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66 Cards in this Set

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Counseling
A process that assists people in learning about themselves, their environment and the methods of handling their roles and relationships
Non-directive counseling
-"client-centered"
-Humans are rational socialized, and realistic
-"supportive not reconstructive"
Counselor characteristics with regards to non-directive counseling
-Acceptance
-Congruence
-Understanding
-The ability to communicate acceptance, congruence, and understanding to the client
Transtheoretical Model (Stages of Change model)
Identifies stages of change that individuals pass through before actualizing a change
Motivational Interviewing
An approach designed to "help clients build commitment and reach a decision to change
Termination
Changes maintained for 5 years
*last stage of stages of change model
Suggestions for Precontemplation
-Provide additional information at this stage
-Pros need to outweigh the cons
Suggestions for Contemplation
-Cognitive and effectiive self reevaluation
-Raising self awarenessS
Important for Preparation
-Self liberation
-Behavioral goals
Important in Action and Maintanence
-Behavior techniques of stimulus control
-Reinforcement management
-Self-monitoring
-Recipe modification
-Social support of significant others
-Coping responses for relapse
Motivational interviewing
-Works well with people reluctant to change
-Change must come from within rather thsan from without
*"Short term gratification at the expense of long term harm"
Principles of motivational interviewing
-Express empathy
-Develop discrepancy
-Avoid arguments
-Roll with resistance
-Support self efficacy
Deepest form of reflection
To reflect feelings in a paraphrase that searches for the client's emotions behind the statement
Reflective listening
-A way of checking the meaning rather than assuming
-A guess/hypothesis is made
FRAMES
-Feedback = relevant health info is given by the counselor
-Responsibility = personal responsibility for changes is emphasized
-Advice = Must be clear
-Menu = Can be given with advice that has a variety of alternative ways that changes could be accomplished
-Empathy = This is emphasized and expressed
-Self-efficacy = Reinforce positive thoughts and reinforce the ability to succeed
Benefit of goal setting
It motivates because goals set a standard against which the client can compare a current with a new behavior
*goals should be --> clearly stated, reasonable, and attainable
Directive counseling
Used to discuss unsatisfactory job performance (manager-employee relationship)
Guidelines for directive counseling
-Involving stage = Aim is to improve the staff members performance (keep remarks performance centered)
-Exploring stage = focuses on objective facts and clarifying issues
-Resolving stage = employee states their side of the story and the manager paraphrases
-Concluding stage = figure out consequences if changes are not made
Nutrition Counseling
A supportive process, characterized by a collaborative couselor-patient relationship, in which to set priorities, establish goals, and create individualized action plans that acknowledge and foster responsibility for self-care to treat an existing condition and promote health
Patient-Centered Counseling objectives
-Increase the awareness of diet related risks
-Provide nutrition knowledge
-Increase confidence to make dietary changes
-Enhance skills to promote long term intake
Four steps of Patient-Centered counseling
-Assess = Asking the client questions
-Advise = Should be personalized and validate what the client is stating
-Assist = Dietitian provides nutrition info, corrects misunderstandings, addresses and validates feelings, and provides support
-Follow-up = Evaluate and monitor progress
Nutrition intervention has
-Goal setting = listening, accepting, clarifying, and helping clients find solutions to develop their own plan of action
-Goal identification = Goal should be specific, measurable, attainable, reasonable, and timely
***goals that are short term and challenging but attainable with effort are likely to be motivating and self satisfying
-Goal importance = Find out how important it is to attain the goal
-Goal analysis = Figure out the impact of physical, cultural, social, and cognitive environments will affect goals
-Goal implementation = Patients should summarize their plans to check understanding and commitment
JCAHO
Sets standars that are required to address quality-of-care issues in the health care environment
Studies on Stage of Change Counseling
-Significant change was only seen in the action stage
-Pathways to change approach did better in moving the action stage of better self-care, self-glucose monitoring, selecting low fat foods, and stopping smoking
Multicultural nutrition model factors
-Multicultural awareness = dietitian needs to become aware with their own culture and determine if it is dominant or not
-Food and nutrition counseling knowledge = find out about other cultures by going to houses of worship,ethnic food stores, etc.
-Nutrition counseling skills = One's ability to handle culturally appropriate interventions
Pre-School Aged children
-Family and cultural factors have major influences on food
-Television and media also have influences
-Dietary behaviors are learned away from home for many kids
-30% cal from fat (less than 10% from sat. fat)
-Determine quantity and frequency of eating patterns (diet histories may take longer at this age)
Goals of nutrition education in school aged children (6-12 yrs)
-Cognitive learning (children learn how to select a healthful diet)
-Interventions which focus on specific behavior changes results in more effective changes than a general nutrition education approach
-Dietitians can collaborate with after school member, athletic department, etc.to educate children
School aged children
-Family, culture, and the body's physical composition greatly influence what is eaten
-Watched more TV and had fewer family meals = more overweight
-Can become a "couch potato"
-Need a healthy and quick breakfast
-Experiments with new foods
-Visual aids
-Technology and internet for learning
Adolescents
-Cognitive behavioral therapy
-High caloric intake for girls who recently began menstruation and became pregnant
-Male atheletes
-Female vegetarians
Elderly
-Over 85 and older are more likely to be in nursing home --> limited function can lead to malnutrition
Limited literacy
-Hand paper to person upside-down
-Get them to read a word
-Have them interact
-"might say they forgot their glasses"
-Avoid words such as "blood glucose" or "dietary cholesterol"
-Sentences should be less than 15 words and use 1 to 2 syllable words
What helps learning?
