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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Characteristics of wake
low voltage fast EEG; desynchronized; external activation
characteristics of REM
low voltage fast EEG; desynchronized; internal activation
characteristics of NREM
high voltage fast EEG; synchronized; deactivation
Process S
increased sleep drive the longer you say awake--adenosine driven
Process C
circadian--based on temporal schedule
what does adenosine do?
blocks Ach neurons
sleep promoting hormones (4)
GABA
adenosine
endorphins
CCK
what is limbic cortex involved in?
subjective experience
what do prefrontal cortex lesions result in?
problems with executive functions and emotional responses
what do prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices do?
postnatal development
judgement, insign, motivation, mood
affect
what does mediodorsal thalamus do with olfactory signals?
projects them to orbitfrontal cortex to give you emotional responsiveness to smell
what does ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus receive olfactory inputs from?
medial amygdala via stria terminalis
what is Kluver-Bucy syndrome?
visual agnosia
docile
hypersexual
what does septal region do?
neuroendocrine regulation of reproductive behaviors (GnRH)
Memory via cholinergic pathways to hippocampus
what type of dopamine receptors are involved in the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward system?
D3
what are vanilloid receptors?
nociceptors sensitive to both heat and capsaicin--resemble voltage-gates K+ or cyclic nucleotide-gated channels
what does tramadol do?
enhances NE
what type of neurons are lost in Huntingtons and what kind of disorder is it?
trinucleotide repeat disorder
lose medium spiny neurons in caudate and putamen
What is in Lewy bodies?
alpha-synuclein
ubiquitin
What neurons are lost in Alzheimer's?
cholinergic neurons in basal forebrain
5 effects of neurotrophins
1. increased neuronal survival
2. increased neuronal growth
3. Influence neuronal differentiation
4. acute and long-term effects of synapse formation and function
5. involved in myelination and remyelination
PI3
cell survival
ras
neurite outgrowth and neuronal differentiation
PLC
activity-dependent plasticity
what happens if you remove hippocampus, amygdala, overlying temporal cortex?
intact long term memories
partially degraded recent memory
no new memories
normal retention for 30-40sec
normal IQ
normal motor learning
characteristics of induction
no protein synthesis; NMDA activation; BDNF and Ca2+ dep tagging, interstion of more AMPA receptors; new spines; glutamate release changed to full fusion
characteristics of consolidation
changes in gene expression and protein synthesis; larger spines; microRNA translation; NMDA and BDNF mediated gene expression; target mRNAs to activated synapses; retrograde signal results in increase in probability of vesicle release
What does BDNF do for LTP?
interacts with TrkB receptor and stimulates expression of alphaCAMKII and Arc
also activates CREB to increase synaptic efficacy
what is required fro rearrangement of actin cytoskeleton?
sustained synthesis of Arc
what does alphaCAMKII do?
tags synapses
what do secondary and tertiary visual cortices receive input from?
primary visual cortex, lateral geniculate, pulvinar
what do lesions in occipital eye fields produce difficulty with?
fixing on objects
which side is Wernicke's area on?
the dominant side
what do lesions in supplementary motor cortex produce?
inability to initiate movement
what doe lesions in frontal eye fields cause?
block voluntary gaze to side opposite lesions
parietal association cortex
afferents from somatosensory and visual cortices
attentive behavior
inability to recognize objects by touch
visuospatial deficits
contralateral neglect
Balint's syndrome
what is contralateral neglect?
perceptual problem with damate to nondominant hemisphere
temporal association cortex
object recognition
lesions cause inability to recognize visual or auditory stimuli, deficits in language comprehension
frontal assoication cortex
matures last
executive function and inhibition of impusivity, planning, personality, mood
active during working memory
Broca's aphasia
know they are struggling
halting speech, disordered
comprehension intact
Wernicke's aphasia
don't perceive a problem
fluent speech
contrived or inappropriate words, but syntax and grammar are correct
comprehension not intact
left hemisphere's tasks
motor control
language
math
logic
right hemisphere's tasks
face recognition
spatial skills
music
visual imagery
what does place conditioning require?
hippocampus to be intact
what area of the brain is involved in response extinction?
pre-frontal cortex
dorsolateral prefontal
executive fxn
lateral orbitofrontal
social intelligence
angular cingulate
motivation
frontal lobe syndromes
dysexecutive syndromes like Parkinson's and Huntington's
apathy
temporal lobe syndromes
non-classic ictal syndromes
atypical partial complex seizures
parietal lobe syndromes
associational behavioral syndromes causing confusion, alienation, proopagnosia, delusion, denial, spatial neglect
basal ganglia syndromes
depressive, dementia, psychosis, schizophreniform syndromes, OCD
what hempisphere is CVA most likely to produce depression in?
dominant hemisphere
where do schizophrenics have reduced activity?
fronto-parietal and thalamic regions
left temporal lobe dysfxn
ideas of passivity and external control
rt. hemisphere injury
subtle changes in pattern recognition and linkage with familiarity
inverse agonist
produces post-synaptic effect opposite to that induced by an agonist
antagonist
prevents the effect of the agonist
what does norepineprhin do and where does it act
inracellular mediation of cAMP
alpha & beta adrenoceptors
which serotonin receptor is ionotrophic?
5-HT3
what runs in anterior median sulcus?
anterior spinal artery
what runs between thalamus and caudate?
stria terminalis
what crosses floor of 4th ventricle and defines division between medulla and pons?
stria medullaris
what spearates motor cranial nerve nuclei (medial) or sensory cranial nerve nuclei?
sulcus limitans
what is the core of the brainstem?
tegmentum
what follows the optic tract?
anterior choroidal artery
what artery runs in the Sylvian fissure?
middle cerebral artery
where does the anterior cerebral artery run?
follows the corpus callosum in interhemispheric fissure
where does corona radiated come out from?
under putamen
what is under cingulate gyrus?
cingulum
what is at the head of the superior peduncle?
dentate nucleus
what do lesions of lower motor neurons produce?
decreased or absent reflexes
flaccid paralysis
atrophy
weakness
what do lesions of upper motor neurons produce?
increased reflexes
loss of voluntary muscle control
Babinski
weakness
what do lesions of cerebellum produce?
ataxia
what do lesions of basal ganglia produce?
lack of control of planned movements
involuntary movements