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24 Cards in this Set

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Platyhelminthes
Phylum: planaria, flukes, tapeworms
Cnidaria
Phylum: sea anemones, corals, jellyfish, hydras
Porifera
Phylum: sponges
Hydrozoa
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: "Hydra"

-Both polyps & medusa stage
Scyphozoa
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: "True Jellyfish"

-Primarily medusa form
Anthozoa
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: "Sea anemones, corals"

-Primarily polyp form
Medusa
A jellyfish-like animal; a free-swimming, umbrella-shaped stage in the life cycle of certain cnidarians. Compare with "polyp."
Polyp
A hydra-like animal; the sessile stage of the life cycle of certain cnidarians. Compare with "medusa."
Calcarea
Phylum: Porifera "Sponges"
-CaCO3 spicules
-radial symmetry
Demospongiae
Phylum: Porifera "Sponges"
-largest class
SiO2 spicules, spongin
Hexcinellida
Phylum: Porifera "Sponges"
-SiO2 spicules
Cephalization
The evolution of a head; the concentration of nervous tissue and sense organs at the front end of the animal.
Hyperosmotic
High concentration of solutes.
Hypoosmotic
Low concentration of solutes.
Isoosmotic
Concentration of water and solutes are equal.
Kingdom Animalia General Characteristics
- Eukaryotic, multicellular, hetertrophs with differntiated cells
- Most cells organized into tissues, tissues into organs, and organ systems that do special functions
- Most have well-developed nervous system and respond adaptively to changes in their environment.
- Most are capable of locomotion during some time in their life cycle
- Most are diplod and reproduce sexually; a flagellate haploid sperm unites with a large, nonmotile haploid egg forming a diploid zygote that undergoes cleavage.
Phylum Porifera General Characteristics
- "Sponges"
- Mainly marine; solitary or colonial
- Body bears many pores thru which water circulates
- Food is filtered from the water by collar cells (choanocytes)
- Asexual reproduction by budding
- Sexual reproduction in which sperm are released and swim to internal egg
- About 10,000 spp.
Phylum Cnidaria General Characteristics
- "Hydras, jellyfish, sea anemones, corals"
- marine, with a few freshwater spp.
- solitary or colonial
- polyp & medusa forms
- radial symmetry
- tentacles surrounding mouth
- stinging cells (cnidocytes) containing stinging structures called neamtocysts (Gr: "cyst" = bladder, pouch).
- Planula larva
- ~10,000 spp.
Protostomes
- Coelomates (have true coelom, a body cavity completely lined with mesoderm)
- Spiral, determinate cleavage
- mouth typically develops from the blastopore
Deuterostomes
- Coelomates with radial, indeterminate cleavage.
- Blastopore develops into anus and mouth forms from a 2nd opening.
Phylum Platyhelminthes General Characteristics
- "Flatworms"
- acoelomate (no body cavity); region between body wall and internal organs filled with tissue
- plnarians are free-living; flukes and tapeworms are parasitic
- body dorsoventrally flattened
- cephalization
- three tissue layers
- simple nervous system with ganglia in head region
- excretory organs are protonephridia with flame cells
- ~20,000 spp.
Phylum Mollusca General Characteristics
- "Snails, clams, squids, octopods"
- Unsegmented, soft-bodied animals usually covered by a dorsal shell
- Have a ventral, muscular foot
- Most organs lcoated above foot in visceral mass
- a shell-secreting mantle covers the visceral mass and forms a mantle cavity, which contains gills
- trochopore and/or veliger larva
- ~50,000 spp.
Phylum Annelida General Characteristics *(not on 1st test)
- "Segmented worms: polychaetes, earthworms, leeches"
- Both body wall and internal organs are segmented.
- body segments eparated by septa
- some have nonjointed appendages.
- setae used in locomotion
- closed circulatory system;
- metanephridia
- specialized regions of digestive tract
- trochopore larva
- ~15,000 spp.
Phylum Nematoda General Characteristics
- part of clade defined by ecdysis (molting)
- "roundworms"
- slender, elongated, cylindrical worms
- covered with cuticle
- characterized by pseudocoelom (body cavity not completely lined with mesoderm)
- free-living and parasitic forms
- ~15,000 spp.