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12 Cards in this Set

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What percentage o Americans smoke and how many smoking-related deaths are there each yr? What are some reasons people smoke?
25% smoke and 400,000 smoking deaths/yr
Pleasurable, weight/appetite control, helps concentrate, relieves stress
What aspect of nicotine delivery explain why it is as addictive as heroin and cocaine?
nicotine is smoked from burning tobacco, gets into lung, and goes directly to BRAIN in only seconds, reinforcing its addictive quality
Nicotine..what type of receptors does it bind to and where? what is relased? What is the positive and negative reinforcing effects?
binds to nicotinic ACHrs in the Nuc Accum...leading to DOPA release..pleasure = (+) reinforcement...avoidance of withdrawal = (-) reinforcement
What is the best non-pharmacologic thing a physician can do to encourage quitting?
TALK TO PATIENT about quitting...very simple
You know you are addicted if...
1.) you smoke a cigarette within 30 mins of waking- to avoid withdrawal symptoms
Pharmacologic nicotine treatments...which one is very popular w/ little side effects? which one eacts quickest where you cna feel the effects right away? What is buproprion? Efficacious compared to nicotine patch? Future quitting pharma?
Transdermal Nicotine Patch
Nicotine Nasal Spray
Buproprion is an anti-depressant used to quit smoking..more efficacious than the patch.
Nicotine vaccine- block rewarding properties, but could lead to increased smoking
What are the risk factors fro using drugs during pregnancy?
What drug is incredibly bad during pregnancy and leads to most complications?
being unmarried
being young (18-30)
having less than a HS educat
substance abuse by partner
fam violence
COCAINE
Neonatal withdrawal? what percentaged exposed have symptoms? what drug causes worst? Neonatal exposure to cocaine causes? nicotine?
60-90% of exposed
OPIATES are worst
Cocaine- dysfunctions in D1 signaling- problems with attention and stimulus processing in frontocingulate cortex
nicotine- catecholamine and cholinergic systems are messed up
Fetal alcohol syndrome results in?
growth retardation, craniofacial abnormalities w/ short nose and flat face, CNS dysfunction
Nicotine in adolescents.. learn from rats and implications for advertisers?
adolescents (rats) self-administer 2X the amount of drug as adults... get em hooked early and they will buy more!
What is one risk genetic factor for having a substance abuse disorder? envi factor
being a child of a substance abuser... 4-7X mroe likely
Early age of first us
What is the theory behind universal preimary prevention programs (i.e. Adevertisements on TV)?
If you increase the risk perception, you decrease the use!