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38 Cards in this Set

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what language was the bible, that is currently read, predominately written in?
Greek
What are the consequences of the fact that no original copies of any biblical letter are present?
They were copied many many times, leading to inconsistency compounded on inconsistency.
(others..)
Basic Timeline from first day of class and implications
Jesus born (4-7 B.C.E)
Jesus crucified (30 C.E.)
Paul writes (50-60 C.E.)
Gospel of Mark (70 C.E.)
Gospel of Matthew (80-85 C.E.)
Gospel of Luke (80s C.E.)
Acts (80s C.E.)
John (90-100 C.E.)

The written history is transcribed from an oral history that spans over 100 years, so differences from historical and written truth exist in present copies, which leads to more debate and mistake.
Why is the history of Jewish and Greek culture important?
The meaning is only revealed in the appropriate context. The authors were not righting to us, but rather, they were communicating out of the syntactical world from which they come.

example: the word, "Evangelion", meaning good news was meant for caesar, so disciples using it for Jesus was a big deal.
What is important to Jewish men and women of the first century?
1.) Faith 2.) Tradition 3.) Freedom
Why were Jews allowed to practice their religion freely, even under greek rule.
because of the lesson they learned why the Syrians ruled over Jerusalem and the Maccabean revolt ensued in 164-167 B.C.E. Thus caesar gave Jews their rights to daily Jewish traditions in order to prevent revolt problems.
What are some events that have shaped the Jewish people into who they are in the first century.
1.) Babylonian Conquest: elite exiled to Babylon and the peasants are left behind
2.) Temple is destroyed, and this is where God resided on earth. (Ezekiel sees a mobile God)
3.) Persia defeats Babylonians (520-530 BCE) and elites move back (400-300s)
3a.) conflict of whose going to build the temple again, whose going to rule?
3b.) temple rebuilt under Ezra and Nehemiah
4.) Deutermonic history: If you do not obey, bad things come and vise versa.
4a.) Maccebean revolt revealed that Deut. law was false, because they were standing up, but still being oppressed.
what brought about the first ideas of Apocalyptic views, and what is it all about?
well the Duet. law must be wrong durring the maccebean revolt, because as they stood up, they were still being killed. Thus there must be evil in this world and God will come one day and defeat pain, suffering and evil. He will unveil the heavens and take control of the earth.
A Messiah should come who is to bring God and over-through all oppressors/reform the temple.
Its crazy that Jesus could be messiah, because...
He was crucified
Nothing made him different
very common--> not a king
born out of marriage, and in Bethlehem/ grew up in Nazareth.
What is Diaspora or Dispersion of the Jews and why is it important?
to describe the 'exile' that encompassed several forced expulsions of Israelites from what is now the states of Israel, Jordan and parts of Lebanon. o have begun with the 8th–6th century BCE conquests of the ancient kingdoms of Israel and Judah, destruction of the First Temple (c.586 BCE), and expulsion of the population, and is also associated with the destruction of the Second Temple and aftermath of the Bar Kokhba revolt during the Roman occupation of Judea in the 1st and 2nd centuries CE.
A number of Jewish communities were then established in the Middle East as a result of tolerant policies and remained notable centers of Torah life and Judaism for centuries to come.
who are the Samaritans:
it is supposed that the Samaritans make up a large amount of the uneducated people who were left behind during exile. Said to worship on the Mountain, given a well by Jacob, and do not get along with the traditionally Jewish people.
what makes the presence christianity look familiar to Greek world?
-magic and miracles, the idea of prayers and "answered prayers"
-higher power, out of this world's hands.
-idea of demons (new idea of angels)
-search for immorality ( Salvation)

-finding a "way of life"(ethic) like philosophers
before they worshiped the caesar as the life and symbol of the city.

In the First century world, the Christianity scene does not look crazily unique.
syncretism?
combining of different cultures (blending of cultural perspectives)

ex. Alex the Great's Hellenism 300 B.C.E. Instituted greek god's, greek language, and greek culture in all the land. Cultural Imperialism to unify a disparate body.
products of Hellenism?
everyone spoke Greek, even after the Romans took over. LXX Bible (Greek Bible). Greek culture was very understood and prevalent in Jerusalem
Hoe does the early christian church look like the mystery religion?
prayers answered.... curses
evil forces (demons) exorcisms
Christians adopted their structure of initiation and knowledge.
What is the "Religion Theory" based from Gerd Theissen?
Religion involves cultural sign language by 3 aspects:
1.) underline myth-narritive for ultimate reality
2.) rites: way people come together and carry out ritual
3.) ethic: action or behavior required
Factors leading to the Jewish secterism?
Babylonian Exile, people and ideology is scattered. (where is God, who should rule)
Hellenism: some people were "more" Jewish, and others were more "Greek"
Strict understanding of the text or not. ( Hasitics and Sadducees are strict, while Parisces are more liberal i.e. adaptable)
What happens when the elites return from exile?
elites from exile want to take over.
the need to rebuild the temple
argue about who gets to take the title of high priest (Law saws: zadokites/levites)
Everyone wants to follow God's law better because of Deut. Principle.
which means torah more important--> more interpretations.
The main problem priest assignments after the Maccabean revolt.
named the Hasmonean as monarchs but they are not Levites.
The importance of Josephus?
a historian writing from a prison in rome during the second half of the first century. in the middle of temple rebuild, probably a little biased.