-Continuous reinforcement after every correct response (seen in the early part of behavior)
-Variable or intermittent schedule of reinforcement is preferable (Seen later on)
Social cognitive theory
-Uses modeling to show the outcomes of positive and negative behaviors
-Shaping can also be used when one may be given positive reinforcement for the correct portion and then assisted for the rest
The cognitive view...
Sees learning as an active internal mental process of acquiring, remembering, and using knowledge rather than a passive process influenced by the external environment stimuli of behaviorists
***What the person already knows has a major influence on further learning
When does info enter working memory?
As a person attends to something and thinks about it
Long term memory
A person organizes working memory and integrates it with info already stored in a network of interconnected neurons
3 processes of long term memory
-Encoding by attaching new info to other related memories
-Storage
-Retrieval
Andragogy
-Adults are seen as mutual partners in learning
-Adults seek what they consider important
-Learning should be relevant to the person's needs
-Problem-centered learning
-Internal forces cause motivation
-Dietitian is a facilitator of change
Teacher-centered approach
-Assumes that the learners are passive and that they respond to stimuli in the environment (Skinner)
***Predominant approach to education
Learner-centered approach
-Individuals are assumed to be proactive and to take responsibility for their actions (andragogy)
Five stages in the innovation-decision process
-Knowledge of the innovation
-Persuasion
-Decision to adopt or reject
-Implementation of the new idea
-Confirmation of the decision
Innovations are more readily adopted if...
They provide a relative advantage over current practices
Software should allow the learn to engage in...
-Sense making
-Process management
-Reflection and articulation
Teaching
-The educator's assessment of the need for knowledge and the use of techniques to transfer knowledge to another person
7 Steps to planning effective education sessions
-Assessing learning needs of the individual groups (preassessment)
-Writing performance objectives that are measurable and feasible
-Determining educational content
--Selecting methods, techniques, materials, and resources appropriate to the objectives
-Implementing learning experiences (intervention)
-Evaluating progress and outcomes performed continuously and reassessment of learning needs (postassessment)
-Documenting the outcomes and results
Performance objectives
-Precise statements about what will be learned
-Define the purpose of instruction
-Helpful tools in planning, implementing, and evaluative learning
-States the intended outcome
-Objectives should focus on the person learning
-Should not use "know", "appreciate", or "understand"
-Clear and measurable
Three characteristics which improve writing skills
-Performance
-Condition
-Criterion
Domains of learning
-Cognitive (knowledge and information) = involves the acquisition and utilization of knowledge or information and the development of intellectual skills and abilities
-Affective (attitudes and values) = Changes in attitudes, feelings, values, beliefs, appreciation, and interests
-Psycho-motor (manual skills and performance) = the development of physical abilities and skills
Lectures
-Passive method of informing and transferring knowledge from the teacher to the learner
-No guarantee the material is learned and remembered (least effective for adults)
Discussion
-Promotes active participation by learners
-Participants examine their own thinking and internalize knowledge through the exchange of ideas and verbal responses
-Facilitated in larger groups
Simulation
-Real-life situations are active ways to develop learner knowledge, skills, behaviors, and competencies
-Role-playing
-Can be used with cognitive, affective, and psychomotor objectives
Demonstration
-Shows how something is done
-Explores processes, procedures, equipment operation, techniques, ideas, or attitudes
-Uses cognitive and psychomotor objectives
Four steps of job instruction training
-Preparation = prepares employee psychologically and intellectually
-Presentation = presents and explains the operation as the employee is expected to perform it
-Learner performance = How much the employee has retained as he or she tries out the operation (can coach)
-Follow up = The employee is left alone to complete the task
Sequence of instruction
-General to specific
-Specific to general
-Simple to complex
-According to interest (familiar to unfamiliar), logic, or frequency of use of the knowledge or skill
Education evaluation consists of
-A systematic appraisal of the quality, effectiveness, and worth of an educational endeavor
Measurement
-"Educational assessment" = doesn't detemine quality or worth**
-The process of collecting and quantifying data in terms of numbers on the extent, degree, or capacity of people's learning in knowledge, attitudes, skills, performance, and behavioral change
Evaluation
-Based on the measurement of what people know, think, feel, and do
-Compares the observed value or quality with a standard or criterion of comparison
Formative evaluation
-A systematic appraisal that occurs before or during the implementation of a learning activity for the purpose of modifying or improving teaching, learning, program design, or educational materials
-Criterion based
***qualitative
Summative evaluation
-Considered final
-Appraises results, quality, outcomes, or worth using quantitative approaches
Norm- and Criterion-Referenced Methods
-Norm = the group that has taken the test provides the norms for determining the meaning of each person's score
- Criterion = Ascertains the person's status in respect to a defined objective or standard
*everyone can do well by attaining a minimum standard
Types of evaluation outcomes
-Measurement of participant reaction to programs
-Measurement of behavioral change
-Measurement of results
-Evaluation of learning in the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains
-Evaluation of other outcomes
Steps to select appropriate test items
-Note the performance
-Check whether the performance is main intent or indicator
-If covert, check for indicator behavior
-Test for overt indicator in objectives
Types of outcomes
-Physiological or biological measures
-Behavioral change based on self report
-Diet-related psychosocial measures
-Environmental or other measures of dietary behavior
%'s of where people get nutrition info
-63% TV
-45% Magazines
% believe that physical activity is important
67%
% of people that believe there are foods that should never be eaten
54%
-38% told what not to eat