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322 Cards in this Set

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smooth ER
produces lipids for the cell (membrane biosynthesis) and is also involved in detoxification in liver cells, lipid-based compound synthesis (cholesterol)
membrane vesicle (vacuole) containing hydrolytic enzymes needed for cellular digestion and recycling
vacuoles that digest fatty acids and amino acids, break down metabolic waste product H2O2 to H2O and O2
site of aerobic cellular respiration (ATP), self-replicates on its own by binary fission, has 2 membranes (outside permeable to most)
membrane-bound by nuclear envelope with pores to allow certain water-soluble molecules to pass
fluid-mosaic model
glycolipids and glycoproteins towards exterior, peripheral proteins don't pass through, integral proteins pass fully through, cholesterol sticks into center
bulk transport
movement of large items or large quantities of an item across the membrane (exo or endo cytosis)
gap junctions
used for rapid communication between cells via cytoplasmic connections, direct connections of lateral sides
tight junctions
used to form tight, waterproof seals between cells
adhering junctions
used to form strong connections between cells that need to stretch (skin and bladder)
strong juntions connected to IFs on cell interior that resist shearing, found in lower layers of skin where keratin is the IF and cell-cell junctions form
actin polymers that allow for cell cleavage by pinching cells aprt and combines with myosin to contract (motility)
tubulin polymers, structural support of cell, transports organelles to different parts of the cell
intermediate filaments
role in support (strong)
allow for motility by constantly beating in same direction, made out of tubulin monomers
long and slender extension of tubulin polymer covered by cell membrane, smaller animals can move by swinging the tail while larger animals can use these in digestion and other processes
barrel-shaped microtubule structure, composed of nine microtubule triplets, form spindle fibers to separate chromosomes during mitosis
structure in plant and animal cells in which MTs originate from inside out
glycolysis substrates and products
in cytoplasm start with glucose, ATP, ADP, NAD+ and get 2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, 2 NADH
aerobic processing of pyruvate
pyruvate decarboxylation in matrix to generate NADH from NAD+ and make acetyl-CoA (enters mitochondrial matrix)
lactic acid fermentation is done by some bacteria and fungi and animal muscle cells where pyruvate is reduced to lactic acid and NAD+ is reformed, alcoholic fermentation is done by certain bacteria and yeast where pyruvate is decarboxylated and then reduced to ethanol and NAD+ is recycled
Kreb's cycle substrates and products
in matrix of mitochondria each aceytl CoA produces 2 CO2, 1 GTP (ATP), 3 NADH, 1 FADH2 (times two for two molecules)
electron transport chain substrates and products
in cristae membrane of mitochondria to convert NADH, FADH2, O2, ATP to NAD+, FAD, H2O, ATP; each NADH gives about 3 ATP each FADH2 and NADH from glycolysis gives 2 ATP, protons pumped out as electrons move through carriers
depleted reserves
with glucose levels low, other carbohydrates like glycogen are broken down from liver/muscles, later fat is used and last protein is used
fat metabolism
can be broken down to fatty acids and glycerol, fatty acids can be converted to acetyl CoA to enter Kreb's cycle and glycerol can be converted to GAP in glycolysis
protein metabolism
proteins broken down into amino acids and are chemically modified into keto acids and converted to acetyl CoA, pyruvate, or various Kreb's cycle intermediates
DNA repair mechanisms
DNA polymerase has proofreading (3'-->5') as well as base and nucleotide excision repair (shorter and longer adducts) and mismatch repair
termination codons
chromosomal proteins
eight histone proteins per nucleosome unit; euchromatin is less tightly coiled than heterochromatin
transcriptional regulation
coiling of chromosomes to physically prevent or allow the access of transcription factors and RNA polymerase to the promoter regions of DNA (X chromosome inactivation), transcription factors interacting with RNA polymerase
a modified gene that is believed to cause cancer, formed from normal proto-oncogene
post-transcriptional control
In nucleus a 5' cap is added then polyA tail, then exons spliced together, even once modified the rate at which it leaves nucleus through pores determines rate of translation
translational control
mRNA degrades quickly in cytoplasm but occurs slower with longer polyA tail
post-translational regulation
protein inactivated immediately following synthesis by degradation or the protein is not modified making it useless
exception to law of segregation
male sex chromosomes
genetic leakage
sometimes alleles from mitochondrial DNA can incorporate into the chromosomal DNA
two alleles that are both dominant and fully expressed (phenotype expression of both dominant alleles)
incomplete dominance
an individual who is expected to have complete dominance but both alleles are expressed somewhat (not fully) so phenotype of heterozygote is intermediate between the two homozygotes (pink flowers)
penetrance and expressivity
measure of frequency at whicih trait is actually expressed in population, within each individual the extent of expression of a phenotype
multiple alleles
more than two alleles that affect one trait from gene pool (blood types)
polygenic traits
more than on gene influences a single trait, multiple potential phenotypes
one gene can mask the presence of an expected phenotype of another gene
single gene influences two or more traits
mitosis: prophase (centrioles, asters, spindles)