Writes the primary source of first century Judaism.
four sects or philosophies that Josephus explains...
Pharisces(broader view of Scripture, more flexible), Sadducees(politically and religiously dominant), Essens (strict,moved to Qumran because didn't like Hasmonean rule, highly apocalyptic), and Zealots (revolutionaries)

all had different interpretations of the Torah.
How did the Apocalyptic perspective rise to dominance?
during Maccabean revolt 160 BCE. People were being killed for standing up for their faith. THere needed to be some kind of understanding into the idea that bad things still happen when you listen to God.
THUS...
apocalypsis: reveal or unviel
realize stark difference between good and evil
god will intervene against thre dark forces
eschatology:
the study of end times. NOT the end of the world, but rather the end of suffering.

overlap of heaven and earth.
The passion has inaugurated eschaton
Apocalyptic as a literary style:
people writing different stories that were revieled to them in a vision.

ex: 1 Enoch, Daniel

a product of vision-lift the veil btwn heaven and earth.
How does Jesus correlate with Apocalyptic view:
-heaven opens when Jesus is baptized
-Jesus is the agent of apocalypse
-described in priest and king language (what the essens where looking for)
-engaged in dualism--> good vs. evil (involved in conflict)

apocalyptic is the mother of all Christian theology/ Root of Christianity.
Why is it hard to get facts about Jesus?
he didn't write anything, eye witnesses did not write anything, the writing was done so long after.
If we don't have facts, then what do we have?
Oral tradition written by the followers and the romans and the Jews etc... but they are all biased.
Why should we not look at the Gospels as biographies?
but rather "bios" meaning lives or stories.

this "bio" is part of a genre that focuses on emulating the characteristics of the person they are written about. These writers do not have the same historical consciousness, they are interested in characteristics and stories.
So if there is no way to prove the gospels are true, Is there a point to studying them?
It presents issues of Christian consequences in first century, understanding the "people of the way", role of emulation, character reference. Basically, it speaks of the development of Christianity at the time.
Why are there differences between the Gospels
different sources from different oral traditions, different audiences, locations, time and authors.
Each teacher had a different message as they went to different areas.
ex. day of Jesus' death


We don't know the exact truth, except that a Rabbi teaches from the center of teachings.

But all 4 sources and Josephus say Jesus crucified, baptized, healer and teacher.
2 source hypothesis
is a story of how the three Synoptic gospels were written, an answer to the synoptic problem.
Matthew and Luke used Mark and Q (oral source) as a sources for thier gospels
what are the synoptic gospels, what does it mean?
"synoptic": see with or together.

composed of Matthew, Mark, and Luke.

The synoptic problem is that not all three of these gospels are exactly the same.
What is the Quest of historical Jesus?
a project that Albert decided in 1910 was bogus and a dead end, because the information you can find is the information you want to hear about Jesus.
Quick Synopsis of the beginning of the Jesus movement.
So, orginally called themselves Jews that followed the messiah Jesus, but 26other jews didn't like that they didn't follow law, so acts 11:26 is the first time they are called Christians at Antioch toward the end of the first century. "christ followers"

Moved from an apocalyptic Jewish sect to a alien cult.
What got the Christian movement going?
very much an oral tradition and stories. The farther from Jerusalem you got the less Jewish it was and the more it became a new religion (moved from sect--> cult).

The core message was Passion. (shows up in Cor 11 and 15 through passover and appearances[paul recieved it and carried it on])
what is the Aramaic Substratum?
Although everyone speaks Greek, some people may have spoken a dialect of Hebrew called Aramaic. People such as Jesus and Paul.
ex. words like Ephphatha, Maranatha.
Sect vs. Cult
sect: separatist or revitalized view on a religion in which there are shared symbolic views...
cult: integrative movement imported into another cultural region.
What is the Q source, and some of its characteristics?
a source that Matthew and Luke both used that was not mark. It was probably completely oral, not in narritic=ve, but rather shorts sayings or wisdoms of jesus. Held a lot of ideas of division.

ex. Parable of the great dinner