lacunae, which are small cavities within the matrix
QUESTION:

In Interstitial (endogenous) growth, what happens in young cartilage?
ANSWER:

-chondrocytes retain their mitotic potential and continue to divide
- each dividing cell produces a small group of cells close to one another
QUESTION:

What are isologous or isogenous groups (or nests)?
ANSWER:

Small groups of chondrocytes arising from the proliferation of a single parent cell
QUESTION:

What does the mesenchyme surounding developing cartilage become?
ANSWER:

its perichondrium
QUESTION:

What is perichondrium?
ANSWER:

A layer of vascular fibrous connective tissue surrounding fragments of cartilage, provides nutritional needs by diffusion
QUESTION:

What does the inner layer of perichondrium contain?
ANSWER:

chondroblasts which are chondroprogenitor cells
QUESTION:

What happens in Appositional growth?
ANSWER:

Chondroprogenitor cells divide and become chondrocytes, subperichondrial cartilage is deposited on the surface of the cartilage.
QUESTION:

What is the shape of young chondrocytes?

What is the shape of older chondrocytes?
ANSWER:

Young- near the surface of cartilage, relatively flat (ellpitical).

Older- more spherical, they are in lacunae within cartilage matrix
QUESTION:

What happens to living chondrocytes during tissue preparation? What happens?
ANSWER:

-They completely fill the lacunae but shrink during tissue preparation

- space forms between chondrocyte and cartilage immediately around lacunae
QUESTION:

Characteristics of active chondrocytes?
ANSWER:

- large, spherical, vesicular nuclei

- synthesize hyaline cartilage matrix
Why is hyaline cartilage matrix BASOPHILIC?
because of its type II collagen fibers and heavily sulfated ground substance
Collagen is almost _____ of the dry weight of cartilage.
half
Compared to Type I collagen, what does Type II collagen contain more of?
Hydroxylysine (which is basophilic)
Chondroitin sulfate is ______, so it is basophilic.
Acidic
Why is the capsule (territorial matrix) bordering the lacunae intensely basophilic?
It is RICHER in glycosaminoglycans and POORER in collagen than the interterritorial matrix
What gives the matrix its rigidity?
Proteoglycan aggregates:
- hyaluronic acid chains link core proteins of many proteoglycan monomers
- chondroitin sulfate side chains bind to collagen
How do the large aggregate (or aggrecan) molecules attract water molecules?
they create negative charges that attract the cation, sodium, and water is attracted. The heavily hydrated matrix resists compression
How much of the wet weight of cartilage is water?
80%
What are the effects of the avascularity of cartilage matrix?
Its vitality depends on diffusion of nutrients from surrounding tissues, limiting the size of some chondroid structures.
What are the properties of Elastic cartilage?
Contains both elastic and collagen fibers
What is the function of elastic cartilage?
Provides support coupled with flexibility and elasticity.
Locations of elastic cartilage?
External ear, auditory tube, epliglottis, some laryngeal cartilages
What else does the cartilage matrix contain?
- adhesive glycoproteins
- chondronectins (link cells to collagen
- glycosaminoglycans
How does elastic cartilage look in its fresh condition?
Yellow
Describe the staining properties of the elastic fibers
resorcin fushsin- intensely purple

Verhoeff hematoxylin- black
orcein- red/brown
Does Fibrocartilage exist independently? What does it lack?
No, it does not exist independently- lacks a perichondrium.
What are the features of Fibrocartilage?
Has features of both hyaline cartilage and dense fibrous connective tissue, may blend into adjacent tissues
How does the matrix of Fibrocartilage stain, and why?

How are the chondrocytes oriented?
Slightly eosinophilic (because of type I collagen content)

There are rows of chondrocytes in lacunae.
Describe the type I collagen fibers; what are they similar to?
Type I collagen fibers are in dense bundles, similar to those in dense fibrous connective tissue
Function of fibrocartilage?
strong support, tensile strength
Where can you find fibrocartilage?
- Intervertebral discs
- Intra-articular discs
- attachments of tendons and ligaments to bone
- symphysis pubica
Where is fibrocartilage best visualized- what structure is formed here?
Intervertebral discs, it forms the annulus fibrosus which surrounds the gelatinous nucleus pulposus (in concentric layers, blends into adjacent hyaline cartilage)