chromosomes initially in nucleus in fragile, unpacked state (easier for replication in S phase), chromosomes condense in this stage, the nuclear membrane breaks down, centrioles replicate and move two opposite ends of cell and begin to produce spindle apparatus (spindle fibers that radiate outward forming asters), spindle fibers are made from microtubules
mitosis: kinetochore
place of attachment at centromere of each chromosome by spindle fibers
mitosis: metaphase
each chromosome is attached to a spindle fiber at the kinetochore, alignment in center at metaphase plate
mitosis: anaphase
centromere splits and each chromatid has its own centromere, pulled to opposite poles
mitosis: telophase
spindle apparatus disappears, new nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes which uncoil to interphase state
G1, S, G2, M
in G1 the cell grows larger adding additional cytoplasm and replicating organelles, S is DNA synthesis, G2 is continued growth in size and preparation for division, M is mitosis (Go is arrest in cell cycle for reasons like differentiation)
meiosis: prophase I
homologous chromosomes pair during synapse
meiosis: metaphase I
homologous pairs randomly align at metaphase plate (kinetochores) and are separated in anaphase and two cells created in telophase (meiosis two occurs without S phase)
types of mutations
random, translationerror, transcription error, base substitution, inversion, addition, deletion, translocation, mispairing
mutagen vs. carcinogen
mutagen increases the rate of change in mutation rate of DNA and may or may not cause cancer, carcinogens do cause cancer by mutation
natural selection
differential reproductive success which increases the frequency of favorable alleles from one generation to the next (more fitness conferred by these traits), percent of an allele in the gene pool changes from one generation to the next
symbiotic relationships
exist when 2 species exist together for extended periods of time
mutualistic relationships
both species benefit from association
parasitic relationships
one species benefits at the expense of the other species
one species benefits whereas the other species is relatively unaffected
Hardy-Weinberg conditions
1. nonrandom mating
2. gene flow (migration)
3. small populations
4. mutation
5. natural selection
6. bottleneck and founder effects
species definition
group of individuals who can breed with each other and not with members of other species
three or more phenotypes for a given trait
convergent, divergent, parallel evolution
convergent is when two populations exist in the same type of environment with the same selective pressures and form analogous structures, divergent is when changes to the population or geographic isolation causes different adaptations in population and species diverge (homologous structures form because they can from a single ancestor), parallel is when one species evolution affects the evolution of other species (predator-prey, for example)
origin of life
Big Bang, primitive atmosphere (inorganic/organic substances, no O2), water vapors and lightening energy source fueled reactions to form sugars, amino acids, nucleotides, and fatty acids (polymerized in clay surfaces), membrane forming around molecules made first protocell that could self-replicate, association with RNA, mutations in these cells allowed for photosynthesis, O2 produced, prokaryotes then eukaryotes (endosymbiosis to form chloroplasts), membrane infolding to explain nucleus and ER (more surface area), first eukaryotic cells resembled protists
prezygotic isolation
temporal isolation, ecological isolation, behavioral isolation, reproductive isolation, gamete isolation
postzygotic isolation
hybrid inviability (zygote stage), hybrid sterility (offspring stage), hybrid breakdown (second generation after hybrid infertile)
tunicates, lampreys, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals
chordate notochord
piece of tissue that helps support the body ventral to the neural tube and is replaced only in vertebrates by bone tissue
chordate pharyngeal pouch
becomes the gills in fish (gill slits), shared by chordates in development
chordate brachial arches
develop on either side of the pharynx or gills in chordate development
chordate dorsal nerve cord
runs parallel to the notochord and one end becomes the brain and the rest is the spinal cord
cartilaginous fish
skeleton made of cartilage, gill slits, teeth used to collect prey
bony fish
skeleton of bone, ray-finned fish with flexible fin supports or lobe-finned fish with skeletal support in ventral fins (lungfishes must surface for oxygen)
4 limbs, 3-chambered heart and lungs, can move out of water but skin must remain moist (gas exchange), lay eggs in water
heterotherms, 4-chambered hearts, internal fertilization, amniotic eggs on land
homotherms, feathers, internal fertilization, amniotic eggs, flight
hair/fur, young born after gestation period, females have milk for young, some species lay eggs, some have maternal pouches, some are placental
organization of living things order
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
prokaryotes lack/have
lack nuclear membrane, lack mitotic apparatus (binary fission), lack typical eukaryotic organelles, have single loop of DNA (posibly with plasmids), have ribsomes in cytoplasm, have cell wall, might have flagella, have pili for exchange of genetic material, some species create spores in harsh conditions (survive many years)
bacteria shape classifications
bacilli=rod-shaped, spirilli=spiral shaped, cocci=spherical shaped, either eubacteria or archaea
bacterial cell wall
generally contains peptidoglycan, gram-staining shows whether bacteria is gram negative or positive, positive has thick layer of peptidoglycan and negative has another layer of lipids outside of wall
