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57 Cards in this Set

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Salmonella
Poultry, milk, water, beef, pork, lamb, eggs, mayonnaise
Clostridium botulinum
Fish and canned foods
Trichinella spiralis
Pork and raw meat
Hepatitus A
Shellfish, improperly handled food and water
Campylobacter jejuni or E. coli
Beef, pork, lamb, poultry, milk, water
Literia monocytogenes
Milk, cheese, other dairy products; lamb, poultry, vegetable or fruit salad, water
Vibrio cholerae or other Vibrio
Shellfish, raw or uncooked fish and water
Staphulococcus aureus
Egg salad, fish salad, meat salad, reheated leftovers, stews, homemade soups, milk and improperly handled foods
How many people hunger affects:
850 mill. worldwide; 30 mill. in U.S.
Main causes of hunger:
Poverty,
gender and racial discrimination,
environmental degradation/population issues,
militarism
Effects associated with food poverty
Unsafe water, malnutrition, stunting, LBW, illiteracy, inc birth and death rates, dec lifespan
Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM)
Undernutrition caused by extremely deficient intake of kcals and/or protein
Acute PEM
Severe food restriction; seen in children by thinness for height
Chronic PEM
Long-term food deprivation; seen in children by short height for age
Diseases related to PEM
Marasmus, Kwashiorkor
Iodine deficiency
1 billion at risk: goiter, cretinism
Vitamin A deficiency
100 million, number 1 cause of childhood blindness, many die within months of going blind
Iron deficiency
Anemia
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
UN definition of a hungry nation. Number of deaths during first year of life per 1000 live births; >50= hunger.
Why is IMR good indicator of hunger?
Well fed women have healthier babies, well fed babies are bigger/healthier, women/children have low priority for scarce food
3 Categories of Energy expenditure
BMR, physical activity, thermic effect of food
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
Activities of heart, muscle tone, synthesis, breathing, brain function,
2/3 of energy expend
Greater in men
Decreases with age
Physical Activity (amnt of energy expend)
1/3 of energy expenditure
Thermic Effect of Food (TEF)
Metabolic cost of digestion/abs
5-10% of energy expenditure
Internal (genetic) factors of overweight/obesity
Body type/shape,
Leptin levels influence apetite,
Lipoprotein lipase (Higher levels may promote fat uptake from blood into adipose tissue)
External factors of overweight/obesity
Readily available high energy foods,
Inc portion sizes,
Lack of PA,
Emotional eating
To lose weight:
Dec kcal intake; inc PA,
1-2 lbs/week recommended,
3,500 kcal deficit = 1 lb fat loss
If lose weight too quickly:
Very low kcal diet leads to loss of LBM for first 2 weeks,
Dec BMR, works against wt loss,
Feel deenergized,
Wt loss quickly regained (No change in lifestyle habits to keep wt off)
PA guidelines for obtaining health benefits
Frequency: every day
Intensity: at any level
Duration: 30 min total (60 kids)
Mode: any activity
PA guidelines for obtaining fitness
Frequency: 5+ days/week
Intensity: 50-90% max heart rate
Duration: 20-60 min continuous
Mode: Use large muscle groups. Include resistance act.
Benefits of Physical Activity
Improved mental outlook,
Stress reliever,
Social interaction,
Sound sleep/ energized,
Improved self-image
Dec body fat, inc LBM
Dec risk CVD
Dec risk certain cancers, osteoperosis
4 Fitness components
Flexibility
Strength
Muscle endurance
CV endurance
CV endurance
Inc heart rate,
>20 min
Use most of large muscle groups
Anaerobic endurance
Develop muscle strength/bulk
Sudden, all out exertion
<90 sec
Develops lean tissue
To postpone exhaustion
Maintain blood glucose
Eat high CHO diet regularly
Take glucose during endurance event
Eat CHO rich foods after performance
Train muscles to maximize glycogen stores - CHO loading
Fatty acids to fuel PA
Only in aerobic metab
Duration matters - >20 min
Degree of training
Protein (in relation to physical activity; reqt for sedentary and athlete)
Provides for synthesis of new muscle protein,
1/4-1 oz pro/day - active muscles building phases,
.8 g/kg (sed), 1-1.5 g/kg (athlete)
Fluid needs for physical activity
Need for water surpasses all other nutrients,
dehydration -> fatigue
Food safety
Vast majority of food bourne illness caused by bacteria,
Food irritation to destroy microbes does not make food radioactive
To reduce risk of food bourne illness
Keep food out of danger zone,
Wash hands,
Cook food thoroughly,
Refrigerate leftovers quickly,
Avoid cross contamination
Food temperature danger zone
40-140 F
Kcal increase during pregnancy
80,000 additional for term pregnancy; +300 kcal/day in 2nd & 3rd trimesters
Pro increase during pregnancy
Additional 25 g/day
Importance of calcium during pregnancy
Skeletal tissue,
limited intake will affect maternal bones
Importance of iron during pregnancy
Fetus builds iron stores to last for 4 months after birth
Lack of iron = maternal anemia
Importance of folic acid during pregnancy
Prevents neural tube defects in fetus, spina bifida.
Folic acid recommendations during pregnancy
400 ug/day,
Supplements recommended,
Food fortification (grains)
Prenatal malnutrition
Small for Gestational Age (SGA)- less than 5.5 lbs
Also called Low Birth Weight (LBW)- inc risk infant mortality
Maternal assessment
Wt gain = 25-35 lbs
Iron status
History: medical and social
Nutritional problems in pregnancy
Anemia (Fe)
Nausea, vomiting "morning sickness"
Constipation (fiber, H2O, exercise)
Pica
Pica
Disease when pregnant women crave non-food sources, such as dirt or laundry detergent
Infant nutrition
Breastmilk for at least one year; exclusively for 6 months
Nutrition concerns in infancy
Failure-to-Thrive
Iron-deficiency anemia
Baby Bottle Tooth Decay
Food allergies
Lead poisoning
Adolescent nutrition
Eating heavily influenced by peers and social environment
Dec nutrient density, PA
Elderly nutrition
Fastest growing age group,
RDA => 51-70yrs, >70 yrs
Dec intake calories,
Energy needs dec in response to dec in PA, BMR, LBM
Reasons for dec intake in elderly
Taste/smell perception dec
*Social interaction "tea & toast"
Dental problems
*Economic problems
Depression
Meds
Two important aspects of elderly nutrition
Nutrient dense diet,
Exercise