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75 Cards in this Set

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Nutrient
A substance obtained from food and used in the body to promote growth, maintenance, and/or repair.
Essential Nutrient
Those nutrients that the body cannot make for itself in sufficient quantity to meet physiological need, and which must therefore be obtained from food.
Primary Nutrient Deficiency
A nutrient deficiency caused by inadequate dietary intake of a nutrient.
Secondary Nutrient Deficiency
Caused by something other than diet, such as disease that decreases absorption or increases excretion.
Nutrient Dense
Foods that are the most nutritious for the amount of energy they supply.
“Good Source”
10-19% of any nutrient.
“Excellent Source”
>20% of any nutrient.
GI Tract
Gastrointestinal Tract; Digestive tract.
Digestion
The process by which food is broken down into a form that can be absorbed in the intestine.
Small Intestinal Tract
Tube almost 10 feet long.
Absorption
As food enters the tube, considered “outside” the body until it enters the bloodstream, then considered “inside” your body.
3 Main functions of nutrients
1. Provide energy (calories)
2. Structure (calcuim)
3. Regulatory (fluid balance)
What are 5 components of a nutritious diet?
1. Adequacy
2. Balance
3. Calorie Control
4. Moderation
5. Variety
6 classes of nutrients:
1. Carbohydrates
2. Fat
3. Protein
4. Vitamins
5. Minerals
6. Water
3 classes of macronutrients:
1. Carbohydrates
2. Fat
3. Protein
2 classes of micronutrients:
Vitamins and minerals
Organic nutrients v. Inorganic nutrients
Organic = carbon containing:
1. Carbs
2. Fats
3. Proteins
4. Vitamins

Inorganic = no carbon:
1. Minerals
2. Water
Energy content of Carbohydrates, Fats, Proteins, Alcohol
Carbs: 4 cal/g
Fats: 9 cal/g
Protein: 4 cal/g
Alcohol: 7 cal/g
2 Types of digestion:
1. Mechanical
2. Chemical
Calories:
A measure of energy in foods.
Digestive Tract muscles
Cicular muscles: squeezing motion
Longitudinal muscles: contract lenghtwise
Combine to perform peristalsis
Peristalsis
Wave-like contractions that moves digestive material downwards
Mouth
Chewing and saliva provide moisture, lubrication, and amylase.
Esophagus
Short passageway from mouth to stomach.
Stomach
Cardiac sphincter opens and closes to let materials through; additional muscles knead food to break it down; glands secrete digestive enzymes; mechanical digestion occurs, little absorption
Chyme
Acidic, liquified for enterin uppermost part of the SI (duodenum)
Small Intestine
Major digestive action/absorption; chyme passes through pyloric sphincter; pancreatic, liver, and gallbladder secretions by way of the bile duct.
Pancreas
Makes/secretes sodium bicarbonate which neutralizes acid chyme, and also secretes proteases, lipases, and amylases.
Liver
Makes/secretes bile
Bile
Emulsifier that divides fat into very small particles and suspends them into a water-based fluid.
Products of digestion of Starch, protein, and fat
Starch: Glucose and other simple sugars
Protein: Amino Acids
Fat: Fatty acids and monoglycerides
Colon (Large Intestine)
Absorbs excess water and electrolytes from digestive material and stores feces in that form. Bacterial presence to change bile pigments, impart odor, sythesis of vitamin K, and produce gas.
Distention reduced by:

And can lead to:
Lack of fiber, dehydration

Constipation; increased transit time
Diarrhea caused by:
Decreased transit time; underabsorption of water.
Digestible Carbs
Simple sugars and complex carbs (starch and glycogen); we have the proper enzymes to break sugar links.
Indigestible Carbs
Dietary Fibers (Cellulose); must be digested by bacteria.
Monosaccharides
Simple sugars:
-Fructose
-Glucose
-Galactose
Disaccharides
Condensation of two monosaccharides:
-Sucrose
-Fructose
-Lactose
Sucrose
Frutose+Glucose
Maltose
Glucose+Glucose
Lactose
Glucose+Galactose
Polysaccharides
Complex carbs: starch, fiber, glycogen
Starch
Polysaccharide made by plants: vegetables, grain, unripe fruit
Glycogen
Animal starch; NOT in plants or food. Storage form of carbs in the body (liver, muscles)
Fiber
Indigestable polysac. found in plants ONLY; structural material in plants, no kCal value.
Insoluable Fiber (Types, Sources, GI, Health)
Types: cellulose, some hemicellulose, lignin
Sources: grains, vegetables, prunes, peanuts, bran
GI: bulks with water in intestine, tones, speeds passage of waste
Health: relieves constipation, decreases hemorrhoids, decreases risk colon cancer
Water-Soluable Fiber (Types, Sources, GI, Health)
Viscous Gel
Types: gums, pectins, some hemicellulose
Sources: fruit, oats, beans
GI: gel-like substance binds cholesterol and bile which is excreted in stool.
Health: lowers blood cholesterol, decreases risk of cardiovascular disease.
Functions of CHOs
Glucose preferred energy source for brain, CNS, and red blood cells;
glucose spares protein from being burned for energy;
glucose needed for fat oxidation;
Ketosis
State of presence of keytone bodies; occurs with limited carbohydrate intake.
Enzymes found in the mouth
Salivary amylase, ligual lipase
Enzymes found in the stomach
Gastric lipase, pepsin (protease)
Enzymes found in the small intestine
Pancreatic amylase, pancreatic lipase, tripsin, peptides;
maltase, sucrase, lactase.
Insulin
Hormone excreted by pancreas to help glucose get to cells and lower blood glucose levels.
Glucagon
Hormone that tells the liver that glucose is needed in the bloodstream = raises blood glucose levels.
Mypyramid.gov
Calories
2200
Mypyramid.gov
Grains
7 oz.
Mypyramid.gov
Vegetables
3 cups
Mypyramid.gov
Fruits
2 cups
Mypyramid.gov
Milk
3 cups
Mypyramid.gov
Meat & Beans
6 oz.
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)
The average daily nutrient intake levels that meet the needs of nearly all healthy people of a particular age and gender.
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL)
The highest average daily nutrient intake level that is likely to pose no risk of toxicity to almost all healthy individuals of particular age and gender.
Estimated Average Requirements (EAR)
The average daily nutrient intake estimated to meet the requirement of half of the healthy individuals of a particular age and gender; used in nutrition research and policymaking and is tha basis upon which the RDA values are set.
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)
A set of four lists of nutrient intake values for healthy people in the US and Canada: RDA, AI, UL, EAR.
Adequate Intakes (AI)
Nutrient intake goals for individuals; the recommended average daily nutrient intake level based on intakes of healthy people and assumed to be adequate.
Percent diet from carbohydrates
45-65
Percent diet from fat
20-35
Percent diet from protein
10-35
Epidemiological study
Looking at many people
Case study
Looking at one person
Labratory study
Often uses rats or lab animals
Intervention study
Uses humans as subjects
Pyloric sphincter (duodenum)
Between stomach and first part of small intestine
Cardiac sphincter
Connects stomach to esophagus
Bile
Contains cholesterol; made in pancreas, stored in gallbladder; emulsifies fats and oils to ready them for enzymatic digestion.