bacterial flagella
single, multiple, or no flagella, made up of protein flagellin in hollow/helical conformation that anchors to plasma membrane, proton pump powers rotation of flagella for movement
bacteria and genetic adaptability
because they reproduce so fast (exponention 2^n), they can gain favorable mutations in the face of conditions like antibiotic to confer them resistance
species that produce their own nutrients through the process of photosynthesis using CO2 from the environment
species that perform photosynthesis but cannot use CO2 from environment, extract carbon from variety of sourses
species that get their energy from inorganic compounds and carbon needs from CO2
species that obtain energy from inorganic substances and carbon from variety of source (not CO2) (can form symbiotic/parasitic relationship to get carbon or decompose organic matter)
bacterial parasitic/symbiotic interactions
bacteria like chemoheterotrophs can extract carbon through a host organism
obligate aerobe
always require oxygen for cellular respiration
obligate anaerobes
never need oxygen and generally do not divide and, in some cases, are killed by exposure to oxygen
facultative anaerobes
sometimes use oxygen and sometimes do not require oxygen for cellular respiration
bacterial transformation
competent cells can incorporate into bacterial genome DNA fragments from external medium
sex pillus from F+ to F- and F factor replicates and passes into F- cell, can become integrated into chromosome by double cross over (Hfr)
prokaryotic operon
promoter (RNA polymerase site), operator (repressor protein site), repressor protein (blocks transcription), regulator gene (produce repressor protein), structural genes (genes regulated by operon)
inducible operons
always off because repressor binds to operator and must be induced by presence of inducer so repressor can no longer bind
repressible operons
repressor is always inactive unless co-reressor is present to interact with repressor to then bind to operator
bacterial growth cycle
lag phase (early, slow-starting), log phase (exponential 2^n growth), stationary phase (resources decrease so population levels off as some die and some divide), death phase (lack of nutrients/presence of wastes cause decline in bacteria and spore-producing ones would do so at this stage)
fungi characteristics
all are heterotrophs, secrete enzymes to break down organic molecules so that they can be absorbed through cell membrane, protected by chitin cell wall, heterotrophs
structure that grows near food source to obtain nutrients (underground network in mushroom)
hyphae filaments
filaments of mycelium where nucleus of cell is located
fungi life cycle
asexual reproduction forms spores in specialized structures that undergo mitosis to generate offspring (sometimes cells fragment directly by budding), the less common sexual reproduction occurs in poor environmental conditions (gametes made by specialized structures fuse to give diploid cell that performs meiosis and produces haploid spores)
virus structure
protein capsid surrounds nucleic acid with only a few genes to a few hundred genes, much smaller than prokaryotic (1/10) or eukaryotic cells (1/100), no organelles/nucleus
bacteriophage structure
always inject their DNA into bacterial host cell, must parasite cells to reproduce
phage/animal viral general points
specific to host in which they infect (receptor, mimic another substance that host really needs), genetic material enters host by nucleic acid injection or endocytosis, mutations allow for population variation
phage/animal viral life cycle (general)
attach to host, penetrate cell membrane/wall, entry of viral genetic matieral, host synthetic mechanism to generate new copies, self-assembly and release of particles, viruses either lyse cell or bud off of cell
lysogenic/lytic cycle
nucleic acid of virus gets incorporated into host chromosome and remains dormant until some trigger like UV irradiation causes shift back to lytic stage and biosynthesis of great amount of virus
enter the cell in RNA form to must be converted to DNA, genome encodes reverse transcriptase to do this, DNA incorporates into host genome to form lysogen (may disrupt a gene)
genetic material transfered by accidental pick-up of bacterial chromosome during assembly stage and reinfection of another bacterial cell after double CO can express alleles of bacteria that it got the genes from
epithelial cell shapes
squamous (flat), cuboidal (cube-shaped), columnar (oblong-shaped)

layers are either simple or stratified (found on surface of body connected to environment)
epithelial cells that line closed spaces like body cavities, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels
connective tissue cell types
fibroblasts that produce matrix fibers
connective tissue fiber types
collagen fibers (great strength), elastic fibers (stretchability), reticular fibers (help attach one type of connective tissue to another type)
loose connective tissue
abundant collagen/elastic fibers for loose consistency, fibroblast cells, adipose tissue stores fat for energy reserves and insulation (fills space in body cavities, attaches skin to underlying tissues, stores fat
dense connective tissue
collagen fibers abundant/tightly packed for strength, fibroblast cells (in tendons and ligaments)
cartilage connective tissue
collagen fibers embedded in gel-like matrix, chondrocyte cells (structural support for body structures like ears, nose, trachea, and vertebrae)
bone connective tissue
collagen fibers abundant in rigid calcium phosphate matrix, osteocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclast cells (structural support, calcium storage)
blood connective tissue
