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52 Cards in this Set

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What are the three types of monosaccharides and their examples?
Glucose = bl. sugar
Fructose = fruit sugar, honey
Galactose = milk sugar
GFG
What are the three types of disaccharides?
Sucrose
Lactose
Maltose
SLM
What is sucrose made of and give an example?
Glu + Fru
table sugar
Lactose is made of?
Glu + Gal
What is maltose made of and give an example?
Glu + Glu
Germinating grain
Sprouting seeds
digestion of starch
Lactose intelerance
1.undigested
2.unabsorbed
3.metabolized by bacteira
4.Decrease in lactase
Hish in Asians
Complex carbs such as starch or glucose is a large group of units called?
polysaccharide
thousands
Carbohydrate storage in plant and is digestible?
starch
potato
Form of plant stroage that is is strait chain gel?
amylose
Plant CHO storage that is a highly branched thickener?
amylopectin
An example of a dietary loluble fiber is?
oat brand
What is an example of a ingestible insoluble fiber?
wheat brand
Cellulose, hemicelulose, liginin, fruit, veggies, wheat bran, whole brains are examples of which fiber?
insoluble fiber
Gums, pectin, psyllium, beta-glucans, furit, veg, oat bran, and processed food are examples of which fiber?
soluble fiber
An exmaple of pectin is?
1. jams and jellys
2. soluble fiber inside an apple
An other name for oat brand is?
beta-glucans
An example of a psyllium?
Plantain seeds
Give some exmaples of soluble fiber gums.
carrageenan, Xanthan, guar, cellulose, alginates
Characteristics of cellulose?
1. entire glucose units
2. backbone of plane
3. insoluble fiber
Whole grains?
1. insoluble fiber
2. have bran, germ, endosperm
3. recomended 3 servings
4. phytochemicals
Bran?
outside layer
gives us fiber
germ?
v,m, good fat on one end
Endosperm
starch and protein
refined wheat fluor
Give an example of a refined grain.
refined wheat flour (endosperm)
enriched flour
ketosis
ion imbalance (pH damage)
dehydration
coma
death
large concentraton of ketone (fat) bodies in bl. stream
Ketone bodies
incomlete breakdown of fat
satiety
fullness
Dextrose is also glucose
glucose
Salivary amylase
1. breaks down starch in to dextrins and maltose
2. in mouth tastes sweeter
pancreatic amylase
Intestional enzymes
1. maltase, sucease, lactase
what is the sum of all chemcal processes in the boyd that provide energy and maintains vital processes
metabolism
anabolic
building uses energy
Synthesis
catabolic
breaking down releasing energy
fromaiton of compound from simpleler elements
Synthesis
sequence of reactions
Pathway
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
energy molecule
Glycolysis
1. cytosol of the cell
2. one glucose = 2 pryuvate
3. anaerobic pathway (no O2)
4. specific carb pathway
5. produces 2 net ATP
this molecule is used for Acetly-CoA and Lactic acid cycle (cori)
Pyruvate
Steps of the breakdown of Acetyl-CoA
1. Pruvate is broken down into Acetyl CoA
2. 3->2 carbons (losses 1)
3. requires thiamin, riboflavin (FAD), niacin (NAD)
cytic acid cycle
acetyl CoA enter cycle
Niacin and riboflavin
aerobic pathway
Electron transport chain
primary site of ATP synthesis
aerobic pathway
procuces ATP, co2, H2O
32 ATP from one glucose
Gluconeogensis
making glucose form AA and other compunds
prevents ketosis
NADH
End result of glycolysis
reduced form of NAD
used to make ATP in mitochondria
stores chemical energy
synthesis 2.5 ATP
FADH
synthesis 1.5 ATP
needed for ATP synthesis and ETC
sugar alcohols
sorbital, mannital, xylitol, isomalt
Aspartame
protein
amino acids: phenylalanine + aspartic acid
4 kcals/g
200xsweeter
not heat stable
phenylkentonuria - PKU (can not metabolize phenylalanine)
Saccharin
oldest
no kcals
heat stable
200x sweeter (ex sweet and low)
Acesulfame-K
no kcals
200x sweeter
heat stable
sucralose
sllenda
sucrose and chlorine
no kcals (b/c no absorbtion)
heat stable
600x sweeter
Neotame
13,000x sugar (sweetest)
Glycemic index
blood glucose responce to a given food compared to a standard
influenced by the amount of starch, fiver, processing, and other macronutrients
Glycemic load
amount of cab in food multiplied by the GI of that food
better reflection of foods effect on blood glucose level