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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
is Ach used as a neurotransmitter in CNS or PNS? what type of jxn is it primarily found in?
in PNS, found in neuromuscular jxn
what are cholinergic neurons?
neurons that release Ach
describe the synthesis of Ach.
choline + Acetyl-CoA in cytoplasm of synaptic terminals
how is Ach destroyed? what happens to resulting catabolism products?
by acetylcholinesterase, releasing choline and acetate.

choline transported back to presynaptic neurons where it is reused
what is Sarin?
a nerve gas and acetylcholinesterase inhibitor.

leads to buildup of Ach -->
overstimulation of Ach receptor -->
uncontrolled muscle contraction -->
receptor desensitization -->
what are the two types of Ach receptors and what do they respond to?
nicotine recetpors (Ach and nicotine) and muscarine receptors (Ach and mushroom toxin)
describe nicotine recetpors. what type of receptor, where is it found?
ligand-gated channels
permeable to Na and K ions

present in neuromuscular jxns, therefore antagonist may induce paralysis

present in brain, involved in cognitive fxn and behavior. therefore involved in attention, learning and memory
what is phenotype of Alzheimer's disease?
degeneration of cholinergic neurons, therefore leads to decrease in Ach
how to muscarine receptor function? where are they present?
couple with G-protein therefore alter activity of enzymes and ion channels. present in the brain and neurojxns of glands and organs, especially heart
what is atropine?
antagonist of muscarine receptors
what are biogenic amines?
give examples.
small, charged molecules synthesized from amino acids and contain amine group.

dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin, histamine
is epinephrine a biogenic amine?
yes, but primarily fxns as hormone
what is the major biogenic amine neurotransmitter in CNS and PNS
what are catecholamines? give examples.
have catechol group (benzene ring with two adjacent OH)

dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine
after activation of receptors, what happens to catecholamines?
1. transported back into axon terminal
2. broken by MAO
what are monoamine oxidase?
enzymes that break down catecholamine
what effect do MAO inhibitors have?
decrease destruction of dopamine and norepinephrine.

used in treating mood disorders such as depression
where are the cell bodies of catecholamine releasing neurons? how does this affect fxn?
in brainstem and hypothalamus but axons branch to all parts of the brain and spinal cord.

play role in consciousness, mood, motiviation, attention, movement, moode regulation, hormone release
what are adrenergic fibers? what are noradrenergic fibers?
adrenergic fibers release NE and epinephrine but noradrenergic fibers only release NE.
describe the receptors used by catecholamines.
a1= postsynaptically inhibit/stimulate K channels
a2= presynaptically inhibit NE release

B=act via Gstimulatory which leads to increase in cAMP in postsynaptic cell
what type of neurotransmitter is serotonin? what are its other names? what is its precursor?
biogenic amine, but not catecholamine
aka 5-HT
produced from trytophan
what type of effects does serotonin have? where are serotonin releasing nerves located?
slow effect, therefore neuromodulator.

innervates every structure of brain and spinal cord
does serotonin have excitatory effects or inhibitory effects?
excitatory: control of muscles
inhibitory: control of sensations
when is the activity of serotonin highest/lowest? what does this say about the function of serotonin? what are other fxns of serotonin?
lowest during sleep
highest during awakefulness

therefore fxn in motor activity and sleep

also fxn in food intake, reproductive behavior, emotional states such as anxiety
what is Paxil? how does it work? what are its side effects?
serotonin reuptake blocker; inactivates serotonin transporter therefore there is increase serotonin concentration at synapse

side effect is decrease appetite
how does LSD work?
blocks serotonin receptors in brain therefore it blocks serotonin transmission
does glutamate have excitatory or inhibitory effect?
what happens when metabotropic receptors are activated?
a series of intracellular events are triggered that also results in ion channel opening but must involve a range of second messenger chemicals

acts by initiating metabolic processes that affect cellular fxn
what are ionotropic receptors?
ligand-gated ion channes found in postsynaptic membranes
what are two subtypes of ionotropic receptors?
AMPA: excitatory postsynaptic receptors permeable to Na and K
NMDA: mediated Ca flux; blocked by Mg and unblocked by depolarization
what happens when glutamate containing cells die?
their membranes rupture and the flood of glutamate stimulates AMPA and NMDA receptors on nearby neurons. excessive stimulation of nearby neurons cause accumulation of toxic levels of intracellular Ca, which in turn kills those neurons and causes them to rupture
how might NMDA receptor antagonists may be beneficial?
may help in minimizing spread of cell death
what is GABA? where is it found? what does it bind to? what is its fxn?
modified form of glutamate.
found in interneurons.
binds to iono/metabotropic receptors
increases Cl flux therefore causes hyperpolarization
what type of receptors does glutamate bind to?
both metabotropic and ionotropic receptors
what type of effect does glycine have as a neurotransmitter? where is it released from?
inhibitory; released from interneurons in spinal cord and brainstem
what type of receptors does glycine bind to? what is its major fxn?
binds to ionotropic receptor; increases Cl flux therefore hyperpolarizing or stabilizing resting membrane potential

major fxn is to maintain balance of excitatory/inhibitory activity in spinal cord and integrating centers that regulate skeletal muscle contraction
what is strychnine?
antagonist of glycine receptor, therefore experience hyperexcitability
what type of receptors do neuropeptides bind to?
ionotropic and metabotropic receptors