liquid matrix (plasma), red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets (substance transport, fight infection, clotting)
lymph connective tissue
liquid matrix, white blood cells (fight infection, transport, regulates tissue fluid levels)
smooth muscle
found in digestive tract, urinary tract, reproductive system, veins (helps move blood); spidle-shaped cells with one nucleus, no striations, function in moving substances in lumens of body, involuntary
skeletal muscle
striated cells with multiple nuclei, muscles attached to skeleton, voluntary movement
cardiac muscle
branching striated cells with one nucleus, in walls of heart, pumps blood, involuntary
Schwann cells
cells that can wrap around neuron axons and produce myelin (hydrophobic lipoprotein)
serous membranes
made of epithelial cells and connective tissue, line internal body cavities and cover organs
mucous membranes
epithelial and connective tissues, secrete mucus onto surfaces of body in contact with outside environment (mouth, nose, trachea, digestive tract)
cutaneous membrane
cover outer surface of the body (SKIN), upper layers composed of epithelial and connective tissue
skin functions
protective barrier against abrasion/infection, conserves water, eliminates wastes, synthesizes vitamin D, regulates temperature to maintain homeostasis, relays sensory information to CNS
skin layers
epidermis (only epithelial tissues, no blood vessels-must diffuse in nutrients from dermis), dermis (thicker, supports epidermis and anchors to deeper tissues, relatively dense connective tissue with collagen and elastic fibers), subcutaneous layer/hypodermis (supports skin, lots of loose connective tissue, high blood supply, anchors skin to tissues/muscle deeper inside body, fat allows for heat retention)
cell movement
formed in basal layer of epidermis and as they move out the cells die from lack of O2 and nutrients and layer gets more and more keratin (waterproofing ability of skin), cells become terminally differentiated on the outside
composed of dead keratinized epidermal cells pushed up out of the follicle, arrector pili muscle is responsible for the pushing
structure with highly keratinized cells growing from nail bed (water impermeable), protection from organisms
place where skin is extra thick, protects when an area gets extra amounts of pressure
skin homeostasis
water, heat, amount of skin cells (lost and remade)
sweat glands
cooling body, excretion of wastes (urea, electrolytes), some glands secrete directly to skin surface and others to a hair follicle (under control of nervous system), located in dermis
sebascous glands
associated with each hair follicle, secrete sebum fluid into follicles to lubricate follicles and skin
skin osmoregulation
loss of water and salts out of skin is possible to maintain salt balance
synaptic knobs
extensions at the end of axon that send electrical impulses by way of neurotransmitters to other neurons
types of neurotransmitters
acetylcholine (para and sympa), norepineprhine (sympa)
refractory period
after small part of axon sodium channels open from depolarization, the K+ channels open allowing for leakage and prevent another action potential
ecitatory response
binding of NT causes some sodium channels to open in order to hit threshold
inhibitory response
discourages action potential in postsynaptic neuron usually by adition of chloride ions into neuron
reuptake of neurotransmitter
taken back into presynaptic neuron, enzymatic degradation of NT in synapse, diffusion away
protection of CNS
cranial bones and vertebrae, protective membranes called meninges
cerebrospinal fluid
between two meninges cavities in brain and helps to provide nutrients/remove wastes and cushion the brain
left and right hemispheres (four lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal), areas for senses, motor, coordination, association area, all thought processes, memory, learning, and intelligence regulation (cerebral cortex is the outer tissue
at base of brain, sensory-motor coordination for complex muscle movement patterns and balance
brain stem
pons, medulla oblongata, reticular activating system
connects spinal cord and cerebellum to cerebrum and diencephelon
medulla oblongata
reflex centers for vital functions (breathing, heart rate, blood presure), messages going to brain from spinal cord must pass through medulla
reticular activating system
tract of neurons that runs through medulla into cerebrum, acts as filter to repetitive stimuli, activating center for cerebrum (when unactivated sleep occurs)
hypothalamus and thalamus
regulate activity of pituitary, regulates conditions like thirst, hunger, sex drive, and temperature
relay center for sensory information entering cerebrum (routes it to specific part of cerebrum)
corpus callosum
important for integrating functions of right and left brain hemispheres
limbic system
tract of neurons that connects several areas of brain (cerebrum, hypothalamus, medulla, areas associated with sense of smell)
in limbic system helps turn short-term memories to long-term memories
reflex arc
sensory neuron bring information to dorsal spinal cord, interneuron activates motor (effector) neuron in ventral part of cord which activate muscle
sympathetic nervous system
regulated by epinephrine and norepineprhine neurotransmitters, produces fight-or-flight, increased heart rate, ventilation incerase, blood pressure increase (vasoconstriction), digestion decrease, immediate action
parasympathetic nervous system
default system for relaxation, decreases heart rate, decrease ventilation rate, decrease blood pressure, increase digestion, acetylcholine
dectects chemicals to give sense of taste or smell
detect temperature to allow monitoring of body temperature
sense light for vision
sense pressure to give a tactile perception in the skin, sense of body awareness through prioception, hearing, and equilibrium
pain receptors
detect pressure and chemicals, convey messages to CNS concerning tissue damage
chemoreceptors located within taste buds on tongue (salty, sweet, bitter, sour)
small patches in the top of each nasal cavity contain chemoreceptors (covered in mucus), chemicals from air dissolve in mucus to stimulate receptors
sense of hearing, sense of balance or equilibrium, mechanoreceptors are sensitive to pressure and sound waves that enter outer ear
ear anatomy
outer ear with pinna to funnel sound waves to auditory canal to travel to middle ear where tympanic membrane produces vibrations in response to sound waves (three bones or ossicles in middle ear amplify the signal), inner ear includes cochlea with organ of Corti
hair cells
in inner ear (organ of corti) are mechanoreceptors that contain fluid with small "hairs" on surface, when fluid in hair vibrate action potentials occur and travel up auditory nerve to cerebrum
vestibular apparatus
in inner ear used to maintain sense of equilibrium (semicircular canals in the structure contain hair cells filled with fluid), the fluid moves during the motion of the head which is sent to cerebrum, vestibule in this structure helps in perception of balance when head and body are stationary
light receptors
rod for night vision and black&white vision, cones for color vision (sensitive to red, blue, or green light)
white of eye
middle layer of eye used to supply oxygen to other eye tissue
inner layer with the photoreceptors and connected to optic nerve
light waves enter through this transparent structure that protects the underlying lens, light entering moves thorough pupil and its diameter is controlled by iris
visual image processing
rods and cones convert image to patterns and send to cerebrum for processing, shapes of pigment molecules are modified in rods&cones when stimulus received to change membrane permeability for action potential
rod pigment
retinal binds to opsin (rhodopsin in rods), different cones have different pigments
red muscle cells
slow-twitch fibers that contain more mitochondria and myoglobin to give them longer endurance by aerobic respiration
fast-twitch fibers
fast rate of contraction, lack stamina (anaerobic), less myoglobin and few mitochondria
contractile elements and sarcomere
Z line connects actin from each sarcomere, myosin heads latch onto actin and form ends of A band, H zone is uncontracted where myosin is alon, I band is between sarcomeres where actin is alone
parts of muscle cell
muscle cell composed of myofibrils composed of myofilaments composed of sarcomeres
myogenic activity
smooth muscle can contract without nervous stimulation (bladder, digestive tract, reproductive tracts, surrounding blood vessels)
functions of muscle
structure, mobility
functions of skeleton
structural rigidity and support, calcium storage, physical protection (internal organs, brain)
process during developmental period where cartilage turns into bone
red bone marrow, yellow bone marrow
red contains blood stem cells in spongy bone not , yellow is an adipose reserve (red marrow in epiphysis and marrow also inside diaphysis)
bone structure/growth
diaphysis is compact bone and epiphysis is spongy around bone, periosteum covers the bone and attaches to tendons, there is cartilage over the epiphysis, growth occurs at epiphyseal plate
unit of bone, concentric circles
Haversian canal
in middle of each osteon with blood vessels, nerves, lymphatic vessels
surround Haversian canal in concentric circles of hard matrix
spaces between lamellae where mature bone cells reside
small bridges that connect the lacunae in the thin circles between each lamellae
found within lacunae, mature, involved in maintenance of bone tissue
bone remodeling build bone/break down bone, osteoblasts produce more matrix, osteoclasts reabsorb matrix, two cell types eventually are trapped within matrix and mature to osteocytes
synovial joints
hip or knee with more range of motion due to fluid-filled cavity (ligaments are the attachers at this joint type)
exocrine gland
secretes its products onto a surface, into body cavity, or within organs
endocrine gland and hormone
glands secrete hormones that function at specific body sites to maintain homeostasis
function of endocrine system
specific chemical control at cell, tissue, and organ level
hormone specificity
only affect cells with receptor for that hormone (steroid in cytoplasm and peptide on cell surface)
lipid-based molecules released from cell membranes (not endocrine), local hormones involved in diverse regulation of body temperature, blood clotting, the inflammatory response, and menstrual cramping cause by uterine contractions
signals sent to anterior pituitary by neurons that diffuse first into primary capillaries and then go to anterior, axon terminals go directly to posterior pituitary for hormone storage; hypothalamus makes releasing and inhibiting hormones
circulatory system functions
circulation of oxygen, nutrients, hormones, ions and fluids, removal of metabolic waste, thermoregulation (shunt blood to outside capilaries or not)
plasma proteins created by liver
immunglobulins (immune response), albumins (transport certain molecules in blood), fibrinogen (inactive form of fibrin for clot formation)
red blood cell life cycle
erythropoietin causes differention of stem cells to red blood cells in bone marrow which circulate for 120 days and then are killed by liver and spleen
hemoglobin breakdown
forms bilirubin, excreted into small intestine via bile from liver
removal of dissociated carbonic acid
proton binds to hemoglobin (sometimes CO2) and bicarbonate ions are carried by plasma
granulocytes (leukocytes)
cytoplasm has granular appearance, neutrophils (phagocytosis), basophils (inflammation and allergies), eosinophils (parasitic infections)
agranulocytes (leukocytes)
cytoplasm has no grainy appearance, monocytes and macrophages (phagocytosis), lymphocytes (T and B cells that function as specific immune defense)
platelets (circular 10-12 days before replacement) release thromboplastin to convert prothrombin to thrombin whcih converts fibrinogen to fibrin (forms meshwork around injurt and traps cells to form clot, requires vitamin K and calcium for function
hemocrit value
a relative comparison of cell volume to plasma volume in blood (usually 45% cells), mainly red blood cells
vessel walls
veins have thinner, less muscular walls than arteries because they involve less blood pressure, vein movement is facilitated by smooth muscle movement that contract to push blood along and by valves to prevent backflow
hydrostatic pressure
arteriole end of capillary causes movement of oxygen/nutrient-rich fluid into tissue, most of the water is reclaimed at venule end of capillary bed (solute inside capillaries is higher, osmosis), takes CO2 and wastes away, some materials may enter capillaries by endo/exo cytosis and excess water returns via lymph vessels
cardiac muscle of heart
thick barricade between two sides of heart
semilunar valves
regulate flow of blood out of ventricles to pulmonary artery or aorta
fluid-filled sac that surrounds the entire heart
coronary arteries
first branches off aorta to deliver oxygenated blood to heart (blockage causes heart attack)
two ventricles simultaneously contract to push blood out of heart, a brief resting period to allow atria to refill with blood
capillary bed exchances
gas/solute exchance (diffusion/hydrostatic pressure for movement within capillaries and fluid movement out o capillaries), heat exchange (coountercurrent)
precapillary sphincters
guard entrance to capillary beds
electrical impulses in heart beat
SA node at top of right atrium sends impulse to contract atria, arrives at AV node to bundle of His and then Purkinje fibers (walls of ventricles to cause contraction)
peripheral resistance
resistance of arteries and arterioles to blood pressure (what must be overcome), friction from vessel walls and viscosity of fluid are two measures of resistance that must be overcome by blood pressure (regulated by blood filtration into kidney)
respiratory system anatomy
nasal cavity, pharynx, epiglottis, glottis, larynx, trachea, bronchus, bronchiole, alveoli (lung, diaphragm)
pleural membrane
fluid-filled membrane that surrounds each lung (right lung has 3 lobes, left has 2)
rib cage moves up and out, diaphragm contracts and moves down, pressure in lungs decreases and air comes in
rib cage moves down and in, diaphragm relaxes and moves up, pressure in lungs increases and air is pushed out
ventilation rate
medulla oblongata controls
muscosa layer
mucous membrane that actually comes in contact with food, serves as lubricant, provides protection from desiccation/abration/digestive enzymes, lacks blood vessels and nerve endings
submucosa layer
below muscosa, contains blood vessels/lymphatic vessels/nerve endings, functions to support muscosa and to transport materials to the bloodstream
muscularis layer
two layers of smooth muscle that run in opposite directions, submucosa nerve endings stimulate into producing contractions to propel food through system (peristalsis)
thin connective tissue layer found on surface of digestive tubing to reducce friction with other surfaces in contact with GI tract
oral cavity function
salivary glands secrete saliva, lubricating function, digestive enzyme amylase to breakdown carbohydrates, food rolled into bolus
esophagus function
peristalsis moves food to stomach
pharynx and swallowing
pharynx pushes epiglottis over glottis of larynx for food to enter esophagus
stomach function
expand to store food (sphincters guard to and bottom), gastric juice liquifies food and initiates protein digestion, gastrin signals gastric glands to produce gastric juice and start churning
gastric juice
mucus to protect stomach lining from being digested, pepsinogen, HCl (activate pepsinogen), pepsin active at low pH, low pH kill most infectious agents
food mixed with gastric juice which then leaves stomach in small bursts
sodium bicarbonate, small intestine
acidity from gastric juice is neutralized
where most digestion starts to take place, receives secretions from pancreas and liver
chemical digestion and absorption of food
bile production
fat emulsifier from liver to gallbladder to small intestine (makes fat more susceptible to enzymatic digestion), contains water/cholesterol/bile pigments/bile salts/some ions (secretin and CCK signal for bile release through common bile duct when food enters small intestine)
liver functions in digestion
nutrients absorbed in small intestine take to hepatic portal vein to regulate glucose levels (can store in liver if glucose too high), breakdown/synthesis of glycogen, production of enzymes to detoxify certain harmful substances (smooth ER), packages lipids in lipoproteins to allow circulation, stores fat soluble vitamins A, E, D, K
pancreatic juice
bicarbonate ions, amylase, proteinases (trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase), lipase, nucleases (secreted through pancreatic duct)
small intestine enzymes
maltase, sucrase, lactase, aminopeptidase
within each there are capillaries and a lacteal for diffusion of glucose, simple sugars, amino acids, vitamins, minerals (fat into lacteal)
fat absorption
fat products assembled into triglycerides and packaged in special coating with cholesterol (chylomicron), these block diffusion into capillaries so must go into lacteal, delivered to blood stream by thoracic duct (merger in systems)
large intestine divisions
cecum/appendix (joins small intestine), colon (majority-ascending, transverse, descending), rectum, anal canal
function of large intestine
water is reclaimed to solidify waste products, colon absorbs vitamins
stretching of rectum stimulates nerves and initiates defecation reflex; two sphincters in anal canal (first involuntary, second voluntary)
normal flora
large intestine contains large population of harmless resident bacteria, they synthesize certain vitamins the body needs
kidney roles in homeostasis
blood pressure (blood volume), osmoregulation (salt excretion/reabsorption), acid-base balance (proton excretion), remove soluble nitrogenous wastes (harmful)
countercurrent multiplier system
occurs in loop of Henle where closely situated descending and ascending with different osmotic concentration, salt actively pumped out of ascending to create high osmotic pressure that draws water out of descending by osmosis
concentration of urine ultimate factor
water reabsorption in distal convoluted tubule (concentrates urine, increases blood volume, decreases urine volume)
renin secretion
trigger by low blood pressure in afferent arterioles (closer to renal artery than efferent), converts angiotensin I (made in liver) to angiotensin II (triggers relase of ADH)
acid-base balance by kidney
based on CO2 formation of protons and bicarbonate through carbonic acid, protons can be left in nephron for excretion and bicarbonate can be reabsorbed
common nitrogenous wastes in urine
urea (liver converts ammonia to this less toxic product), uric acid (waste product of nucleic acid metabolism), creatinine (muscle cells use creatine phosphate to ATP and this is a waste product)
kidney and vitamins
convert vitamin D from diet into active form usable to cells (calcitrol) to help body absorb calcium and phosphorous
lymph vessels
carry lymph fluid by muscular contractions with valves to prevent backflow
lymph nodes
contain macrophages for phagocytosis of pathogens and cancer cells and lymphocytes for immune defenses (clusters in neck, under arms, in groin)
like a lymph node by preventing infection by pathogenic organisms in the throat
Peyer's patches
in small intestine, clusters of lymphatic tissues that serve to prevent infectious organisms from crossing intestinal wall into abdomen
thymus gland
maturation of T cell lymphocytes
spleen function
destroy old red blood cells and platelets
functions of lymphatic system
equalization of fluid distribution, transport of proteins and large glycerides, production of lymphocytes involved in immune reactions, return materials to blood
composition of lymph
similarity to blood plasma, substances transported
source lymph
diffusion from capillaries by differential pressure
nonspecific defenses
physical and chemical barricades (skin/mucous membranes, sweat/stomach acid/lysozyme prevent infection), defensive leukocytes (neutrophils, monocytes/macrophages, eosinophils, natural killer cells), defensive proteins (interferons), inflammation, fever
phagocytosis to destroy pathogens
enzymatically destroy large pathogens (that can't be phagocytized)
natural killer cells
kill self-cells with odd membrane properties (cancerous cells)
virally infected cell secretes these and tells surrounding cells to limit spread of virus (non-specific, all types of viruses)
complement system (immune)
series of multiple plasma proteins that kill bacteria by lysis of their membranes, also enhances phagocytosis within area of invasion
occurs from damage to tissues (redness, increased blood flow, heat, swelling, pain), histamine causes increased blood flow (secreted by basophils
secreted by basophils to increase blood flow to site of injury, brings in other white blood cells, proteins, and other infection-fighting components, makes capillaries more permeable than normal (increases fluid in area, thus swelling)
pyrogens reset body temperature to a higher level, increase metabolism and stimulate other immune defenses
bone marrow and immune system
B cell maturation takes place here
thymus gland and immune system
T cell maturation takes place here
humoral immunity
many B cells exist but each displays different antibody on membrane, one B cell becomes activated when encountering its antigen and B cell proliferation occurs (activation needs helper T cells)
plasma cells
after B cell activation these secrete antibodies, immediate response by circulation through blood/lymph/tissues to form complex with antigen (later phagocytized or agglutinates and removed by other phagocytic cells
memory B cells
cells made from initial B cell activation that were created by primary exposure so that subsequent exposure will generate much faster response when these memory cells proliferate into plasma cells
antibody structure
variable regions, two heavy chains, two light chains, constant region on each chain
cellular immunity
T cells have antigen receptors in the shape of one antigen, cannot be directly activated
helper T cell
antigen from T cell must be presented to the helper T cell by an infected self-cell or a macrophage that has engulfed the antigen, the cell presenting the antigen secretes interleukin-1 as it binds the helper T cell, the helper T cell secretes interleukin 2, allows for B cell and cytotoxic T cell activation
cytotoxic (killer) T cells
bind to the antigen after activation, proliferate and produce effector cells by clonal selection
memory T cells
produced in addition to cytotoxic T cells, after antigen is destroyed these are the only ones that remain and can be activated quickly on second exposure to that antigen
suppressor T cells
once antigen is destroyed, these stop the response of cytotoxic T cells so only memory T cells remain.
muscular myometrium and vascularized lining called endometrium
vagina pH
acidic to discourage growth of pathogens
external female genitalia
vulva: labia are folds of skin that surround opening (outer and inner pair), clitoris under anterior portion of inner labia
mammary gland tissue
tissue that surrounds glands is fibrous connective tissue
menstrual cycle
menses (first 5 days existing endometrium is lost via menstrual fluid as arteries constrict), proliferative phase (endometrium built up), secretory phase (last 2 weeks, endometrium prepared for implantation by hormones, if embryo not present by 28th day the endometrium menses)
ovarian cycle
preovulatory phase (prior to ovulation, day 1-13, menses to proliferative phases), ovulation (rupture of follicle in ovary, release of egg, day 14), postovulatory phase (day 15-28, fertilization possible)
ovaries before puberty
primary follicles within ovaries that surround the potential egg, follicles dies up until puberty (but still many), arrested stage of meiosis
follicular phase
a few primary follicles begin growing as primary oocytes, anterior pituitary secretes FSH and LH on day 1 (GnRH stimulates their release), FSH causes growth of several follicles which begin to produce estrogen (the more they grow, the more estrogen), estrogen peaks at second week (rebuilding endometrium)
second week of ovarian cycle
high levels of estrogen inhibit FSH so no more follicles begin to grow, massive surge in LH as estrogen increases (and FSH) to cause completion of first round of meiosis to make secondary oocyte and rupture of the follicle in the ovary (day 14), release to fallopian tubes (remants of follicle remain in ovary)
oocyte fate
if fertilized meiosis II occurs to form mature ovum, corpus luteum in ovary secretes estrogen/progesterone to supress FSH and LH so no more eggs are released, if embryo not implanted the corpus luteum degrades (estrogen/progesterone decrease) and menstruation happens, decrease allows reproduction of FSH/LH
ovaries are no longer sensitive to FSH and LH
seminiferous tubules
sperm begin their development in this part of the testes, nourished by Sertoli cells
sperm acquire motility and are stored
sperm leave epididymis to vas deferens where two vas deferens merge to form ejaculatory duct to urethra
male reproductive glands
seminal vesicles (fluid rich in nutrients, fructose energy source), prostate gland (alkaline fluid to balance acidic environment of vagina), bulbourethral glands (may serve to lubricate urethra for sperm passage)
testosterone secretion
secreted during male development to form secondary structures, halted, and secreted at puberty to begin spermatogenesis
diploid cells in testes (spermatogonia) differentiate into primary spermatocytes, undergo meiosis I, make 2 haploid secondary spermatocytes, undergo meiosis II, make 4 spermatids which mature into spermatozoa (haploid)
sperm tip with digestive enzymes that help to penetrate egg
sperm flagellum
propelled by ATP to find egg (ATP produced by large number of mitochondria in midpiece
spermatogenesis hormones
GnRH allows for LH secretion, LH causes testosterone production by interstitial cells, FSH makes potential sperm sensitive to testosterone (elevated testosterone inhibits GnRH, thus LH/FSH)
reproductive sequence
fertilization, implantation, development, birth
sperm deposited prior to or right after ovulation has a chance to fertilize egg (upper third, thickest part of fallopian tube)
sperm penetration
secretions from female system change membrane composition of sperm near its acrosome to cause release of contents (instability) which allow sperm to penetrate corona radiate, then must pass through zona pellucida (causes depolarization of egg membrane)
embryonic development (before gastrula)
1 day after fertilization zygote performs first mitotic division to become an embryo, initiation of cleavage, 4 days the embryo is a morula (ball of packed cells), day 6 is when center hollows out and becomes fluid-filled (blastula or blastocyst)
identical twins
during early cleavage when the embryo is split in two
outer cells of blastocyst, aid in implantation
three primary germ layers are formed as cells in embryo shift into layers (invagination and formation of archenteron by convergent extension)
becomes: skin (epidermis, hair, nails, nose/mouth/anal canal epithelium), nervous system cells, retina/lens/cornea, neural crest, neural tube
becomes: muscles, bones, connective tissues throughout body (dermis), mesenchyme, urinary system (kidneys), gonads, peritoneum (part of digestive system), circulatory system (blood, vessels, heart), notochord, part of respiratory system
epithelial lining of digestive and respiratory tracts, bladder, endocrine glands and organs (liver, thyroid, pancreas)
mesoderm cells form the notochord, ectoderm above notochord thickens/folds inward to form neural tube, neural crest comes from overlying ectoderm and forms many things (peripheral nervous system, pigment cells)
cell fate of surrounding cells influences a cell's fate (secreted or membrane-bound factors)
surrounds embryo in fluid-filled sac that serves a protective function and provides cushioning for embryo and fetus
membrane that ultimately forms umbilical cord (connection between embryo and placenta)
yolk sac
where first blood cells develop (in other species serves as source of nutrients)
becomes the placental on one side, surrounds embryo
cell communication
contact, paracrine, autocrine, neural synapses, hormonal
develops from chorion, grows in size, removes wastes, provides nutrients and O2, produces HCG, estrogen, progesterone to maintain pregnancy, produces relaxin to release ligaments that attach pubic bones